Physical geology is the study of fossils and sequences of rock strata; historical geology is the study of how rocks and minerals were used in the past.
Historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and geologic events, utilizing geologic time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and of how erosion shapes the land surface.
Physical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and deposition in relation to plate movements in the geologic past; historical geology charts how and where the plates were moving in the past.
None of the above—physical geology and historical geology are essentially the same.
Strata with fossils are generally deposited on strata with no fossils.
Older strata generally are deposited on younger strata without intervening, intermediate age strata.
Older fossils in younger strata indicate a locally inverted geologic time scale.
Any sedimentary deposit accumulates on older rock or sediment layers.
Along the margins of continents
In the interior regions of continents
Scattered throughout continents
Along only the eastern margins of continents
Layers in sandstone found at the top of a mountain that are similar to layers at a sandy beach illustrate that the sandstone used to be sand at sea level some time ago
Sand rolling along a stream bottom shows that sediment is moving downstream
Along a coastline, wave-cut erosional features now well above sea level indicate that the land was uplifted
Layers in sand that compose a modern beach today that are similar to layers in sandstone formed millions of years ago illustrate that there have been similar beaches in Earth’s past
An erupting volcano proves that burning subterranean coal beds provide the heat
We know the least about it
The chart is in log scale
Because cephalopods were dominant in that eon
Because it is not an eon at all, it is an epoch
Materials that always contain fossils
Static in their nature, meaning once they become an igneous rock, they will always be an igneous rock
Native always lain down horizontally and with the oldest on the bottom
Aggregates of one or more minerals
Materials that always behave in a brittle manner
Heat from Earth’s interior
Both A and B
None of the above
The collection of scientific facts through observation and measurement
The assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation
The development of one or more working hypotheses or models to explain facts
The development of observations and experiments to test the hypotheses
Stratovolcanoes associated with subduction and a convergent plate boundary.
Shield volcanoes fed by a long-lived hot spot below the Pacific lithospheric plate
Shield volcanoes associated with a mid-Pacific ridge and spreading center.
Stratovolcanoes associated with a mid-Pacific transform fault
A tiny remnant of a once immense ocean that was closed as Africa moved Asia
The site of a transform fault along which Arabia is moving away from Africa
A rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate
A rare example of a two continent subduction zone where the African continental plate is sinking under the Arabian continental plate
Basaltic mantle under the ridge is hot enough to completely melt if seawater is added.
Lowered pressures decrease the temperatures at which basalt magma can partially melt from a rising plume of mantle peridotite
The subducting, oceanic slab sinks so deep that eventually it melts, producing massive quantities of basalt magma
The mantle beneath the ridges is enriched in thorium, uranium, and potassium, causing strong heating due to energy from radioactive decay.
Rising material in the seafloor and ocean basin causes the seafloor to spread laterally away from continents.
Sinking material in the mantle causes seafloor to diverge at the edges of continents
Rising material in the mantle spreads laterally carrying the seafloor away from seafloor ridges in the center of the ocean basin.
Sinking material in the mantle spreads laterally, forcing seafloor into continents at the edges of ocean basins.
He failed to provide a mechanism
He didn’t know about earthquake distribution at the time
He used ferns and fossil plants as part of his evidence
He used the shelves instead of the continent margin themselves
The plate moving with lesser force subducts under the one moving with greater force
The two plates will both subduct under each other.
One of the plates may be forced under the other slightly, but no subduction takes place
Both plates subduct under each other, which forms deep valleys.
They were formed underwater and were carried to Antarctica
Antarctica was once part of the “supercontinent” Pangaea and was in a warm and humid climate which allowed the formation of coal.
Coal was formed in Antarctica together with the ice and glaciers
They were remnants of dust falling from meteorites
The seafloor spreads and magma rises up to fill the gap, forming underwater features like oceanic ridges and submarine volcanoes
The seafloor rises up and heats up the surrounding water to cause tsunamis
A gap is created and sea water rushes in to cool the magma in the trench
There are huge mountains formed by the plates colliding
Northern movement of Baja California and a sliver of western California toward the Hawaiian Islands.
Northward movement of India into Eurasia
Westward movement of the South American plate over the Nazca plate.
Arabian peninsula slamming into North Africa under the Red Sea
A rock has an orderly, repetitive, geometrical, internal arrangement of minerals; a mineral is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of rocks.
A mineral consists of its constituent atoms arranged in a geometrically repetitive structure; in a rock the atoms are 03.01 Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock? rock, randomly bonded without any geometric pattern.
In a mineral the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains.
A rock consists of atoms bonded in a regular, geometrically predictable arrangement; a mineral is a consolidated aggregate of different rock particles.
Electrons in the valence bond level
Neutrons in the outer nuclear shell
Electrons in the nucleus
Proton in the nucleus
They contain iron and magnetite, are black in color , and have metallic lusters
They are mostly clear, colorless, and rich in the elements of magnesium and ferrium
They are black to dark-green silicate minerals containing iron and magnesium
They contain magnetite and ferroite and they are clear to light green