The Perfect Practice Test For Geology Exams Part- II

63 Questions | Total Attempts: 45

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Geology Quizzes & Trivia

Here we are with "The Perfect Practice Test For Geology Exams Part- II. " Geology is a significant part of our daily lives. This course is the study of the Earth and everything that makes up the planet. The questions in the quiz below cover everything you should have at the tip of your fingers concerning Geology.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    What are the basic differences between the disciplines of physical and historical geology?
    • A. 

      Physical geology is the study of fossils and sequences of rock strata; historical geology is the study of how rocks and minerals were used in the past.

    • B. 

      Historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and geologic events, utilizing geologic time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and of how erosion shapes the land surface.

    • C. 

      Physical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and deposition in relation to plate movements in the geologic past; historical geology charts how and where the plates were moving in the past.

    • D. 

      None of the above—physical geology and historical geology are essentially the same.

  • 2. 
    Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of superposition?
    • A. 

      Strata with fossils are generally deposited on strata with no fossils.

    • B. 

      Older strata generally are deposited on younger strata without intervening, intermediate age strata.

    • C. 

      Older fossils in younger strata indicate a locally inverted geologic time scale.

    • D. 

      Any sedimentary deposit accumulates on older rock or sediment layers.

  • 3. 
    Active mountain belts are most likely to be found ________.
    • A. 

      Along the margins of continents

    • B. 

      In the interior regions of continents

    • C. 

      Scattered throughout continents

    • D. 

      Along only the eastern margins of continents

  • 4. 
    All of the following observations and conclusions are consistent with the concept of “uniformitarianism” except ______.
    • A. 

      Layers in sandstone found at the top of a mountain that are similar to layers at a sandy beach illustrate that the sandstone used to be sand at sea level some time ago

    • B. 

      Sand rolling along a stream bottom shows that sediment is moving downstream

    • C. 

      Along a coastline, wave-cut erosional features now well above sea level indicate that the land was uplifted

    • D. 

      Layers in sand that compose a modern beach today that are similar to layers in sandstone formed millions of years ago illustrate that there have been similar beaches in Earth’s past

    • E. 

      An erupting volcano proves that burning subterranean coal beds provide the heat

  • 5. 
    ______ was an important 18th-century English geologist and proponent of Uniformitarianism.
    • A. 

      James Ussher

    • B. 

      Alfred Wegener

    • C. 

      Charles Lyell

    • D. 

      James Hutton

  • 6. 
    If the Precambrian eon accounts for 88% of the geologic time scale, why is it one of the smallest boxes in Figure 1.8 in this chapter?
    • A. 

      We know the least about it

    • B. 

      The chart is in log scale

    • C. 

      Because cephalopods were dominant in that eon

    • D. 

      Because it is not an eon at all, it is an epoch

  • 7. 
    Rocks are ________.
    • A. 

      Materials that always contain fossils

    • B. 

      Static in their nature, meaning once they become an igneous rock, they will always be an igneous rock

    • C. 

      Native always lain down horizontally and with the oldest on the bottom

    • D. 

      Aggregates of one or more minerals

    • E. 

      Materials that always behave in a brittle manner

  • 8. 
    What is the source of the energy that powers the Earth system?
    • A. 

      The Sun

    • B. 

      Heat from Earth’s interior

    • C. 

      Both A and B

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 9. 
    All of the following are possible steps of scientific investigation except _________.
    • A. 

      The collection of scientific facts through observation and measurement

    • B. 

      The assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation

    • C. 

      The development of one or more working hypotheses or models to explain facts

    • D. 

      The development of observations and experiments to test the hypotheses

  • 10. 
    Which one of the following most accurately describes the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands?
    • A. 

      Stratovolcanoes associated with subduction and a convergent plate boundary.

    • B. 

      Shield volcanoes fed by a long-lived hot spot below the Pacific lithospheric plate

    • C. 

      Shield volcanoes associated with a mid-Pacific ridge and spreading center.

    • D. 

      Stratovolcanoes associated with a mid-Pacific transform fault

  • 11. 
    The modern-day Red Sea is explained by plate tectonics theory because it is ____________.
    • A. 

      A tiny remnant of a once immense ocean that was closed as Africa moved Asia

    • B. 

      The site of a transform fault along which Arabia is moving away from Africa

    • C. 

      A rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate

    • D. 

      A rare example of a two continent subduction zone where the African continental plate is sinking under the Arabian continental plate

  • 12. 
    Why is so much basaltic magma erupted along mid-ocean ridges?
    • A. 

      Basaltic mantle under the ridge is hot enough to completely melt if seawater is added.

    • B. 

      Lowered pressures decrease the temperatures at which basalt magma can partially melt from a rising plume of mantle peridotite

    • C. 

      The subducting, oceanic slab sinks so deep that eventually it melts, producing massive quantities of basalt magma

    • D. 

      The mantle beneath the ridges is enriched in thorium, uranium, and potassium, causing strong heating due to energy from radioactive decay.

  • 13. 
    Which of the following best describes Hess' hypothesis of seafloor spreading?
    • A. 

      Rising material in the seafloor and ocean basin causes the seafloor to spread laterally away from continents.

    • B. 

      Sinking material in the mantle causes seafloor to diverge at the edges of continents

    • C. 

      Rising material in the mantle spreads laterally carrying the seafloor away from seafloor ridges in the center of the ocean basin.

    • D. 

      Sinking material in the mantle spreads laterally, forcing seafloor into continents at the edges of ocean basins.

  • 14. 
    Why did people not believe Wegener’s idea ?
    • A. 

      He failed to provide a mechanism

    • B. 

      He didn’t know about earthquake distribution at the time

    • C. 

      He used ferns and fossil plants as part of his evidence

    • D. 

      He used the shelves instead of the continent margin themselves

  • 15. 
    What happens when two continental plates collide?
    • A. 

      The plate moving with lesser force subducts under the one moving with greater force

    • B. 

      The two plates will both subduct under each other.

    • C. 

      One of the plates may be forced under the other slightly, but no subduction takes place

    • D. 

      Both plates subduct under each other, which forms deep valleys.

  • 16. 
    How can the discovery of coal in cold and dry Antarctica be explained?
    • A. 

      They were formed underwater and were carried to Antarctica

    • B. 

      Antarctica was once part of the “supercontinent” Pangaea and was in a warm and humid climate which allowed the formation of coal.

    • C. 

      Coal was formed in Antarctica together with the ice and glaciers

    • D. 

      They were remnants of dust falling from meteorites

  • 17. 
    What happens at divergent boundaries?
    • A. 

      The seafloor spreads and magma rises up to fill the gap, forming underwater features like oceanic ridges and submarine volcanoes

    • B. 

      The seafloor rises up and heats up the surrounding water to cause tsunamis

    • C. 

      A gap is created and sea water rushes in to cool the magma in the trench

    • D. 

      There are huge mountains formed by the plates colliding

  • 18. 
    The _______ is an example of an active, continent-continent collision.
    • A. 

      Northern movement of Baja California and a sliver of western California toward the Hawaiian Islands.

    • B. 

      Northward movement of India into Eurasia

    • C. 

      Westward movement of the South American plate over the Nazca plate.

    • D. 

      Arabian peninsula slamming into North Africa under the Red Sea

  • 19. 
    The composition of the core of the Earth is thought to be ___________.
    • A. 

      Basalt

    • B. 

      Peridotite

    • C. 

      Iron-Nickel alloy

    • D. 

      Granite

  • 20. 
    Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock?
    • A. 

      A rock has an orderly, repetitive, geometrical, internal arrangement of minerals; a mineral is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of rocks.

    • B. 

      A mineral consists of its constituent atoms arranged in a geometrically repetitive structure; in a rock the atoms are 03.01 Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock? rock, randomly bonded without any geometric pattern.

    • C. 

      In a mineral the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains.

    • D. 

      A rock consists of atoms bonded in a regular, geometrically predictable arrangement; a mineral is a consolidated aggregate of different rock particles.

  • 21. 
    Atoms of the same element, carbon for example, have the same number of________.
    • A. 

      Electrons in the valence bond level

    • B. 

      Neutrons in the outer nuclear shell

    • C. 

      Electrons in the nucleus

    • D. 

      Proton in the nucleus

  • 22. 
    Which of the following best characterizes ferromagnesian silicates?
    • A. 

      They contain iron and magnetite, are black in color , and have metallic lusters

    • B. 

      They are mostly clear, colorless, and rich in the elements of magnesium and ferrium

    • C. 

      They are black to dark-green silicate minerals containing iron and magnesium

    • D. 

      They contain magnetite and ferroite and they are clear to light green

  • 23. 
    What element is the most abundant in Earth’s crust by weight?
    • A. 

      Carbon

    • B. 

      Chlorine

    • C. 

      Oxygen

    • D. 

      Sodium

  • 24. 
    The resistance of a mineral to abrasion is known as ________.
    • A. 

      Luster

    • B. 

      Cleavage

    • C. 

      Streak

    • D. 

      Hardness

  • 25. 
    The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes is known as ________.
    • A. 

      Streak

    • B. 

      Cleavage

    • C. 

      Cracking luster

    • D. 

      Habit