Physical geology is the study of fossils and sequences of rock strata; historical geology is the study of how rocks and minerals were used in the past.
Historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and geologic events, utilizing geologic time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and of how erosion shapes the land surface.
Physical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and deposition in relation to plate movements in the geologic past; historical geology charts how and where the plates were moving in the past.
None of the above—physical geology and historical geology are essentially the same.
Strata with fossils are generally deposited on strata with no fossils.
Older strata generally are deposited on younger strata without intervening, intermediate age strata.
Older fossils in younger strata indicate a locally inverted geologic time scale.
Any sedimentary deposit accumulates on older rock or sediment layers.
Along the margins of continents
In the interior regions of continents
Scattered throughout continents
Along only the eastern margins of continents
Layers in sandstone found at the top of a mountain that are similar to layers at a sandy beach illustrate that the sandstone used to be sand at sea level some time ago
Sand rolling along a stream bottom shows that sediment is moving downstream
Along a coastline, wave-cut erosional features now well above sea level indicate that the land was uplifted
Layers in sand that compose a modern beach today that are similar to layers in sandstone formed millions of years ago illustrate that there have been similar beaches in Earth’s past
An erupting volcano proves that burning subterranean coal beds provide the heat
We know the least about it
The chart is in log scale
Because cephalopods were dominant in that eon
Because it is not an eon at all, it is an epoch
Materials that always contain fossils
Static in their nature, meaning once they become an igneous rock, they will always be an igneous rock
Native always lain down horizontally and with the oldest on the bottom
Aggregates of one or more minerals
Materials that always behave in a brittle manner
Heat from Earth’s interior
Both A and B
None of the above
The collection of scientific facts through observation and measurement
The assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation
The development of one or more working hypotheses or models to explain facts
The development of observations and experiments to test the hypotheses
Stratovolcanoes associated with subduction and a convergent plate boundary.
Shield volcanoes fed by a long-lived hot spot below the Pacific lithospheric plate
Shield volcanoes associated with a mid-Pacific ridge and spreading center.
Stratovolcanoes associated with a mid-Pacific transform fault
A tiny remnant of a once immense ocean that was closed as Africa moved Asia
The site of a transform fault along which Arabia is moving away from Africa
A rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate
A rare example of a two continent subduction zone where the African continental plate is sinking under the Arabian continental plate
Basaltic mantle under the ridge is hot enough to completely melt if seawater is added.
Lowered pressures decrease the temperatures at which basalt magma can partially melt from a rising plume of mantle peridotite
The subducting, oceanic slab sinks so deep that eventually it melts, producing massive quantities of basalt magma
The mantle beneath the ridges is enriched in thorium, uranium, and potassium, causing strong heating due to energy from radioactive decay.
Rising material in the seafloor and ocean basin causes the seafloor to spread laterally away from continents.
Sinking material in the mantle causes seafloor to diverge at the edges of continents
Rising material in the mantle spreads laterally carrying the seafloor away from seafloor ridges in the center of the ocean basin.
Sinking material in the mantle spreads laterally, forcing seafloor into continents at the edges of ocean basins.
He failed to provide a mechanism
He didn’t know about earthquake distribution at the time
He used ferns and fossil plants as part of his evidence
He used the shelves instead of the continent margin themselves
The plate moving with lesser force subducts under the one moving with greater force
The two plates will both subduct under each other.
One of the plates may be forced under the other slightly, but no subduction takes place
Both plates subduct under each other, which forms deep valleys.
They were formed underwater and were carried to Antarctica
Antarctica was once part of the “supercontinent” Pangaea and was in a warm and humid climate which allowed the formation of coal.
Coal was formed in Antarctica together with the ice and glaciers
They were remnants of dust falling from meteorites
The seafloor spreads and magma rises up to fill the gap, forming underwater features like oceanic ridges and submarine volcanoes
The seafloor rises up and heats up the surrounding water to cause tsunamis
A gap is created and sea water rushes in to cool the magma in the trench
There are huge mountains formed by the plates colliding
Northern movement of Baja California and a sliver of western California toward the Hawaiian Islands.
Northward movement of India into Eurasia
Westward movement of the South American plate over the Nazca plate.
Arabian peninsula slamming into North Africa under the Red Sea
A rock has an orderly, repetitive, geometrical, internal arrangement of minerals; a mineral is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of rocks.
A mineral consists of its constituent atoms arranged in a geometrically repetitive structure; in a rock the atoms are 03.01 Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock? rock, randomly bonded without any geometric pattern.
In a mineral the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains.
A rock consists of atoms bonded in a regular, geometrically predictable arrangement; a mineral is a consolidated aggregate of different rock particles.
Electrons in the valence bond level
Neutrons in the outer nuclear shell
Electrons in the nucleus
Proton in the nucleus
They contain iron and magnetite, are black in color , and have metallic lusters
They are mostly clear, colorless, and rich in the elements of magnesium and ferrium
They are black to dark-green silicate minerals containing iron and magnesium
They contain magnetite and ferroite and they are clear to light green
It has a specific and predictable chemical composition
It has a specific internal crystal structure
It can be liquid or solid
It can be identified by its characteristic physical properties
The atoms have different numbers of electrons but the same number of neutrons
The atoms have different numbers of neutrons and the same number of protons.
The atoms have the same number of electrons and different numbers of protons
The atoms have different numbers of protons and the same number of neutrons
Have a similar texture
Have a similar mineral composition
Both A and B
Are in no way similar
By the weathering of pre-existing rocks
By changes in mineral composition
At great depth within Earth
By crystallization of molten rock
Lithified loess (wind-blown) deposits in the deserts of Chile, Australia, and Africa
Tillites (rocks formed by glaciers) in South Africa and South America
thick sediments in the Amazon and Congo deltas of South America and Africa
Cold water fossils in the deep-water sediments of the South Atlantic abyssal plain
Zone in the upper mantle that deforms by plastic flowage
Cool, rigid layer of crust and upper mantle that forms the tectonic plates
Deforms mainly by brittle fracturing and faulting
Partial melting of rising granitic plumes produces huge volumes of basaltic magma
Divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of rhyolitic magma
Convergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of rhyolitic magma
Divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma
Convergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma
Subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries
transform fault zones along divergent plate boundaries
rift zones along mid-ocean ridges
Sites of long-lived, hot spot volcanism in the ocean basins
Stratovolcanoes on the edge of a plate and shield volcanoes on the adjacent plate
Two, converging, oceanic plates meeting head-on and piling up into a mid-ocean ridge
A divergent boundary where the continental plate changes to an oceanic plate
a deep, vertical fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions
Convergent boundary on a volcanic arc above a northward-subducting Pacific plate
Transform boundary where North America has moved towards Alaska
Divergent boundary where shield volcanoes are forming
Convergent, continental margin with uplifted fault blocks, much like those of the Basin and Range Province
Evans and Novak
Vine and Matthews
Matthews and Marks
Wegener and Wilson
Law of superposition
Theory of superstition
Theory of correlative deposition
Law of original correlation
A basaltic shield volcano
An explosive stratovolcano
A small, welded tuff cone
A basaltic cinder cone
Horizontally directed; compressive stresses
Horizontally directed; extensional stresses
Vertically directed; extensional or stretching stresses
Vertically directed; compressional stresses
Principle of fossil succession
Principle of cross correlation
Law of correlative indexing
Law of fossil regression
Rhyolite, andesite, basalt
Andesite, rhyolite, basalt
Basalt, andesite, rhyolite
Basalt, rhyolite, andesite
A strike-slip fault that forms the boundary between tectonic plates
A dip-slip fault connecting an anticline with a syncline
The rift bounding faults on a mid-ocean ridge
A reverse fault that steepens into a thrust fault
West coast of South America
East coast of North America
East coast of the Japanese Islands
North flank of the East Pacific Rise
A rocky layer composed mainly of crustal rocks
A rocky layer having a relatively uniform chemical composition
A rigid layer of crustal and mantle material
A plastic layer composed mainly of mantle material
Within the crust
Between the mantle and outer core
Within the outer core
In the upper mantle
Examination of deep mine shafts
Continental shelf, terrain complex
Mass movement complex
Strike-slip faulting and hanging wall block uplifts
Normal faulting and horizontal compression
Reverse faults and large displacement, thrust faulting
Tensional stresses and normal-fault movements
Inner core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere
Core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere
Inner core, outer core, mantle, crust
Core, inner mantle, outer mantle, crust
Electrical and magnetic fields localized in the inner core
Swirling movements of the molten iron particles in the outer core
Export of heat from deep in the mantle to the top of the asthenosphere
Gravitational attractive forces of the Sun and Moon
Carbon monoxide to oxygen nuclei
Helium nuclei to hydrogen nuclei
Hydrogen nuclei to helium nuclei
Oxygen nuclei to nitrogen nuclei
Sir Isaac Newton