The Perfect Practice Test For Geology Exams Part- II

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The Perfect Practice Test For Geology Exams Part- II - Quiz

Here we are with "The Perfect Practice Test For Geology Exams Part- II." Geology is a significant part of our daily lives. This course is the study of the Earth and everything that makes up the planet. The questions in the quiz below cover everything you should have at the tip of your fingers concerning Geology.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What are the basic differences between the disciplines of physical and historical geology?

    • A.

      Physical geology is the study of fossils and sequences of rock strata; historical geology is the study of how rocks and minerals were used in the past.

    • B.

      Historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and geologic events, utilizing geologic time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and of how erosion shapes the land surface.

    • C.

      Physical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and deposition in relation to plate movements in the geologic past; historical geology charts how and where the plates were moving in the past.

    • D.

      None of the above—physical geology and historical geology are essentially the same.

    Correct Answer
    B. Historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and geologic events, utilizing geologic time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and of how erosion shapes the land surface.
    Explanation
    The correct answer explains that historical geology focuses on studying rock strata, fossils, and geologic events using the geologic time scale as a reference. On the other hand, physical geology examines how rocks form and how erosion shapes the land surface. This explanation clearly distinguishes the basic differences between the two disciplines, highlighting their respective areas of study.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of superposition?

    • A.

      Strata with fossils are generally deposited on strata with no fossils.

    • B.

      Older strata generally are deposited on younger strata without intervening, intermediate age strata.

    • C.

      Older fossils in younger strata indicate a locally inverted geologic time scale.

    • D.

      Any sedimentary deposit accumulates on older rock or sediment layers.

    Correct Answer
    D. Any sedimentary deposit accumulates on older rock or sediment layers.
    Explanation
    The concept of superposition in geology states that in any sequence of undisturbed sedimentary rocks, the youngest rocks are at the top and the oldest rocks are at the bottom. This means that any new sedimentary deposit will accumulate on top of older rock or sediment layers. This principle is used to determine the relative ages of rocks and fossils in stratigraphy.

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  • 3. 

    Active mountain belts are most likely to be found ________.

    • A.

      Along the margins of continents

    • B.

      In the interior regions of continents

    • C.

      Scattered throughout continents

    • D.

      Along only the eastern margins of continents

    Correct Answer
    A. Along the margins of continents
    Explanation
    Active mountain belts are most likely to be found along the margins of continents because this is where tectonic plate boundaries are located. The collision or subduction of these plates leads to the formation of mountain ranges. Along the margins of continents, there are often convergent plate boundaries where two plates are colliding, such as the Himalayas along the margin of the Indian subcontinent and the Andes along the margin of South America. These active mountain belts are characterized by intense tectonic activity, including earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

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  • 4. 

    All of the following observations and conclusions are consistent with the concept of “uniformitarianism” except ______.

    • A.

      Layers in sandstone found at the top of a mountain that are similar to layers at a sandy beach illustrate that the sandstone used to be sand at sea level some time ago

    • B.

      Sand rolling along a stream bottom shows that sediment is moving downstream

    • C.

      Along a coastline, wave-cut erosional features now well above sea level indicate that the land was uplifted

    • D.

      Layers in sand that compose a modern beach today that are similar to layers in sandstone formed millions of years ago illustrate that there have been similar beaches in Earth’s past

    • E.

      An erupting volcano proves that burning subterranean coal beds provide the heat

    Correct Answer
    E. An erupting volcano proves that burning subterranean coal beds provide the heat
  • 5. 

    ______ was an important 18th-century English geologist and proponent of Uniformitarianism.

    • A.

      James Ussher

    • B.

      Alfred Wegener

    • C.

      Charles Lyell

    • D.

      James Hutton

    Correct Answer
    D. James Hutton
    Explanation
    James Hutton was an important 18th-century English geologist and proponent of Uniformitarianism. His work laid the foundation for modern geology and greatly influenced the understanding of Earth's history and the processes that shape it. Hutton's principles of Uniformitarianism, which state that the same geological processes that operate today have been at work throughout Earth's history, challenged the prevailing belief in catastrophism and provided a more comprehensive and gradualistic explanation for the formation of the Earth's features. His contributions revolutionized the field of geology and paved the way for further scientific discoveries in the study of the Earth's history.

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  • 6. 

    If the Precambrian eon accounts for 88% of the geologic time scale, why is it one of the smallest boxes in Figure 1.8 in this chapter?

    • A.

      We know the least about it

    • B.

      The chart is in log scale

    • C.

      Because cephalopods were dominant in that eon

    • D.

      Because it is not an eon at all, it is an epoch

    Correct Answer
    C. Because cephalopods were dominant in that eon
  • 7. 

    Rocks are ________.

    • A.

      Materials that always contain fossils

    • B.

      Static in their nature, meaning once they become an igneous rock, they will always be an igneous rock

    • C.

      Native always lain down horizontally and with the oldest on the bottom

    • D.

      Aggregates of one or more minerals

    • E.

      Materials that always behave in a brittle manner

    Correct Answer
    D. Aggregates of one or more minerals
    Explanation
    Rocks are aggregates of one or more minerals. This means that rocks are made up of different minerals that are combined together. They can contain a single mineral or a combination of multiple minerals. The minerals in a rock can vary in their composition and properties, giving each rock its unique characteristics.

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  • 8. 

    What is the source of the energy that powers the Earth system?

    • A.

      The Sun

    • B.

      Heat from Earth’s interior

    • C.

      Both A and B

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Both A and B
    Explanation
    The correct answer is both A and B. The Sun is a major source of energy for the Earth system. It provides heat and light energy through processes like nuclear fusion. Additionally, heat from Earth's interior, generated by the decay of radioactive elements and residual heat from its formation, also powers the Earth system. Both sources of energy play crucial roles in shaping the Earth's climate, weather patterns, and geological processes.

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  • 9. 

    All of the following are possible steps of scientific investigation except _________.

    • A.

      The collection of scientific facts through observation and measurement

    • B.

      The assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation

    • C.

      The development of one or more working hypotheses or models to explain facts

    • D.

      The development of observations and experiments to test the hypotheses

    Correct Answer
    B. The assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "the assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation." This is because scientific investigation is based on empirical evidence, which requires observations and experiments to gather data and draw conclusions. The assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation goes against the scientific method and the principles of evidence-based inquiry.

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  • 10. 

    Which one of the following most accurately describes the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands?

    • A.

      Stratovolcanoes associated with subduction and a convergent plate boundary.

    • B.

      Shield volcanoes fed by a long-lived hot spot below the Pacific lithospheric plate

    • C.

      Shield volcanoes associated with a mid-Pacific ridge and spreading center.

    • D.

      Stratovolcanoes associated with a mid-Pacific transform fault

    Correct Answer
    B. Shield volcanoes fed by a long-lived hot spot below the Pacific lithospheric plate
    Explanation
    The Hawaiian Islands are primarily composed of shield volcanoes, which are formed by the eruption of low-viscosity lava that flows easily over long distances. This type of volcanic activity is typically associated with hot spots, which are areas of intense volcanic activity caused by a mantle plume that rises from deep within the Earth. The hot spot beneath the Pacific lithospheric plate has been active for millions of years, resulting in the formation of the Hawaiian Islands. Therefore, the correct answer is "Shield volcanoes fed by a long-lived hot spot below the Pacific lithospheric plate."

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  • 11. 

    The modern-day Red Sea is explained by plate tectonics theory because it is ____________.

    • A.

      A tiny remnant of a once immense ocean that was closed as Africa moved Asia

    • B.

      The site of a transform fault along which Arabia is moving away from Africa

    • C.

      A rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate

    • D.

      A rare example of a two continent subduction zone where the African continental plate is sinking under the Arabian continental plate

    Correct Answer
    C. A rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate
    Explanation
    The modern-day Red Sea is explained by plate tectonics theory because it is a rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate. This means that the Red Sea is formed by the pulling apart of the Arabian and African continental plates, creating a rift where new oceanic crust is being formed. If the separation continues, the rift zone may widen and eventually lead to the formation of a new ocean.

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  • 12. 

    Why is so much basaltic magma erupted along mid-ocean ridges?

    • A.

      Basaltic mantle under the ridge is hot enough to completely melt if seawater is added.

    • B.

      Lowered pressures decrease the temperatures at which basalt magma can partially melt from a rising plume of mantle peridotite

    • C.

      The subducting, oceanic slab sinks so deep that eventually it melts, producing massive quantities of basalt magma

    • D.

      The mantle beneath the ridges is enriched in thorium, uranium, and potassium, causing strong heating due to energy from radioactive decay.

    Correct Answer
    B. Lowered pressures decrease the temperatures at which basalt magma can partially melt from a rising plume of mantle peridotite
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that lowered pressures decrease the temperatures at which basalt magma can partially melt from a rising plume of mantle peridotite. This means that as the mantle material rises closer to the surface along the mid-ocean ridge, the decrease in pressure allows for the partial melting of the peridotite, resulting in the eruption of basaltic magma. This process is known as decompression melting.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following best describes Hess' hypothesis of seafloor spreading?

    • A.

      Rising material in the seafloor and ocean basin causes the seafloor to spread laterally away from continents.

    • B.

      Sinking material in the mantle causes seafloor to diverge at the edges of continents

    • C.

      Rising material in the mantle spreads laterally carrying the seafloor away from seafloor ridges in the center of the ocean basin.

    • D.

      Sinking material in the mantle spreads laterally, forcing seafloor into continents at the edges of ocean basins.

    Correct Answer
    C. Rising material in the mantle spreads laterally carrying the seafloor away from seafloor ridges in the center of the ocean basin.
    Explanation
    Hess' hypothesis of seafloor spreading proposes that the seafloor is spreading laterally away from seafloor ridges in the center of the ocean basin. This is due to the rising material in the mantle, which spreads laterally and carries the seafloor away from these ridges. This hypothesis explains the formation of new oceanic crust and the movement of tectonic plates.

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  • 14. 

    Why did people not believe Wegener’s idea ?

    • A.

      He failed to provide a mechanism

    • B.

      He didn’t know about earthquake distribution at the time

    • C.

      He used ferns and fossil plants as part of his evidence

    • D.

      He used the shelves instead of the continent margin themselves

    Correct Answer
    A. He failed to provide a mechanism
    Explanation
    Wegener's idea of continental drift was not initially believed because he did not provide a mechanism to explain how the continents moved. Without a clear explanation of the forces or processes that caused the movement, scientists were skeptical of his theory. While Wegener did present evidence such as fossil plants and ferns, which suggested that continents were once connected, the lack of a mechanism made it difficult for others to accept his idea.

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  • 15. 

    What happens when two continental plates collide?

    • A.

      The plate moving with lesser force subducts under the one moving with greater force

    • B.

      The two plates will both subduct under each other.

    • C.

      One of the plates may be forced under the other slightly, but no subduction takes place

    • D.

      Both plates subduct under each other, which forms deep valleys.

    Correct Answer
    C. One of the plates may be forced under the other slightly, but no subduction takes place
    Explanation
    When two continental plates collide, one of the plates may be forced under the other slightly, but no subduction takes place. This means that one plate is pushed beneath the other, but it does not sink into the mantle. Instead, the collision causes the crust to buckle and fold, forming mountain ranges. This process is known as continental collision and is responsible for the formation of features like the Himalayas.

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  • 16. 

    How can the discovery of coal in cold and dry Antarctica be explained?

    • A.

      They were formed underwater and were carried to Antarctica

    • B.

      Antarctica was once part of the “supercontinent” Pangaea and was in a warm and humid climate which allowed the formation of coal.

    • C.

      Coal was formed in Antarctica together with the ice and glaciers

    • D.

      They were remnants of dust falling from meteorites

    Correct Answer
    B. Antarctica was once part of the “supercontinent” Pangaea and was in a warm and humid climate which allowed the formation of coal.
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that coal was formed in Antarctica when it was part of the "supercontinent" Pangaea and in a warm and humid climate. This explanation aligns with the geological understanding that coal is formed from the remains of ancient plants and organic matter that accumulate in swamps and marshes over millions of years. Therefore, when Antarctica was in a warm and humid climate, it provided the necessary conditions for the formation of coal.

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  • 17. 

    What happens at divergent boundaries?

    • A.

      The seafloor spreads and magma rises up to fill the gap, forming underwater features like oceanic ridges and submarine volcanoes

    • B.

      The seafloor rises up and heats up the surrounding water to cause tsunamis

    • C.

      A gap is created and sea water rushes in to cool the magma in the trench

    • D.

      There are huge mountains formed by the plates colliding

    Correct Answer
    A. The seafloor spreads and magma rises up to fill the gap, forming underwater features like oceanic ridges and submarine volcanoes
    Explanation
    At divergent boundaries, the seafloor spreads apart, creating a gap. This process is known as seafloor spreading. As the plates move apart, magma from the mantle rises up to fill the gap. This magma cools and solidifies to form new oceanic crust. This continuous process of seafloor spreading leads to the formation of underwater features such as oceanic ridges and submarine volcanoes. These features are evidence of the tectonic activity occurring at divergent boundaries.

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  • 18. 

    The _______ is an example of an active, continent-continent collision.

    • A.

      Northern movement of Baja California and a sliver of western California toward the Hawaiian Islands.

    • B.

      Northward movement of India into Eurasia

    • C.

      Westward movement of the South American plate over the Nazca plate.

    • D.

      Arabian peninsula slamming into North Africa under the Red Sea

    Correct Answer
    B. Northward movement of India into Eurasia
    Explanation
    The collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate is an example of an active, continent-continent collision. The northward movement of India towards Eurasia has resulted in the formation of the Himalayas, one of the largest mountain ranges in the world. This collision has caused the crust to buckle and fold, leading to the uplift of the Himalayas. The collision is ongoing and continues to shape the landscape of the region.

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  • 19. 

    The composition of the core of the Earth is thought to be ___________.

    • A.

      Basalt

    • B.

      Peridotite

    • C.

      Iron-Nickel alloy

    • D.

      Granite

    Correct Answer
    C. Iron-Nickel alloy
    Explanation
    The composition of the core of the Earth is thought to be an Iron-Nickel alloy. This is based on various scientific studies and evidence, including seismic data and the behavior of Earth's magnetic field. The core is believed to consist mainly of iron, with a smaller amount of nickel. This composition is consistent with the dense nature of the core and its ability to generate a magnetic field. Other options like basalt, peridotite, and granite are not likely to be present in the core due to their different chemical compositions and densities.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock?

    • A.

      A rock has an orderly, repetitive, geometrical, internal arrangement of minerals; a mineral is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of rocks.

    • B.

      A mineral consists of its constituent atoms arranged in a geometrically repetitive structure; in a rock the atoms are 03.01 Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock? rock, randomly bonded without any geometric pattern.

    • C.

      In a mineral the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains.

    • D.

      A rock consists of atoms bonded in a regular, geometrically predictable arrangement; a mineral is a consolidated aggregate of different rock particles.

    Correct Answer
    C. In a mineral the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains.
    Explanation
    A mineral is defined as having constituent atoms bonded in a regular, repetitive, internal structure, while a rock is defined as a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains. This means that minerals have a specific arrangement of atoms, whereas rocks are made up of various minerals that are bonded together.

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  • 21. 

    Atoms of the same element, carbon for example, have the same number of________.

    • A.

      Electrons in the valence bond level

    • B.

      Neutrons in the outer nuclear shell

    • C.

      Electrons in the nucleus

    • D.

      Proton in the nucleus

    Correct Answer
    D. Proton in the nucleus
    Explanation
    Atoms of the same element, carbon for example, have the same number of protons in the nucleus. This is because the number of protons in an atom determines its atomic number, which is unique to each element. Therefore, all carbon atoms will have the same number of protons in their nuclei, regardless of their isotopes or other factors.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following best characterizes ferromagnesian silicates?

    • A.

      They contain iron and magnetite, are black in color , and have metallic lusters

    • B.

      They are mostly clear, colorless, and rich in the elements of magnesium and ferrium

    • C.

      They are black to dark-green silicate minerals containing iron and magnesium

    • D.

      They contain magnetite and ferroite and they are clear to light green

    Correct Answer
    C. They are black to dark-green silicate minerals containing iron and magnesium
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that ferromagnesian silicates are black to dark-green silicate minerals containing iron and magnesium. This means that these minerals have a dark color and contain both iron and magnesium as essential components. The other options are incorrect because they either do not mention the presence of iron and magnesium or describe different colors and compositions.

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  • 23. 

    What element is the most abundant in Earth’s crust by weight?

    • A.

      Carbon

    • B.

      Chlorine

    • C.

      Oxygen

    • D.

      Sodium

    Correct Answer
    C. Oxygen
    Explanation
    Oxygen is the most abundant element in Earth's crust by weight. It makes up about 46% of the Earth's crust, followed by silicon at 28%. Oxygen is found in various minerals such as silicates, oxides, and carbonates. It is also a major component of water, which covers about 71% of the Earth's surface. Oxygen is essential for supporting life and plays a crucial role in many geological and chemical processes on Earth.

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  • 24. 

    The resistance of a mineral to abrasion is known as ________.

    • A.

      Luster

    • B.

      Cleavage

    • C.

      Streak

    • D.

      Hardness

    Correct Answer
    D. Hardness
    Explanation
    The resistance of a mineral to abrasion refers to its hardness. Hardness is a measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched or damaged. It is determined by the strength of the chemical bonds within the mineral's structure. Therefore, the correct answer is hardness.

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  • 25. 

    The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes is known as ________.

    • A.

      Streak

    • B.

      Cleavage

    • C.

      Cracking luster

    • D.

      Habit

    Correct Answer
    B. Cleavage
    Explanation
    Cleavage is the correct answer because it refers to the strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes. This property is commonly observed in minerals with a crystalline structure, where the atomic arrangement allows for the formation of these planes of weakness. Cleavage can result in the formation of flat, smooth surfaces on minerals, which can be useful in their identification and classification.

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  • 26. 

    Which one does not correctly describe a mineral?

    • A.

      It has a specific and predictable chemical composition

    • B.

      It has a specific internal crystal structure

    • C.

      It can be liquid or solid

    • D.

      It can be identified by its characteristic physical properties

    Correct Answer
    C. It can be liquid or solid
    Explanation
    The statement "It can be liquid or solid" does not correctly describe a mineral. Minerals are naturally occurring substances that have a specific and predictable chemical composition and a specific internal crystal structure. They can be identified by their characteristic physical properties such as color, hardness, and density. However, minerals cannot be liquid as they are solid substances.

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  • 27. 

    Which are the most abundant minerals in the Earth’s crust and mantle?

    • A.

      Sulfides

    • B.

      Uranides

    • C.

      Native metals

    • D.

      Silicates

    Correct Answer
    D. Silicates
    Explanation
    Silicates are the most abundant minerals in both the Earth's crust and mantle. Silicates are compounds that contain silicon and oxygen, along with other elements like aluminum, iron, calcium, and magnesium. These minerals make up a significant portion of the Earth's crust and mantle due to the abundance of silicon and oxygen in the Earth's composition. Silicates are also the main components of rocks, such as granite and basalt, which are common in the Earth's crust and mantle.

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  • 28. 

    Mineral deposits which have been identified and can be extracted profitably are called __________

    • A.

      reserves

    • B.

      ores

    • C.

      Resources

    • D.

      Tailings

    Correct Answer
    A. reserves
    Explanation
    Mineral deposits that have been identified and are economically viable to extract are known as reserves. These reserves indicate the presence of valuable minerals that can be extracted and utilized for various purposes. This term is commonly used in the mining industry to refer to mineral deposits that have been proven to be economically feasible for extraction.

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  • 29. 

    All silicate minerals contain which two elements?

    • A.

      Iron, silicon

    • B.

      Silicon, sodium

    • C.

      oxygen, carbon

    • D.

      silicon, oxygen

    Correct Answer
    D. silicon, oxygen
    Explanation
    Silicate minerals are composed primarily of silicon and oxygen. Silicon is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust and is a key component of many minerals. Oxygen is the most abundant element in the Earth's crust and is also essential in the formation of silicate minerals. Therefore, all silicate minerals contain silicon and oxygen.

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  • 30. 

    Atoms that have an electrical charge due to a gain or loss of electrons are called __________.

    • A.

      Isotopes

    • B.

      Ions

    • C.

      Isochrons

    • D.

      Periodic elements

    Correct Answer
    B. Ions
    Explanation
    Atoms that have an electrical charge due to a gain or loss of electrons are called ions. Ions are formed when an atom gains or loses electrons, resulting in an unequal number of protons and electrons. This imbalance in charge gives the atom a positive or negative charge, making it an ion. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons. Isochrons are lines on a graph that represent the same age. Periodic elements refer to the elements in the periodic table.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following is correct for isotopes of the same element?

    • A.

      The atoms have different numbers of electrons but the same number of neutrons

    • B.

      The atoms have different numbers of neutrons and the same number of protons.

    • C.

      The atoms have the same number of electrons and different numbers of protons

    • D.

      The atoms have different numbers of protons and the same number of neutrons

    Correct Answer
    B. The atoms have different numbers of neutrons and the same number of protons.
    Explanation
    Isotopes of the same element have the same number of protons, which determines the element's identity. However, they have different numbers of neutrons, resulting in different atomic masses. This is because isotopes are variants of an element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. The different number of neutrons does not affect the electrical charge of the atom, as neutrons are electrically neutral. Therefore, the correct answer is that isotopes of the same element have different numbers of neutrons and the same number of protons.

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  • 32. 

    Granite and gabbro ________.

    • A.

      Have a similar texture

    • B.

      Have a similar mineral composition

    • C.

      Both A and B

    • D.

      Are in no way similar

    Correct Answer
    A. Have a similar texture
    Explanation
    Granite and gabbro have a similar texture because they both have a coarse-grained appearance. This means that the individual mineral grains within the rocks are large enough to be seen with the naked eye. The texture of both granite and gabbro is a result of their formation from slowly cooling magma deep within the Earth's crust. Therefore, the correct answer is that granite and gabbro have a similar texture.

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  • 33. 

    Igneous rock is formed

    • A.

      By the weathering of pre-existing rocks

    • B.

      By changes in mineral composition

    • C.

      At great depth within Earth

    • D.

      By crystallization of molten rock

    Correct Answer
    D. By crystallization of molten rock
    Explanation
    Igneous rock is formed by the crystallization of molten rock. When molten rock, or magma, cools and solidifies, it forms igneous rock. This process can occur either below the Earth's surface, resulting in intrusive igneous rock, or on the surface, resulting in extrusive igneous rock. The cooling and solidification of molten rock leads to the formation of interlocking crystals, giving igneous rocks their characteristic texture and composition.

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  • 34. 

    ____________ was an ancient reptile that lived in South America and Africa during the late Paleozoic.

    • A.

      Granopteris

    • B.

      Monastarious

    • C.

      Glossopteris

    • D.

      Mesosaurus

    Correct Answer
    D. Mesosaurus
    Explanation
    Mesosaurus is the correct answer because it was an ancient reptile that lived in both South America and Africa during the late Paleozoic era. Granopteris, Monastarious, and Glossopteris are not reptiles and do not match the description given in the question.

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  • 35. 

    Today, ____________ is in about the same geographic position as during late Paleozoic time.

    • A.

      India

    • B.

      South America

    • C.

      Australia

    • D.

      Antarctica

    Correct Answer
    D. Antarctica
    Explanation
    During the late Paleozoic time, the continents were grouped together in a supercontinent called Pangaea. Antarctica was located near the South Pole, just like it is today. The other continents, including India, South America, and Australia, were positioned differently and not in the same geographic location as they are today. Therefore, the correct answer is Antarctica.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following paleoclimatic evidence supports the idea of the late Paleozoic super continent in the Southern Hemisphere?

    • A.

      Lithified loess (wind-blown) deposits in the deserts of Chile, Australia, and Africa

    • B.

      Tillites (rocks formed by glaciers) in South Africa and South America

    • C.

      thick sediments in the Amazon and Congo deltas of South America and Africa

    • D.

      Cold water fossils in the deep-water sediments of the South Atlantic abyssal plain

    Correct Answer
    B. Tillites (rocks formed by glaciers) in South Africa and South America
    Explanation
    The presence of tillites (rocks formed by glaciers) in South Africa and South America supports the idea of the late Paleozoic supercontinent in the Southern Hemisphere. Tillites are formed by the action of glaciers, indicating that these regions were once covered by ice sheets. The occurrence of tillites in both South Africa and South America suggests that these landmasses were once connected, supporting the concept of a supercontinent in the Southern Hemisphere during the late Paleozoic era.

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  • 37. 

    A very long-lived magma source located deep in the mantle is called a ____________.

    • A.

      magma welt

    • B.

      Basalt spout

    • C.

      Melt well

    • D.

      Hot spot

    Correct Answer
    D. Hot spot
    Explanation
    A hot spot refers to a long-lived magma source located deep in the mantle. It is an area where magma rises to the surface, creating volcanic activity. This volcanic activity is not associated with plate boundaries, unlike other types of volcanoes. Hot spots are responsible for the formation of chains of volcanic islands, such as the Hawaiian Islands. They are believed to be caused by plumes of hot mantle material rising from deep within the Earth.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following statements apply to the asthenosphere, but not the lithosphere?

    • A.

      Zone in the upper mantle that deforms by plastic flowage

    • B.

      Cool, rigid layer of crust and upper mantle that forms the tectonic plates

    • C.

      Deforms mainly by brittle fracturing and faulting

    • D.

      Partial melting of rising granitic plumes produces huge volumes of basaltic magma

    Correct Answer
    A. Zone in the upper mantle that deforms by plastic flowage
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "zone in the upper mantle that deforms by plastic flowage." This statement applies to the asthenosphere because it is a zone in the upper mantle where the rocks are hot and under high pressure, allowing them to flow and deform plastically. On the other hand, the lithosphere refers to the cool, rigid layer of crust and upper mantle that forms the tectonic plates. The lithosphere is not capable of plastic flowage and deformation like the asthenosphere.

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  • 39. 

    New oceanic crust and lithosphere are formed at ____________.

    • A.

      Divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of rhyolitic magma

    • B.

      Convergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of rhyolitic magma

    • C.

      Divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma

    • D.

      Convergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma

    Correct Answer
    C. Divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma
    Explanation
    New oceanic crust and lithosphere are formed at divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma. Divergent boundaries occur where tectonic plates are moving away from each other. As the plates separate, magma rises from the mantle and fills the gap, creating new crust. This magma is basaltic in composition, which is rich in iron and magnesium. The eruptions and intrusions of this basaltic magma at divergent boundaries lead to the formation of new oceanic crust and lithosphere.

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  • 40. 

    Cooler, older, oceanic lithosphere sink into the mantle at ____________.

    • A.

      Subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries

    • B.

      transform fault zones along divergent plate boundaries

    • C.

      rift zones along mid-ocean ridges

    • D.

      Sites of long-lived, hot spot volcanism in the ocean basins

    Correct Answer
    A. Subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries
    Explanation
    Cooler, older, oceanic lithosphere sinks into the mantle at subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries. This process occurs when two tectonic plates collide, and the denser oceanic plate is forced beneath the less dense continental plate. As the oceanic lithosphere sinks into the mantle, it can cause volcanic activity, earthquakes, and the formation of mountain ranges. This is a common geological process that contributes to the recycling of Earth's crust and the formation of new crust.

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  • 41. 

    A transform plate boundary is characterized by ____________.

    • A.

      Stratovolcanoes on the edge of a plate and shield volcanoes on the adjacent plate

    • B.

      Two, converging, oceanic plates meeting head-on and piling up into a mid-ocean ridge

    • C.

      A divergent boundary where the continental plate changes to an oceanic plate

    • D.

      a deep, vertical fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions

    Correct Answer
    D. a deep, vertical fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions
    Explanation
    A transform plate boundary is characterized by a deep, vertical fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions. This type of boundary is also known as a conservative or strike-slip boundary. Unlike convergent boundaries where plates collide or divergent boundaries where plates move apart, transform boundaries involve horizontal movement. This movement can cause earthquakes as the plates slip and release built-up stress along the fault line. One well-known example of a transform plate boundary is the San Andreas Fault in California.

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  • 42. 

    The Aleutian Islands occur at a ____________

    • A.

      Convergent boundary on a volcanic arc above a northward-subducting Pacific plate

    • B.

      Transform boundary where North America has moved towards Alaska

    • C.

      Divergent boundary where shield volcanoes are forming

    • D.

      Convergent, continental margin with uplifted fault blocks, much like those of the Basin and Range Province

    Correct Answer
    A. Convergent boundary on a volcanic arc above a northward-subducting Pacific plate
    Explanation
    The Aleutian Islands occur at a convergent boundary on a volcanic arc above a northward-subducting Pacific plate. This means that the islands are located where two tectonic plates are colliding, with the Pacific plate being forced beneath the North American plate. This subduction process creates a volcanic arc, where magma rises to the surface and forms a chain of volcanic islands, such as the Aleutian Islands.

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  • 43. 

    ____________ first related the symmetrical magnetic patterns in seafloor basalts to seafloor spreading at a mid-ocean ridge.

    • A.

      Evans and Novak

    • B.

      Vine and Matthews

    • C.

      Matthews and Marks

    • D.

      Wegener and Wilson

    Correct Answer
    B. Vine and Matthews
    Explanation
    Vine and Matthews were the ones who first related the symmetrical magnetic patterns in seafloor basalts to seafloor spreading at a mid-ocean ridge.

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  • 44. 

    What fundamental concept states that in a horizontal sequence of conformable sedimentary strata, each higher bed is younger than the bed below it?

    • A.

      Law of superposition

    • B.

      Theory of superstition

    • C.

      Theory of correlative deposition

    • D.

      Law of original correlation

    Correct Answer
    A. Law of superposition
    Explanation
    The law of superposition states that in a horizontal sequence of conformable sedimentary strata, each higher bed is younger than the bed below it. This principle is based on the observation that as sediments are deposited, the older layers are typically buried beneath younger layers over time. By studying the order of sedimentary rock layers, geologists can determine the relative ages of the rocks and the events that occurred during their formation. This concept is fundamental in understanding the geological history of an area and the processes that have shaped the Earth's surface over time.

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  • 45. 

    Mount St. Helens is ________.

    • A.

      A basaltic shield volcano

    • B.

      An explosive stratovolcano

    • C.

      A small, welded tuff cone

    • D.

      A basaltic cinder cone

    Correct Answer
    B. An explosive stratovolcano
    Explanation
    Mount St. Helens is classified as an explosive stratovolcano due to its eruptive history and characteristics. Stratovolcanoes are tall, steep-sided volcanoes that are built up by layers of lava, ash, and other volcanic materials. Mount St. Helens fits this description as it has a conical shape and is composed of layers of hardened lava, ash, and pyroclastic materials. Additionally, Mount St. Helens is known for its explosive eruptions, such as the catastrophic eruption in 1980, which further supports its classification as an explosive stratovolcano.

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  • 46. 

    A ________ is an intrusive, igneous rock body that is tabular and concordant.

    • A.

      Dike

    • B.

      Sill

    • C.

      Laccolith

    • D.

      Pluton

    Correct Answer
    B. Sill
    Explanation
    A sill is an intrusive, igneous rock body that is tabular and concordant. It is formed when magma is injected into horizontal cracks or layers of pre-existing rock and solidifies underground. Sills are parallel to the surrounding rock layers and do not cut across them. This makes them concordant. They are usually found in areas of volcanic activity and can have economic importance as a source of valuable minerals.

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  • 47. 

    Which one of the following stress situations results in folding of flat-lying, sedimentary strata?

    • A.

      Horizontally directed; compressive stresses

    • B.

      Horizontally directed; extensional stresses

    • C.

      Vertically directed; extensional or stretching stresses

    • D.

      Vertically directed; compressional stresses

    Correct Answer
    A. Horizontally directed; compressive stresses
    Explanation
    The folding of flat-lying, sedimentary strata occurs when compressive stresses are horizontally directed. This means that the forces pushing on the rock layers are coming from the sides, causing them to buckle and fold. Extensional stresses, whether horizontally or vertically directed, would cause the rock layers to stretch and potentially fracture, but not fold. Vertically directed compressional stresses would cause the rock layers to be squeezed from top to bottom, but not fold horizontally. Therefore, only horizontally directed compressive stresses can result in the folding of flat-lying, sedimentary strata.

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  • 48. 

    The concept that rocks of the crust and upper mantle are floating in gravitational balance is known as ________.

    • A.

      Isotropy

    • B.

      Isobration

    • C.

      Isostasy

    • D.

      Isomonism

    Correct Answer
    C. Isostasy
    Explanation
    Isostasy is the concept that explains how rocks of the crust and upper mantle are floating in gravitational balance. It states that the Earth's crust is in equilibrium, with lighter materials floating on top of denser materials. This balance is maintained due to the principle of buoyancy, where the less dense rocks rise and the denser rocks sink. Isostasy plays a crucial role in shaping the Earth's surface and is responsible for phenomena such as mountain ranges and ocean basins.

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  • 49. 

    The ________ is the idea or concept that ancient life forms succeeded each other in a definite, evolutionary pattern and that the contained assemblage of fossils can determine geologic ages of strata?

    • A.

      Principle of fossil succession

    • B.

      Principle of cross correlation

    • C.

      Law of correlative indexing

    • D.

      Law of fossil regression

    Correct Answer
    A. Principle of fossil succession
    Explanation
    The principle of fossil succession is the idea or concept that ancient life forms succeeded each other in a definite, evolutionary pattern and that the contained assemblage of fossils can determine geologic ages of strata. This principle is based on the observation that different fossils appear in the rock layers in a specific order, with simpler organisms found in older layers and more complex organisms found in younger layers. By studying the fossils found in different layers of rock, scientists can determine the relative ages of the rocks and the organisms that lived during those times.

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  • 50. 

    Which one of the following shows the correct order (left to right) of decreasing magma viscosity?

    • A.

      Rhyolite, andesite, basalt

    • B.

      Andesite, rhyolite, basalt

    • C.

      Basalt, andesite, rhyolite

    • D.

      Basalt, rhyolite, andesite

    Correct Answer
    A. Rhyolite, andesite, basalt
    Explanation
    Rhyolite, andesite, and basalt are all types of volcanic rocks with varying magma viscosities. Viscosity refers to the resistance of a fluid to flow, and in the case of magma, it is influenced by factors such as temperature, silica content, and gas content. Rhyolite has the highest silica content and highest viscosity among the three, making it the most viscous. Andesite has a lower silica content and lower viscosity compared to rhyolite. Basalt has the lowest silica content and lowest viscosity among the three, making it the least viscous. Therefore, the correct order of decreasing magma viscosity is rhyolite, andesite, basalt.

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  • Mar 19, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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