Can You Pass This Toughest Geology Test? Quiz

63 Questions | Total Attempts: 37

Settings
Please wait...
Geology Quizzes & Trivia

Geology is a significant part of our daily lives. This course is the study of the Earth and everything that makes up the planet. The questions in the quiz below cover everything you should have at the tip of your fingers concerning Geology. Take it up and see if you can pass the toughest geology test you will come across.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    What are the basic differences between the disciplines of physical and historical geology?
    • A. 

      Physical geology is the study of fossils and sequences of rock strata; historical geology is the study of how rocks and minerals were used in the past.

    • B. 

      Historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and geologic events, utilizing geologic time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and of how erosion shapes the land surface.

    • C. 

      Physical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and deposition in relation to plate movements in the geologic past; historical geology charts how and where the plates were moving in the past.

    • D. 

      None of the above—physical geology and historical geology are essentially the same.

  • 2. 
    Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of superposition?
    • A. 

      Strata with fossils are generally deposited on strata with no fossils.

    • B. 

      Older strata generally are deposited on younger strata without intervening, intermediate age strata.

    • C. 

      Older fossils in younger strata indicate a locally inverted geologic time scale.

    • D. 

      Any sedimentary deposit accumulates on older rock or sediment layers.

  • 3. 
    Active mountain belts are most likely to be found ________.
    • A. 

      Along the margins of continents

    • B. 

      In the interior regions of continents

    • C. 

      Scattered throughout continents

    • D. 

      Along only the eastern margins of continents

  • 4. 
    All of the following observations and conclusions are consistent with the concept of “uniformitarianism” except ______.
    • A. 

      Layers in sandstone found at the top of a mountain that are similar to layers at a sandy beach illustrate that the sandstone used to be sand at sea level some time ago

    • B. 

      Sand rolling along a stream bottom shows that sediment is moving downstream

    • C. 

      Along a coastline, wave-cut erosional features now well above sea level indicate that the land was uplifted

    • D. 

      Layers in sand that compose a modern beach today that are similar to layers in sandstone formed millions of years ago illustrate that there have been similar beaches in Earth’s past

    • E. 

      An erupting volcano proves that burning subterranean coal beds provide the heat

  • 5. 
    ______ was an important 18th-century English geologist and proponent of Uniformitarianism.
    • A. 

      James Ussher

    • B. 

      Alfred Wegener

    • C. 

      Charles Lyell

    • D. 

      James Hutton

  • 6. 
    If the Precambrian eon accounts for 88% of the geologic time scale, why is it one of the smallest boxes in Figure 1.8 in this chapter?
    • A. 

      We know the least about it

    • B. 

      The chart is in log scale

    • C. 

      Because cephalopods were dominant in that eon

    • D. 

      Because it is not an eon at all, it is an epoch

  • 7. 
    Rocks are ________.
    • A. 

      Materials that always contain fossils

    • B. 

      Static in their nature, meaning once they become an igneous rock, they will always be an igneous rock

    • C. 

      Native always lain down horizontally and with the oldest on the bottom

    • D. 

      Aggregates of one or more minerals

    • E. 

      Materials that always behave in a brittle manner

  • 8. 
    What is the source of the energy that powers the Earth system?
    • A. 

      The Sun

    • B. 

      Heat from Earth’s interior

    • C. 

      Both A and B

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 9. 
    All of the following are possible steps of scientific investigation except _________.
    • A. 

      The collection of scientific facts through observation and measurement

    • B. 

      The assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation

    • C. 

      The development of one or more working hypotheses or models to explain facts

    • D. 

      The development of observations and experiments to test the hypotheses

  • 10. 
    Which one of the following most accurately describes the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands?
    • A. 

      Stratovolcanoes associated with subduction and a convergent plate boundary.

    • B. 

      Shield volcanoes fed by a long-lived hot spot below the Pacific lithospheric plate

    • C. 

      Shield volcanoes associated with a mid-Pacific ridge and spreading center.

    • D. 

      Stratovolcanoes associated with a mid-Pacific transform fault

  • 11. 
    The modern-day Red Sea is explained by plate tectonics theory because it is ____________.
    • A. 

      A tiny remnant of a once immense ocean that was closed as Africa moved Asia

    • B. 

      The site of a transform fault along which Arabia is moving away from Africa

    • C. 

      A rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate

    • D. 

      A rare example of a two continent subduction zone where the African continental plate is sinking under the Arabian continental plate

  • 12. 
    Why is so much basaltic magma erupted along mid-ocean ridges?
    • A. 

      Basaltic mantle under the ridge is hot enough to completely melt if seawater is added.

    • B. 

      Lowered pressures decrease the temperatures at which basalt magma can partially melt from a rising plume of mantle peridotite

    • C. 

      The subducting, oceanic slab sinks so deep that eventually it melts, producing massive quantities of basalt magma

    • D. 

      The mantle beneath the ridges is enriched in thorium, uranium, and potassium, causing strong heating due to energy from radioactive decay.

  • 13. 
    Which of the following best describes Hess' hypothesis of seafloor spreading?
    • A. 

      Rising material in the seafloor and ocean basin causes the seafloor to spread laterally away from continents.

    • B. 

      Sinking material in the mantle causes seafloor to diverge at the edges of continents

    • C. 

      Rising material in the mantle spreads laterally carrying the seafloor away from seafloor ridges in the center of the ocean basin.

    • D. 

      Sinking material in the mantle spreads laterally, forcing seafloor into continents at the edges of ocean basins.

  • 14. 
    Why did people not believe Wegener’s idea ?
    • A. 

      He failed to provide a mechanism

    • B. 

      He didn’t know about earthquake distribution at the time

    • C. 

      He used ferns and fossil plants as part of his evidence

    • D. 

      He used the shelves instead of the continent margin themselves

  • 15. 
    What happens when two continental plates collide?
    • A. 

      The plate moving with lesser force subducts under the one moving with greater force

    • B. 

      The two plates will both subduct under each other.

    • C. 

      One of the plates may be forced under the other slightly, but no subduction takes place

    • D. 

      Both plates subduct under each other, which forms deep valleys.

  • 16. 
    How can the discovery of coal in cold and dry Antarctica be explained?
    • A. 

      They were formed underwater and were carried to Antarctica

    • B. 

      Antarctica was once part of the “supercontinent” Pangaea and was in a warm and humid climate which allowed the formation of coal.

    • C. 

      Coal was formed in Antarctica together with the ice and glaciers

    • D. 

      They were remnants of dust falling from meteorites

  • 17. 
    What happens at divergent boundaries?
    • A. 

      The seafloor spreads and magma rises up to fill the gap, forming underwater features like oceanic ridges and submarine volcanoes

    • B. 

      The seafloor rises up and heats up the surrounding water to cause tsunamis

    • C. 

      A gap is created and sea water rushes in to cool the magma in the trench

    • D. 

      There are huge mountains formed by the plates colliding

  • 18. 
    The _______ is an example of an active, continent-continent collision.
    • A. 

      Northern movement of Baja California and a sliver of western California toward the Hawaiian Islands.

    • B. 

      Northward movement of India into Eurasia

    • C. 

      Westward movement of the South American plate over the Nazca plate.

    • D. 

      Arabian peninsula slamming into North Africa under the Red Sea

  • 19. 
    The composition of the core of the Earth is thought to be ___________.
    • A. 

      Basalt

    • B. 

      Peridotite

    • C. 

      Iron-Nickel alloy

    • D. 

      Granite

  • 20. 
    Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock?
    • A. 

      A rock has an orderly, repetitive, geometrical, internal arrangement of minerals; a mineral is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of rocks.

    • B. 

      A mineral consists of its constituent atoms arranged in a geometrically repetitive structure; in a rock the atoms are 03.01 Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock? rock, randomly bonded without any geometric pattern.

    • C. 

      In a mineral the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains.

    • D. 

      A rock consists of atoms bonded in a regular, geometrically predictable arrangement; a mineral is a consolidated aggregate of different rock particles.

  • 21. 
    Atoms of the same element, carbon for example, have the same number of________.
    • A. 

      Electrons in the valence bond level

    • B. 

      Neutrons in the outer nuclear shell

    • C. 

      Electrons in the nucleus

    • D. 

      Proton in the nucleus

  • 22. 
    Which of the following best characterizes ferromagnesian silicates?
    • A. 

      They contain iron and magnetite, are black in color , and have metallic lusters

    • B. 

      They are mostly clear, colorless, and rich in the elements of magnesium and ferrium

    • C. 

      They are black to dark-green silicate minerals containing iron and magnesium

    • D. 

      They contain magnetite and ferroite and they are clear to light green

  • 23. 
    What element is the most abundant in Earth’s crust by weight?
    • A. 

      Carbon

    • B. 

      Chlorine

    • C. 

      Oxygen

    • D. 

      Sodium

  • 24. 
    The resistance of a mineral to abrasion is known as ________.
    • A. 

      Luster

    • B. 

      Cleavage

    • C. 

      Streak

    • D. 

      Hardness

  • 25. 
    The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes is known as ________.
    • A. 

      Streak

    • B. 

      Cleavage

    • C. 

      Cracking luster

    • D. 

      Habit

  • 26. 
    Which one does not correctly describe a mineral?
    • A. 

      It has a specific and predictable chemical composition

    • B. 

      It has a specific internal crystal structure

    • C. 

      It can be liquid or solid

    • D. 

      It can be identified by its characteristic physical properties

  • 27. 
    Which are the most abundant minerals in the Earth’s crust and mantle?
    • A. 

      Sulfides

    • B. 

      Uranides

    • C. 

      Native metals

    • D. 

      Silicates

  • 28. 
    Mineral deposits which have been identified and can be extracted profitably are called __________
    • A. 

      reserves

    • B. 

      ores

    • C. 

      Resources

    • D. 

      Tailings

  • 29. 
    All silicate minerals contain which two elements?
    • A. 

      Iron, silicon

    • B. 

      Silicon, sodium

    • C. 

      oxygen, carbon

    • D. 

      silicon, oxygen

  • 30. 
    Atoms that have an electrical charge due to a gain or loss of electrons are called __________.
    • A. 

      Isotopes

    • B. 

      Ions

    • C. 

      Isochrons

    • D. 

      Periodic elements

  • 31. 
    Which of the following is correct for isotopes of the same element?
    • A. 

      The atoms have different numbers of electrons but the same number of neutrons

    • B. 

      The atoms have different numbers of neutrons and the same number of protons.

    • C. 

      The atoms have the same number of electrons and different numbers of protons

    • D. 

      The atoms have different numbers of protons and the same number of neutrons

  • 32. 
    Granite and gabbro ________.
    • A. 

      Have a similar texture

    • B. 

      Have a similar mineral composition

    • C. 

      Both A and B

    • D. 

      Are in no way similar

  • 33. 
    Igneous rock is formed
    • A. 

      By the weathering of pre-existing rocks

    • B. 

      By changes in mineral composition

    • C. 

      At great depth within Earth

    • D. 

      By crystallization of molten rock

  • 34. 
    ____________ was an ancient reptile that lived in South America and Africa during the late Paleozoic.
    • A. 

      Granopteris

    • B. 

      Monastarious

    • C. 

      Glossopteris

    • D. 

      Mesosaurus

  • 35. 
    Today, ____________ is in about the same geographic position as during late Paleozoic time.
    • A. 

      India

    • B. 

      South America

    • C. 

      Australia

    • D. 

      Antarctica

  • 36. 
    Which of the following paleoclimatic evidence supports the idea of the late Paleozoic super continent in the Southern Hemisphere?
    • A. 

      Lithified loess (wind-blown) deposits in the deserts of Chile, Australia, and Africa

    • B. 

      Tillites (rocks formed by glaciers) in South Africa and South America

    • C. 

      thick sediments in the Amazon and Congo deltas of South America and Africa

    • D. 

      Cold water fossils in the deep-water sediments of the South Atlantic abyssal plain

  • 37. 
    A very long-lived magma source located deep in the mantle is called a ____________.
    • A. 

      magma welt

    • B. 

      Basalt spout

    • C. 

      Melt well

    • D. 

      Hot spot

  • 38. 
    Which of the following statements apply to the asthenosphere, but not the lithosphere?
    • A. 

      Zone in the upper mantle that deforms by plastic flowage

    • B. 

      Cool, rigid layer of crust and upper mantle that forms the tectonic plates

    • C. 

      Deforms mainly by brittle fracturing and faulting

    • D. 

      Partial melting of rising granitic plumes produces huge volumes of basaltic magma

  • 39. 
    New oceanic crust and lithosphere are formed at ____________.
    • A. 

      Divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of rhyolitic magma

    • B. 

      Convergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of rhyolitic magma

    • C. 

      Divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma

    • D. 

      Convergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma

  • 40. 
    Cooler, older, oceanic lithosphere sink into the mantle at ____________.
    • A. 

      Subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries

    • B. 

      transform fault zones along divergent plate boundaries

    • C. 

      rift zones along mid-ocean ridges

    • D. 

      Sites of long-lived, hot spot volcanism in the ocean basins

  • 41. 
    A transform plate boundary is characterized by ____________.
    • A. 

      Stratovolcanoes on the edge of a plate and shield volcanoes on the adjacent plate

    • B. 

      Two, converging, oceanic plates meeting head-on and piling up into a mid-ocean ridge

    • C. 

      A divergent boundary where the continental plate changes to an oceanic plate

    • D. 

      a deep, vertical fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions

  • 42. 
    The Aleutian Islands occur at a ____________
    • A. 

      Convergent boundary on a volcanic arc above a northward-subducting Pacific plate

    • B. 

      Transform boundary where North America has moved towards Alaska

    • C. 

      Divergent boundary where shield volcanoes are forming

    • D. 

      Convergent, continental margin with uplifted fault blocks, much like those of the Basin and Range Province

  • 43. 
    ____________ first related the symmetrical magnetic patterns in seafloor basalts to seafloor spreading at a mid-ocean ridge.
    • A. 

      Evans and Novak

    • B. 

      Vine and Matthews

    • C. 

      Matthews and Marks

    • D. 

      Wegener and Wilson

  • 44. 
    What fundamental concept states that in a horizontal sequence of conformable sedimentary strata, each higher bed is younger than the bed below it?
    • A. 

      Law of superposition

    • B. 

      Theory of superstition

    • C. 

      Theory of correlative deposition

    • D. 

      Law of original correlation

  • 45. 
    Mount St. Helens is ________.
    • A. 

      A basaltic shield volcano

    • B. 

      An explosive stratovolcano

    • C. 

      A small, welded tuff cone

    • D. 

      A basaltic cinder cone

  • 46. 
    A ________ is an intrusive, igneous rock body that is tabular and concordant.
    • A. 

      Dike

    • B. 

      Sill

    • C. 

      Laccolith

    • D. 

      Pluton

  • 47. 
    Which one of the following stress situations results in folding of flat-lying, sedimentary strata?
    • A. 

      Horizontally directed; compressive stresses

    • B. 

      Horizontally directed; extensional stresses

    • C. 

      Vertically directed; extensional or stretching stresses

    • D. 

      Vertically directed; compressional stresses

  • 48. 
    The concept that rocks of the crust and upper mantle are floating in gravitational balance is known as ________.
    • A. 

      Isotropy

    • B. 

      Isobration

    • C. 

      Isostasy

    • D. 

      Isomonism

  • 49. 
    The ________ is the idea or concept that ancient life forms succeeded each other in a definite, evolutionary pattern and that the contained assemblage of fossils can determine geologic ages of strata?
    • A. 

      Principle of fossil succession

    • B. 

      Principle of cross correlation

    • C. 

      Law of correlative indexing

    • D. 

      Law of fossil regression

  • 50. 
    Which one of the following shows the correct order (left to right) of decreasing magma viscosity?
    • A. 

      Rhyolite, andesite, basalt

    • B. 

      Andesite, rhyolite, basalt

    • C. 

      Basalt, andesite, rhyolite

    • D. 

      Basalt, rhyolite, andesite

  • 51. 
    A transform fault is ________.
    • A. 

      A strike-slip fault that forms the boundary between tectonic plates

    • B. 

      A dip-slip fault connecting an anticline with a syncline

    • C. 

      The rift bounding faults on a mid-ocean ridge

    • D. 

      A reverse fault that steepens into a thrust fault

  • 52. 
    A(n) ________ fault has little or no vertical movements of the two blocks.
    • A. 

      Stick slip

    • B. 

      Oblique slip

    • C. 

      Dip slip

    • D. 

      Strike slip

  • 53. 
    A good example of a present-day, passive continental margin is the ________.
    • A. 

      West coast of South America

    • B. 

      East coast of North America

    • C. 

      East coast of the Japanese Islands

    • D. 

      North flank of the East Pacific Rise

  • 54. 
    The lithosphere is defined as ________.
    • A. 

      A rocky layer composed mainly of crustal rocks

    • B. 

      A rocky layer having a relatively uniform chemical composition

    • C. 

      A rigid layer of crustal and mantle material

    • D. 

      A plastic layer composed mainly of mantle material

  • 55. 
    The asthenosphere is located ________.
    • A. 

      Within the crust

    • B. 

      Between the mantle and outer core

    • C. 

      Within the outer core

    • D. 

      In the upper mantle

  • 56. 
    Most of our knowledge about Earth's interior comes from ________.
    • A. 

      Drill holes

    • B. 

      Examination of deep mine shafts

    • C. 

      Seismic waves

    • D. 

      Volcanic eruptions

  • 57. 
    A(n) ________ is a thick accumulation of sediments and small, tectonic blocks formed of material scraped off a descending, lithospheric plate
    • A. 

      Accretionary-wedge complex

    • B. 

      Continental shelf, terrain complex

    • C. 

      Mass movement complex

    • D. 

      Subterranean-accumulation complex

  • 58. 
    The mountains and valleys of the Basin and Range Province of the western United States formed in response to ________.
    • A. 

      Strike-slip faulting and hanging wall block uplifts

    • B. 

      Normal faulting and horizontal compression

    • C. 

      Reverse faults and large displacement, thrust faulting

    • D. 

      Tensional stresses and normal-fault movements

  • 59. 
    In correct order from the center outward, Earth includes which units?
    • A. 

      Inner core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere

    • B. 

      Core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere

    • C. 

      Inner core, outer core, mantle, crust

    • D. 

      Core, inner mantle, outer mantle, crust

  • 60. 
    A ________ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.
    • A. 

      Generalization

    • B. 

      Hypothesis

    • C. 

      Theory

    • D. 

      Law

  • 61. 
    Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth's lithospheric plates?
    • A. 

      Electrical and magnetic fields localized in the inner core

    • B. 

      Swirling movements of the molten iron particles in the outer core

    • C. 

      Export of heat from deep in the mantle to the top of the asthenosphere

    • D. 

      Gravitational attractive forces of the Sun and Moon

  • 62. 
    The Sun produces energy by converting ________.
    • A. 

      Carbon monoxide to oxygen nuclei

    • B. 

      Helium nuclei to hydrogen nuclei

    • C. 

      Hydrogen nuclei to helium nuclei

    • D. 

      Oxygen nuclei to nitrogen nuclei

  • 63. 
    This astronomer is credited with "opening the door" to the era of modern astronomy.
    • A. 

      Tycho Brahe

    • B. 

      Johannes Kepler

    • C. 

      Nicolaus Copernicus

    • D. 

      Sir Isaac Newton