Rainfall within subtropical regions has a higher salt content than along the equator.
More streams and rivers empty into the ocean within subtropical regions than along the equatorial belt.
Precipitation is greater in the subtropics than along the equatorial belt.
Evaporation exceeds precipitation in the subtropical region, whereas the reverse occurs along the equator.
Motion of the surface layer is primarily driven by wind and deflected by the Coriollis force.
The surface layer is heated by the sun.
Most surface water originates near Greenland and Antarctica and afterwards flows as surface water towards the equator.
The temperature of surface water varies with latitude and the seasons.
The sea surface is everywhere smooth and flat.
Global sea level has risen and fallen many times throughout Earth history.
Coastlines are always in equilibrium with oceans and therefore never change.
Ocean currents generate the tides.
A lunar eclipse
Grams of solution per cubic kilometer of seawater.
Grams of water in 1 kilogram of solution.
Grams of dissolved ions in 1 kilogram of solution.
Grams of sodium per kilogram of dissolved ions.
Global cooling during an ice age
Assembly of continents into a supercontinent.
Decrease in the volume of mid-ocean ridges
Removing fish from the oceans
Global warming during an interglacial cycle
Waves speed up when approaching the beach.
Wave crests bunch closer together when approaching the beach.
Wave crests increase in height when approaching the beach.
Approaching wave crests align parallel with the coastline in what is known as wave refraction.
Coastal erosion is the same everywhere
Hole in the ground left behind after a large block of ice melts
Small hill or knob of poorly sorted gravel deposited by a melting glacier
Elongated deposit of till streamlined in the direction of ice movement by a continental glacier
Sinuous, narrow ridge of coarse sand and gravel formed by a meltwater stream that flowed beneath a glacier
Beach drift causes beach sand to remain in place.
Longshore currents prevent waves from striking the beach.
Beach drift transports sediment in the same direction as does longshore current.
The zigzag motion of sand describes sediment transport by longshore currents.
Coastal depositional features
Coastal erosion features
Higher sunspot activity increases the solar wind, which in turn warms Earth's upper atmosphere
The amount of sunspot activity never changes and therefore cannot affect Earth's climate
Lower sunspot activity allows more solar radiation to escape the Sun and reach Earth, thus warming the planet
Higher sunspot activity pushes Earth's orbit further from the sun, thus cooling the planet
Glacial ice and snow
Earth's crust in areas covered by glaciers rebounded to higher elevations
Land bridges and continental shelves became submerged under water
Global sea level rose
Plants and animals characteristic of colder climates migrated southward to lower latitudes
Areas in subarctic and polar climates where the ground is cold but never freezes.
Ice wedges develop in fractures below the ground surface.
Melting of permafrost beneath a building constructed on the ground surface causes the structure to collapse.
Patterned ground forms due to frost action in the soil.
Expansion of water when freezing disrupts the soil and fractures rocks.
Ice cores indicate that global temperatures have been fairly constant over the last few tens of thousands of years.
The concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases increase dramatically during periods of glaciation and global cooling.
Atmospheric temperature has been steadily increasing over the last 12 thousand years and we are presently in an interglacial cycle
The atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane have actually decreased over the last 50 years.
Greater snow cover during climatic cooling reduces the activity of carbon dioxide sinks such as photosynthesis and formation of carbonate rocks, thus causing carbon dioxide to build up in the atmosphere
Warming of the climate increases evaporation in the oceans, leading to greater cloud cover such that more solar radiation is reflected back into space.
An increase in plant activity during global warming results in more carbon dioxide being removed from the atmosphere
Climate cooling increases the snow cover on land, thus increasing global albedo and causing more solar radiation to be reflected back into space
Cenozoic climate was warmest 60 million years ago and has gradually cooled since then, culminating in the Pleistocene Ice Age beginning 2 million years ago
Global climate today is the warmest it has ever been over the last 60 million years
Cenozoic climate started out cold, then warmed about 30 million years ago, and has since cooled again.
Global climate was cold throughout the entire Cenozoic Era as evidenced by 60 million year old glaciers found today in Antarctica
Changes in overall sunspot activity
Human activity such as burning of fossils fuels
Both C & D
Release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere via volcanic eruptions
Plant photosynthesis / Methane escape onto the seafloor via hydrothermal vents near mid-ocean ridges/ Construction of shells by marine organisms
Storage of oil, coal, and gas below Earth's surface
Subduction of carbon-bearing oceanic sediments and rocks along a convergent plate boundary
Use of fertilizers on crops
Leaching of cations
Presence of soil colloids
Rich in humus
Sand and clay only
Sand, silt and clay
Humus and sand only
Cold, dry climate and scarce vegetation
Area of abundant rainfall but scarce vegetation
Dry climate and steep slopes
Temperate climate and flat to gently-rolling topography
Common in northern coniferous forests
Oxides and clays brought down from higher horizons accumulate in the B-horizon
Surface horizon consists of acid-rich forest litter
Sandy-bleached layer occurs below the A-horizon
Form from young volcanic ash and cinders
An O- and A-horizon rich in humus
A hardened layer in the B horizon called caliche
A leached soil high in iron and aluminum
A churned and mixed soil resulting from repeated freezing and thawing
Stunted, woody shrubs
Southern California is an example
Dry summer climate
Tropical rain forest
Temperate rain forest
A natural disaster reduces the number of species within an ecosystem
Any new variant within a large population is quickly swamped by interbreeding with normal individuals
A small group is separated (isolated) from the larger (main) population and eventually evolves into a new species
Several different species eventually evolve into one common species
An ecosystem is a pathwork of habitats
Once an individual patch (habitat) arises, it will never fail
Adjoining patches may be at different stages of development
When existing organisms within a patch are disturbed or removed, a new community can emerge to fill the void
Soil type / Regional climate
Air and soil temperatures
Amount of precipitation
All of the above
Agricultural ecosystems with single crops like wheat generally do not require fertilizers or pesticides to remain vibrant
Ecosystems with large numbers of species are less likely to survive relative to ecosystems containing only a few species
Greater biodiversity in an ecosystem results in greater stability and greater productivity Agricultural ecosystems with single crops like wheat are more stable than ecosystems containing many different crops
Agricultural ecosystems with single crops like wheat are more stable than ecosystems containing many different crops
Tropical rain forest
Temperate rain forest
Caterpillar on the leaf
Bobolink bird ready to devour the caterpillar
Hawk attacking the bobolink bird