Rainfall within subtropical regions has a higher salt content than along the equator.
More streams and rivers empty into the ocean within subtropical regions than along the equatorial belt.
Precipitation is greater in the subtropics than along the equatorial belt.
Evaporation exceeds precipitation in the subtropical region, whereas the reverse occurs along the equator.
Motion of the surface layer is primarily driven by wind and deflected by the Coriollis force.
The surface layer is heated by the sun.
Most surface water originates near Greenland and Antarctica and afterwards flows as surface water towards the equator.
The temperature of surface water varies with latitude and the seasons.
The sea surface is everywhere smooth and flat.
Global sea level has risen and fallen many times throughout Earth history.
Coastlines are always in equilibrium with oceans and therefore never change.
Ocean currents generate the tides.
A lunar eclipse
Grams of solution per cubic kilometer of seawater.
Grams of water in 1 kilogram of solution.
Grams of dissolved ions in 1 kilogram of solution.
Grams of sodium per kilogram of dissolved ions.
Global cooling during an ice age
Assembly of continents into a supercontinent.
Decrease in the volume of mid-ocean ridges
Removing fish from the oceans
Global warming during an interglacial cycle
Waves speed up when approaching the beach.
Wave crests bunch closer together when approaching the beach.
Wave crests increase in height when approaching the beach.
Approaching wave crests align parallel with the coastline in what is known as wave refraction.
Coastal erosion is the same everywhere
Hole in the ground left behind after a large block of ice melts
Small hill or knob of poorly sorted gravel deposited by a melting glacier
Elongated deposit of till streamlined in the direction of ice movement by a continental glacier
Sinuous, narrow ridge of coarse sand and gravel formed by a meltwater stream that flowed beneath a glacier
Beach drift causes beach sand to remain in place.
Longshore currents prevent waves from striking the beach.
Beach drift transports sediment in the same direction as does longshore current.
The zigzag motion of sand describes sediment transport by longshore currents.
Coastal depositional features
Coastal erosion features
Higher sunspot activity increases the solar wind, which in turn warms Earth's upper atmosphere
The amount of sunspot activity never changes and therefore cannot affect Earth's climate
Lower sunspot activity allows more solar radiation to escape the Sun and reach Earth, thus warming the planet
Higher sunspot activity pushes Earth's orbit further from the sun, thus cooling the planet
Glacial ice and snow
Earth's crust in areas covered by glaciers rebounded to higher elevations
Land bridges and continental shelves became submerged under water
Global sea level rose
Plants and animals characteristic of colder climates migrated southward to lower latitudes
Areas in subarctic and polar climates where the ground is cold but never freezes.
Ice wedges develop in fractures below the ground surface.
Melting of permafrost beneath a building constructed on the ground surface causes the structure to collapse.
Patterned ground forms due to frost action in the soil.
Expansion of water when freezing disrupts the soil and fractures rocks.