Test Your Knowledge About Genotype And Phenotype! Quiz

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Test Your Knowledge About Genotype And Phenotype! Quiz - Quiz

Kurdistani lecture 8/12/08


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    ___________ and ___________ affect phenotype

    • A.

      Environment and genotype

    • B.

      Age and gender

    • C.

      Mood and ethnicity

    • D.

      Height and weight

    Correct Answer
    A. Environment and genotype
    Explanation
    The phenotype of an individual is influenced by both their environment and genotype. The environment refers to external factors such as nutrition, exposure to toxins, and social interactions, which can all impact the expression of genes and the development of traits. On the other hand, the genotype refers to the genetic makeup of an individual, which determines their inherited traits and potential for certain characteristics. Both the environment and genotype interact and contribute to the overall phenotype of an individual.

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  • 2. 

    The central dogma of molecular biology states:

    • A.

      Humans were intelligently designed

    • B.

      RNA --> DNA --> polypeptide

    • C.

      Life only exists on earth

    • D.

      DNA --> RNA --> polypeptide

    • E.

      Proteins are pseudo-genetic agents

    Correct Answer
    D. DNA --> RNA --> polypeptide
    Explanation
    The central dogma of molecular biology states that the flow of genetic information in cells follows a specific sequence: DNA is transcribed into RNA, and RNA is translated into polypeptides (proteins). This process is fundamental to all living organisms and is not limited to humans or Earth. It describes the essential mechanism by which genetic information is converted into functional proteins, playing a crucial role in the functioning and development of all living organisms.

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  • 3. 

    Prions contradict the central dogma.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Prions do not contradict the central dogma. The central dogma of molecular biology states that information flows from DNA to RNA to protein. Prions, on the other hand, are misfolded proteins that can induce other proteins to adopt the same incorrect conformation. This does not contradict the central dogma, as prions are still proteins that are ultimately derived from the information encoded in DNA. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 4. 

    The chromosomal mutations involving ABCDEFG and HIJKLMNO to ABLMNO and HIJKCDEFG is an example of ____________.

    • A.

      Deletion

    • B.

      Duplication

    • C.

      Missense

    • D.

      Inversion

    • E.

      Translocation

    Correct Answer
    E. Translocation
    Explanation
    The given chromosomal mutation involves the rearrangement of the genes ABCDEFG and HIJKLMNO to ABLMNO and HIJKCDEFG. This rearrangement indicates a transfer of genetic material between non-homologous chromosomes, which is known as translocation.

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  • 5. 

    A transversion is:

    • A.

      Substitution between purines

    • B.

      Substitution between pyrmidines

    • C.

      The most common cause of a SNP

    • D.

      Substitution between purine and pyrimidine

    • E.

      A and C

    Correct Answer
    D. Substitution between purine and pyrimidine
    Explanation
    A transversion is a type of substitution mutation that occurs between a purine (adenine or guanine) and a pyrimidine (cytosine, thymine, or uracil) base in DNA or RNA. This type of mutation involves the replacement of one type of nucleotide with another, resulting in a change in the genetic code. It is different from a transition mutation, which involves the substitution of one purine or one pyrimidine base with another. Transversions are less common than transitions and can have significant effects on the protein encoded by the mutated gene.

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  • 6. 

    Less SNPs are found:

    • A.

      In the non-coding region

    • B.

      In the coding region

    • C.

      In sex chromosomes

    • D.

      A and C

    • E.

      B and C

    Correct Answer
    E. B and C
    Explanation
    The correct answer is B and C because SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) are less likely to be found in the coding region of genes and in the sex chromosomes. This is because SNPs in the coding region can lead to changes in the amino acid sequence of proteins, which can have significant effects on the function of the protein. Additionally, the sex chromosomes (X and Y) have a different inheritance pattern compared to the other chromosomes, which can affect the frequency of SNPs in these regions. Therefore, it is expected that SNPs would be less common in the coding region and in the sex chromosomes.

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  • 7. 

    All inherited material is in DNA

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    some is in the cytoplasm e.g. maternal mitochondria

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  • 8. 

    A gene:

    • A.

      Is found on introns

    • B.

      Codes one protein

    • C.

      A segment of a chromosome that is transcribed to RNA

    • D.

      A segment of a chromosome that cannot be lost

    • E.

      Contains multiple alleles

    Correct Answer
    C. A segment of a chromosome that is transcribed to RNA
    Explanation
    A gene is a segment of a chromosome that is transcribed to RNA. This means that the gene serves as a template for the synthesis of RNA molecules, which are then used as instructions to create proteins. Genes are responsible for the inheritance of traits and play a crucial role in the functioning of cells and organisms. They are located on chromosomes and are transcribed into RNA during the process of gene expression. This RNA molecule can then be translated into a protein, which carries out various functions in the body.

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