Conflict And Cohesion In Groups: Trivia Quiz!

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Conflict And Cohesion In Groups: Trivia Quiz! - Quiz

When dealing with a large group of people there is a high chance that conflicts may arise, and it is important as a manager or leader to put in place mechanisms that will prevent the chances or this occurring, and when it does, it does not inhibit the group from performing. Test your conflict and cohesion in groups understanding through this test.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    . The members of a civic association's committee on community safety disagree on whether to install more expensive street lighting throughout the development. What type of conflict is the group experiencing?

    • A.

      A. affective

    • B.

      B. collaborative

    • C.

      C. substantive

    • D.

      D. competitive

    • E.

      E. procedural

    Correct Answer
    C. C. substantive
    Explanation
    The group is experiencing a substantive conflict because they have differing opinions on whether to install more expensive street lighting. This conflict is based on the substance or content of the issue, rather than personal feelings (affective), working together (collaborative), competition, or procedures (procedural).

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  • 2. 

    The members of a civic association committee charged with addressing safety issues in the community disagree over whether to begin by surveying residents about their safety concerns or to start by consulting local law enforcement for safety suggestions. What type of conflict is the group experiencing?

    • A.

      A. affective

    • B.

      B. collaborative

    • C.

      C. substantive

    • D.

      D. competitive

    • E.

      E. procedural

    Correct Answer
    E. E. procedural
    Explanation
    The conflict that the group is experiencing is procedural. This type of conflict arises when there is a disagreement about the process or procedure to be followed in making decisions or solving problems. In this case, the members disagree on whether to start by surveying residents or consulting local law enforcement. They are not in conflict over their emotions (affective), working together (collaborative), the substance of the issue (substantive), or competing for resources or power (competitive).

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  • 3. 

    . Joe gets angry with Delores during a committee meeting because she interrupts his remarks and suggests that his ideas are a waste of time. What type of conflict is occurring in this situation?

    • A.

      A. affective

    • B.

      B. collaborative

    • C.

      C. substantive

    • D.

      D. competitive

    • E.

      E. procedural

    Correct Answer
    A. A. affective
    Explanation
    In this situation, Joe is getting angry with Delores because she interrupts his remarks and suggests that his ideas are a waste of time. This type of conflict is affective because it involves emotions and personal feelings. Joe's anger towards Delores is a result of her actions and the negative impact it has on his self-esteem and perceived value of his ideas. This conflict is not based on collaboration, substance, competition, or procedure, but rather on the affective aspect of their interaction.

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  • 4. 

    Attribution Theory is useful in explaining the sources of group conflict. All of the following answers are examples of how attributions can prompt anger among group members EXCEPT

    • A.

      A. What other members do seems abnormal.

    • B.

      B. What other members do seems unfair.

    • C.

      C. What other members do seems to constrain what I want to do.

    • D.

      D. What other members do seems intended to harm me or others.

    • E.

      E. What other members do seems to reflect member needs.

    Correct Answer
    E. E. What other members do seems to reflect member needs.
    Explanation
    Attribution theory suggests that individuals tend to attribute the behavior of others to certain causes, which can lead to conflict within a group. In this case, options a, b, c, and d all involve attributions that can prompt anger among group members. These attributions include perceiving the behavior of others as abnormal, unfair, constraining, or intended to harm oneself or others. However, option e suggests that the behavior of other members reflects their own needs, which does not necessarily prompt anger among group members.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following statements characterizes constructive conflict?

    • A.

      A. Members focus on the issues.

    • B.

      B. Members' contributions are devalued.

    • C.

      C. Members protect and defend their own ideas.

    • D.

      D. Members avoid conflict.

    • E.

      E. Members resist change and try to maintain traditional procedures.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Members focus on the issues.
    Explanation
    In constructive conflict, members focus on the issues at hand rather than personal attacks or devaluing each other's contributions. This means that they engage in a productive and respectful discussion, where they express their opinions and ideas while actively listening to others. By focusing on the issues, members can work towards finding a solution or compromise that benefits everyone involved. This approach helps to foster a positive and collaborative environment, where conflicts are seen as opportunities for growth and improvement rather than detrimental to the team or organization.

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  • 6. 

    You can help promote constructive conflict by abiding by all of the following principles EXCEPT

    • A.

      A. Disagreement does not result in punishment.

    • B.

      B. Members encourage tough competition among one another in order to make the best decisions.

    • C.

      C. Members will work with one another to achieve mutually satisfying resolution of conflicts.

    • D.

      D. Lower-status members are free to disagree with higher-status members.

    • E.

      E. the group has an agreed-upon approach for conflict resolution and decision making.

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Members encourage tough competition among one another in order to make the best decisions.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is b. Members encourage tough competition among one another in order to make the best decisions. This statement contradicts the idea of promoting constructive conflict. Constructive conflict focuses on collaboration, cooperation, and finding mutually satisfying resolutions. Encouraging tough competition can lead to a win-lose mentality and hinder the ability to work together effectively.

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  • 7. 

     Which of the following suggestions can help you apologize to a group when an apology is appropriate?

    • A.

      A. Identify member responsibility for problems with "you" statements.

    • B.

      B. Clearly identify who is to blame for the problem.

    • C.

      C. Disregard how others might feel as the result of your actions.

    • D.

      D. Follow through on any promises to correct the situation.

    • E.

      E. Plead for forgiveness because you have apologized.

    Correct Answer
    D. D. Follow through on any promises to correct the situation.
  • 8. 

    . When a member is more concerned with his or her own goals than meeting the needs of the group, which conflict style is the member using?           

    • A.

      A. accommodation

    • B.

      B. collaboration

    • C.

      C. competition

    • D.

      D. avoidance

    • E.

      E. compromise

    Correct Answer
    C. C. competition
    Explanation
    When a member is more concerned with his or her own goals than meeting the needs of the group, they are using the conflict style of competition. This style involves a focus on winning and achieving personal goals, often at the expense of others. It is characterized by assertiveness, a desire to dominate, and a lack of concern for maintaining relationships or finding mutually beneficial solutions.

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  • 9. 

    Which conflict style would be appropriate if the issue is very important to others but is not very important to you; you realize that you are wrong or that you have changed your mind; it is more important to preserve group harmony than resolve the issue?

    • A.

      A. accommodation

    • B.

      B. collaboration

    • C.

      C. competition

    • D.

      D. avoidance

    • E.

      E. compromise

    Correct Answer
    A. A. accommodation
    Explanation
    Accommodation would be the appropriate conflict style in this situation because it involves prioritizing the needs and concerns of others over your own. By accommodating, you are willing to yield or give in to the preferences or opinions of others, even if you believe you are wrong or have changed your mind. This style promotes group harmony and focuses on maintaining positive relationships rather than resolving the issue.

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  • 10. 

    Some club members want to increase membership dues by $7.00. Other club members want to increase them by $3.00. They have reached an impasse on the issue, so they decide to split the difference and raise the dues by $5.00. What type of conflict style did the group use?

    • A.

      A. accommodation

    • B.

      B. collaboration

    • C.

      C. competition

    • D.

      D. avoidance

    • E.

      E. compromise

    Correct Answer
    E. E. compromise
    Explanation
    The group used the compromise conflict style because they reached a solution by splitting the difference between the two proposed options for increasing the membership dues. This means that neither side got exactly what they wanted, but they were able to find a middle ground that both parties could agree on.

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  • 11. 

    Which conflict style has a high concern for group goals and a low concern for the member's personal goals?

    • A.

      A. accommodation

    • B.

      B. collaboration

    • C.

      C. competition

    • D.

      D. avoidance

    • E.

      E. compromise

    Correct Answer
    A. A. accommodation
    Explanation
    Accommodation conflict style involves prioritizing the group's goals over personal goals. Individuals using this style are more willing to give in or yield to the desires and needs of others in order to maintain harmony within the group. They may sacrifice their own interests and preferences to ensure that the group's objectives are achieved. This style reflects a high concern for group goals and a low concern for personal goals.

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  • 12. 

    . Family members disagree about where to go for a vacation this year. Some members want a location where there will be a lot to do. Other members just want to relax. They discuss many possible sites before deciding on a cruise. They agree that a cruise offers opportunities for both relaxation and recreation. Which approach to conflict did this family use?

    • A.

      A. accommodation

    • B.

      B. collaboration

    • C.

      C. competition

    • D.

      D. avoidance

    • E.

      E. compromise

    Correct Answer
    B. B. collaboration
    Explanation
    The family members used the approach of collaboration to resolve their conflict. They discussed their preferences and considered the desires of each member. By choosing a cruise, they found a solution that would provide opportunities for both relaxation and recreation, satisfying the needs of all family members. Collaboration involves working together to find a mutually beneficial solution, which is evident in this situation.

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  • 13. 

    Nang tries to change the subject whenever group members argue. She also refuses to comment on controversial issues. What conflict style does Nang use?

    • A.

      A. accommodation

    • B.

      B. collaboration

    • C.

      C. competition

    • D.

      D. avoidance

    • E.

      E. compromise

    Correct Answer
    D. D. avoidance
    Explanation
    Nang's conflict style is avoidance. This is evident from her attempts to change the subject whenever group members argue and her refusal to comment on controversial issues. By avoiding conflict and controversial topics, Nang is choosing not to engage in or address the conflict directly.

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  • 14. 

    When a member gives in to others at the expense of his or her own goals, what conflict style is the member using?

    • A.

      A. collaboration

    • B.

      B. compromise

    • C.

      C. avoidance

    • D.

      D. accommodation

    • E.

      E. competition

    Correct Answer
    D. D. accommodation
    Explanation
    When a member gives in to others at the expense of his or her own goals, they are using the conflict style of accommodation. This means that they prioritize maintaining harmony and satisfying the needs of others over their own objectives. They may choose to accommodate others' preferences or opinions in order to avoid conflict or to maintain relationships.

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  • 15. 

    . When a member searches for new solutions that will achieve both the individual goals of group members and the group goals, what conflict style is the member using?

    • A.

      A. competition

    • B.

      B. avoidance

    • C.

      C. collaboration

    • D.

      D. accommodation

    • E.

      E. compromise

    Correct Answer
    C. C. collaboration
    Explanation
    When a member searches for new solutions that will achieve both the individual goals of group members and the group goals, they are using the conflict style of collaboration. Collaboration involves actively seeking mutually beneficial solutions and working together to find a resolution that satisfies everyone's needs and objectives. This approach encourages open communication, cooperation, and the integration of different perspectives to reach a consensus.

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  • 16. 

    . When a member concedes some goals in order to achieve others, what conflict style is the member using?

    • A.

      A. compromise

    • B.

      B. collaboration

    • C.

      C. avoidance

    • D.

      D. accommodation

    • E.

      E. competition

    Correct Answer
    A. A. compromise
    Explanation
    When a member concedes some goals in order to achieve others, they are using the conflict style of compromise. This means that they are willing to give up some of their own goals or desires in order to reach a middle ground or agreement with others. Compromise involves finding a solution that is acceptable to all parties involved by making concessions and finding a balance between different viewpoints or objectives.

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  • 17. 

    . When a member attempts to change the topic, which conflict style is a member using?

    • A.

      A. accommodation

    • B.

      B. avoidance

    • C.

      C. collaboration

    • D.

      D. competition

    • E.

      E. compromise

    Correct Answer
    B. B. avoidance
    Explanation
    When a member attempts to change the topic, they are using the conflict style of avoidance. This means that they are trying to avoid or evade the conflict altogether by diverting the conversation away from the current topic. They may do this to prevent further discussion or disagreement on the current issue, or to avoid addressing any potential conflicts or tensions that may arise from it.

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  • 18. 

    . Which dialectic tension is represented in the 5 traditional conflict styles: accommodation, avoidance, collaboration, competition, and compromise?

    • A.

      A. reward ? punish

    • B.

      B. reliance on emotions ? reliance on reasoning and logic

    • C.

      C. homogeneous ? heterogeneous

    • D.

      D. concern for personal goals ? Concern for group goals

    • E.

      E. open system ? closed system

    Correct Answer
    D. D. concern for personal goals ? Concern for group goals
    Explanation
    The 5 traditional conflict styles represent the dialectic tension between concern for personal goals and concern for group goals. Each style reflects a different balance between these two concerns. Accommodation and avoidance prioritize group goals over personal goals, while collaboration seeks to find a win-win solution that satisfies both personal and group goals. Competition prioritizes personal goals over group goals, and compromise aims to find a middle ground that partially satisfies both. This tension between personal and group goals is inherent in conflict situations and can influence the choice of conflict style.

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  • 19. 

    . When face-to-face interaction is not convenient or possible, which of the following communication technologies is best suited for groups dealing with conflict?

    • A.

      A. audioconferences

    • B.

      B. videoconferences

    • C.

      C. bulletin boards

    • D.

      D. email

    • E.

      E. text messaging

    Correct Answer
    B. B. videoconferences
    Explanation
    Videoconferences are the best communication technology for groups dealing with conflict when face-to-face interaction is not convenient or possible. This is because videoconferences allow participants to see each other's facial expressions, body language, and tone of voice, which can help to improve understanding and reduce misunderstandings. It also allows for real-time interaction and immediate feedback, which can be crucial in resolving conflicts effectively. Other communication technologies like audioconferences, bulletin boards, email, and text messaging do not provide the same level of visual cues and real-time interaction, making them less suitable for conflict resolution.

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  • 20. 

    . Your textbook offers all of the following guidelines for making an effective apology EXCEPT

    • A.

      A. Take responsibility for your actions with "I" statements.

    • B.

      B. Clearly identify the behavior that was wrong.

    • C.

      C. Explain why your actions are justified.

    • D.

      D. Acknowledge how others might feel.

    • E.

      E. Express regret.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Explain why your actions are justified.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is c. Explain why your actions are justified. The textbook offers all of the other guidelines for making an effective apology, such as taking responsibility for your actions with "I" statements, clearly identifying the behavior that was wrong, acknowledging how others might feel, and expressing regret. However, explaining why your actions are justified is not a recommended guideline for making an effective apology. Justifying your actions may come across as defensive or dismissive of the other person's feelings.

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  • 21. 

    . What do the 4Rs stand for in the 4Rs Method of Analyzing a Conflict?

    • A.

      A. React, Reply, Reason, Reprimand

    • B.

      B. Recognize, Reflect, Reconsider, Relate

    • C.

      C. Reasons, Reactions, Results, Resolution

    • D.

      D. Resources, Repetitions, Readiness, and Resolution

    • E.

      E. Recognize, Reflect, Reconsider, Reject

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Reasons, Reactions, Results, Resolution
    Explanation
    The 4Rs in the 4Rs Method of Analyzing a Conflict stand for Reasons, Reactions, Results, and Resolution. This method involves analyzing the reasons behind the conflict, the reactions of the parties involved, the results or consequences of the conflict, and finding a resolution or solution to the conflict. By examining these four aspects, a deeper understanding of the conflict can be gained and effective strategies for resolution can be developed.

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  • 22. 

    . Which of the following is NOT part of the 4R method of Conflict Management?

    • A.

      A. Reasons

    • B.

      B. Reactions

    • C.

      C. Results

    • D.

      D. Reinterpretation

    • E.

      E. Resolution

    Correct Answer
    D. D. Reinterpretation
    Explanation
    The 4R method of Conflict Management includes identifying the Reasons for the conflict, understanding the Reactions of the parties involved, working towards a Resolution, and analyzing the Results of the conflict resolution process. Reinterpretation is not part of this method as it does not involve reevaluating or interpreting the conflict in a different way.

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  • 23. 

    . If you assume that group members mean well and you feel free to express your feelings and ideas to others, you are on your way to dealing with conflict using

    • A.

      A. the 4Rs Method.

    • B.

      B. the A-E-I-O-U Model.

    • C.

      C. negotiation.

    • D.

      D. mediation.

    • E.

      E. arbitration.

    Correct Answer
    B. B. the A-E-I-O-U Model.
    Explanation
    Assuming that group members mean well and feeling free to express feelings and ideas to others indicates a willingness to engage in open and honest communication. The A-E-I-O-U Model focuses on these principles, encouraging individuals to Acknowledge their emotions, Express their thoughts and feelings, Identify the needs and interests of all parties involved, Openly discuss potential solutions, and Understand and respect different perspectives. This approach promotes effective conflict resolution by fostering understanding, empathy, and collaboration among group members.

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  • 24. 

    . Which method of conflict resolution employs the services of an impartial third party for the purpose of guiding, coaching, and encouraging the disputants toward agreement?

    • A.

      A. arbitration

    • B.

      B. mediation

    • C.

      C. negotiation

    • D.

      D. the 4Rs Method

    • E.

      E. the A-E-I-O-U Model

    Correct Answer
    B. B. mediation
    Explanation
    Mediation is a method of conflict resolution that involves the intervention of an impartial third party to help guide and facilitate the disputing parties towards reaching a mutually agreeable solution. The mediator acts as a coach and encourages open communication, understanding, and compromise between the parties involved. Unlike arbitration where a third party makes a final decision, mediation focuses on facilitating a voluntary agreement between the disputants.

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  • 25. 

    . Which of the following conflict management methods is expressed as "We should express our concerns about the conflict and suggest a solution"?

    • A.

      A. arbitration

    • B.

      B. mediation

    • C.

      C. negotiation

    • D.

      D. the 4Rs Method

    • E.

      E. the A-E-I-O-U Model

    Correct Answer
    E. E. the A-E-I-O-U Model
    Explanation
    The A-E-I-O-U Model is a conflict management method that emphasizes expressing concerns about the conflict and suggesting a solution. This method encourages open communication and problem-solving to address and resolve conflicts. It involves actively listening to each party's perspective, empathizing with their concerns, identifying common interests, and finding a mutually beneficial solution.

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  • 26. 

    . Mediation experts Stephen Littlejohn and Kathy Domenici suggest the following strategies for resolving conflict constructively EXCEPT

    • A.

      A. Show strength and conviction by supporting your own position.

    • B.

      B. Speak to be understood rather than win.

    • C.

      C. Focus on your own perspective rather than criticizing others' behavior.

    • D.

      D. Explore ideas in new ways.

    • E.

      E. Recognize that there are many perspectives rather than polarizing a dispute into only 2 points of view.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Show strength and conviction by supporting your own position.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a. Show strength and conviction by supporting your own position. This answer is not suggested by mediation experts Stephen Littlejohn and Kathy Domenici as a strategy for resolving conflict constructively. Instead, they emphasize the importance of speaking to be understood rather than win, focusing on one's own perspective rather than criticizing others' behavior, exploring ideas in new ways, and recognizing that there are many perspectives rather than polarizing a dispute into only 2 points of view.

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  • 27. 

    . Which of the following elements in the Harvard Negotiation Project's principled negotiation process asks a group to seek fair standards for resolving a conflict or choosing an option?

    • A.

      A. people

    • B.

      B. interests

    • C.

      C. options

    • D.

      D. criteria

    • E.

      E. goals

    Correct Answer
    D. D. criteria
    Explanation
    The element in the Harvard Negotiation Project's principled negotiation process that asks a group to seek fair standards for resolving a conflict or choosing an option is "criteria." This means that the group should consider objective and impartial criteria when making decisions, rather than relying solely on personal preferences or power dynamics. By using fair criteria, the group can ensure a more equitable and mutually beneficial outcome.

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  • 28. 

    . All of the following behaviors are more characteristic of the ways in which women respond to conflict EXCEPT

    • A.

      A. Women are more likely to leave a group that experiences continuous conflict.

    • B.

      B. Women are more likely to focus on substantive issues than men.

    • C.

      C. Women are more likely to address conflict privately rather than in front of the entire group.

    • D.

      D. Women tend to cooperate more than men under ideal conditions.

    • E.

      E. Women are more likely to avoid conflict than men are.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Women are more likely to address conflict privately rather than in front of the entire group.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is c. Women are more likely to address conflict privately rather than in front of the entire group. This statement contradicts the typical behavior of women in responding to conflict. Women are generally known to address conflict in a more private manner, preferring one-on-one conversations rather than addressing the entire group. The other options are all behaviors that are more characteristic of the ways in which women respond to conflict.

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  • 29. 

    When helping group members from collectivist cultures maintain and save "face," you should keep in mind all of the following perspectives about conflict and "face" EXCEPT

    • A.

      A. The need to save "face" during a conflict derives from the personal relationships among members.

    • B.

      B. Conflict resolution requires that "face" issues be mutually managed before discussing other issues.

    • C.

      C. In individualistic cultures, "saving face" is more important than winning an argument.

    • D.

      D. Conflict resolution succeeds when group members save "face" and also claim they have "won."

    • E.

      E. Cultures that place a great deal of value on "saving face" discourage personal attacks.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. In individualistic cultures, "saving face" is more important than winning an argument.
  • 30. 

    . Which of the following statements is characteristic of a cohesive group?

    • A.

      A. Members interact with each other less.

    • B.

      B. Members make a lot of negative statements about the group.

    • C.

      C. Members want to conform to group expectations.

    • D.

      D. The group lacks creativity.

    • E.

      E. none of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Members want to conform to group expectations.
    Explanation
    A cohesive group is characterized by members who want to conform to group expectations. This means that they are willing to follow the norms, rules, and values of the group in order to maintain harmony and unity. This desire to conform indicates a sense of belonging and commitment to the group, which fosters cooperation and collaboration among members. It also suggests that there is a shared sense of purpose and identity within the group, leading to a stronger bond and higher levels of trust and communication.

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  • 31. 

    . As leader of her group, Mira frequently reminds members that their combined contributions are essential to group success. Which strategy for developing group cohesiveness is Mira using?

    • A.

      A. establishing a group identify

    • B.

      B. establishing group traditions

    • C.

      C. respecting group members

    • D.

      D. emphasizing teamwork

    • E.

      E. recognizing and rewarding contributions

    Correct Answer
    D. D. emphasizing teamwork
    Explanation
    Mira is using the strategy of emphasizing teamwork to develop group cohesiveness. By reminding members that their combined contributions are essential to group success, Mira is highlighting the importance of working together and collaborating as a team. This strategy helps to foster a sense of unity and cooperation among group members, ultimately strengthening the bond and cohesiveness within the group.

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  • 32. 

    . Which symptom of groupthink is expressed when one group member confronts another by saying "Why aren't you in favor of this? You're the only one who's against it. Give it up!"?

    • A.

      A. rationalization

    • B.

      B. self-censorship

    • C.

      C. mindguarding

    • D.

      D. pressure on dissent

    • E.

      E. illusion of invulnerability

    Correct Answer
    D. D. pressure on dissent
    Explanation
    The correct answer is d. pressure on dissent. This symptom of groupthink is expressed when one group member confronts another by pressuring them to conform to the majority opinion and discouraging them from expressing their dissenting views. The member is attempting to silence the dissenting individual by making them feel isolated and unsupported in their opposition to the group's decision. This tactic is used to maintain the illusion of unanimity within the group and discourage any further dissent.

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  • 33. 

    . Which symptom of groupthink is expressed when a group member says "Of course, we're right. We have a perfect safety record, have done this many times, and nothing's gone wrong"?

    • A.

      A. morality

    • B.

      B. stereotyping outsiders

    • C.

      C. mindguarding

    • D.

      D. illusion of unanimity

    • E.

      E. illusions of invulnerability

    Correct Answer
    E. E. illusions of invulnerability
    Explanation
    This symptom of groupthink is expressed when a group member displays a sense of invulnerability and believes that the group is incapable of making mistakes or facing negative consequences. The individual's statement about the group's perfect safety record and past successes demonstrates a belief in their own invincibility and a disregard for potential risks or failures. This mindset can lead to a lack of critical thinking and a failure to consider alternative viewpoints or potential dangers.

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  • 34. 

    . All of the following answers are characteristic of groupthink EXCEPT

    • A.

      A. overconfidence.

    • B.

      B. discounting of warnings.

    • C.

      C. stereotyping of outsiders.

    • D.

      D. mindguarding.

    • E.

      E. critically evaluating options.

    Correct Answer
    E. E. critically evaluating options.
    Explanation
    Groupthink is a phenomenon where a group of people prioritize harmony and conformity over critical thinking and individual opinions. It is characterized by overconfidence, discounting of warnings, stereotyping of outsiders, and mindguarding. However, critically evaluating options is not a characteristic of groupthink because groupthink discourages individuals from questioning or challenging the group's decisions and ideas.

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  • 35. 

    . All of the following methods are appropriate for minimizing the potential for groupthink EXCEPT

    • A.

      A. Ask each member to serve in the role of critical evaluator.

    • B.

      B. If possible, have more than one group work on the same problem independently.

    • C.

      C. Avoid asking questions and do not demand justifications from others.

    • D.

      D. Discuss the potential negative consequences of any decision or action.

    • E.

      E. Before finalizing the decision, give members a second chance to express doubts.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Avoid asking questions and do not demand justifications from others.
    Explanation
    Groupthink is a phenomenon where a group of people make decisions without considering alternative viewpoints or critically evaluating their options. Asking each member to serve as a critical evaluator, having multiple groups work on the same problem independently, discussing potential negative consequences, and giving members a second chance to express doubts are all methods that help minimize groupthink. However, avoiding asking questions and not demanding justifications from others can contribute to groupthink by discouraging critical thinking and alternative perspectives.

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