Sociology -- Chapter Four

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Sociology -- Chapter Four - Quiz


final 05.02.12


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following types of groups has a major function of providing people with a secure refuge in which they can act without fear of ridicule or rejection

    • A.

      Secondary groups

    • B.

      Reference groups

    • C.

      Primary groups

    • D.

      Social categories

    • E.

      In-groups

    Correct Answer
    C. Primary groups
    Explanation
    Primary groups have a major function of providing people with a secure refuge in which they can act without fear of ridicule or rejection. Primary groups are characterized by close, personal relationships, and members of these groups have a strong sense of belonging and emotional attachment. In such groups, individuals feel accepted, supported, and valued for who they are, creating a safe space where they can freely express themselves without the fear of being judged or rejected.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following groups would be LEAST like a primary group?

    • A.

      A business organization

    • B.

      A family

    • C.

      An athletic team

    • D.

      A friendship group

    • E.

      All of the above are considered primary

    Correct Answer
    A. A business organization
    Explanation
    A business organization would be least like a primary group because primary groups are characterized by close and intimate relationships, where individuals have a strong emotional bond and interact on a personal level. In contrast, a business organization is primarily focused on achieving specific goals and objectives, and the relationships within it are typically more formal and professional. The primary purpose of a business organization is to generate profit and provide goods or services, rather than fostering deep personal connections among its members.

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  • 3. 

    Out-grous

    • A.

      Are always primary groups

    • B.

      May be primary or secondary groups

    • C.

      Are always secondary groups

    • D.

      Are always large

    • E.

      Are always small

    Correct Answer
    B. May be primary or secondary groups
    Explanation
    The term "out-groups" refers to groups or individuals that are perceived as being different or outside of one's own group. These out-groups can vary in nature and can include both primary and secondary groups. A primary group is characterized by close, personal relationships and intimate interactions, while a secondary group is more formal and task-oriented. Therefore, out-groups can fall into either category depending on the specific context and nature of the relationships within the group.

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  • 4. 

    Reference groups most clearly do which of the following?

    • A.

      Serve as standards for people to evaluate their own attitudes and behaviors

    • B.

      Produce a sense of loyalty or "we" feeling

    • C.

      Make for task-oriented, impersonal exchanges between people

    • D.

      Involve personal, intimate, and nonspecialized relationships between people

    • E.

      Generate strong feelings of group loyalty and identification

    Correct Answer
    A. Serve as standards for people to evaluate their own attitudes and behaviors
    Explanation
    Reference groups serve as standards for individuals to evaluate their own attitudes and behaviors. These groups provide a benchmark against which individuals compare themselves, helping them to determine what is socially acceptable and desirable. Individuals may look to reference groups for guidance on various aspects of life, such as fashion, lifestyle choices, and opinions. By observing the behaviors and attitudes of reference groups, individuals can assess their own actions and beliefs and make adjustments accordingly.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following defines the groupings of people that sociologist identify as a social aggregate but not a social group?

    • A.

      They share some characteristic in common

    • B.

      They have interrelated statuses as a social aggregate

    • C.

      They are aware of themselves as a social aggregate

    • D.

      They are in the same place at the same time

    • E.

      Both A and C would be true of social aggregates

    Correct Answer
    D. They are in the same place at the same time
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "they are in the same place at the same time." This is because a social aggregate refers to a collection of individuals who are in the same physical location or setting at a given time, but they do not necessarily interact or have any shared characteristics or awareness of themselves as a group. In contrast, a social group involves individuals who interact with one another, share common interests or goals, and have a sense of belonging or identity as a group.

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  • 6. 

    A manager overseeing the activities of a group of employees is most clearly an example of which type of leadership role?

    • A.

      Expressive

    • B.

      Task

    • C.

      Autocratic

    • D.

      Socioemotional

    • E.

      Both A and D

    Correct Answer
    B. Task
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "task" because a manager overseeing the activities of a group of employees focuses on setting goals, assigning tasks, and ensuring that work is completed efficiently and effectively. This type of leadership role emphasizes the accomplishment of tasks and the achievement of organizational objectives.

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  • 7. 

    The process of pressuring group members to make decisions unanimously, sometimes at the expense of critical thinking, is called 

    • A.

      Group polarization

    • B.

      Task leadership

    • C.

      Groupthink

    • D.

      Oligarchy

    • E.

      Organizational culture

    Correct Answer
    C. Groupthink
    Explanation
    Groupthink refers to the phenomenon where group members prioritize consensus and harmony over critical thinking and independent decision-making. In this process, the pressure to conform and maintain group cohesion leads to a lack of diverse perspectives and alternative viewpoints. This can result in flawed decision-making, as critical analysis and evaluation of options are often overlooked. Groupthink can hinder creativity, innovation, and the ability to identify potential risks or flaws in decisions.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following is true of bureaucratic organizations? 

    • A.

      They are highly flexible and adaptive

    • B.

      They tend to encourage creativity and innovation

    • C.

      They are efficient at doing well-structured tasks

    • D.

      They are unstable organizations

    • E.

      They tend to be slow and inefficient for all task

    Correct Answer
    C. They are efficient at doing well-structured tasks
    Explanation
    Bureaucratic organizations are efficient at doing well-structured tasks because they have standardized procedures and clear hierarchies that allow for smooth execution of routine tasks. This efficiency is achieved through the division of labor, specialization, and adherence to established rules and regulations. However, bureaucratic organizations may struggle with flexibility, adaptability, creativity, and innovation due to their rigid structures and emphasis on following established protocols.

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  • 9. 

    In contrast with organizations based on the bureaucratic model, organizations based on the human relations model tend to

    • A.

      Place more stress on impartiality

    • B.

      Have a more rigid and extensive hierarchy of authority

    • C.

      Stress authoritative management

    • D.

      Give more emphasis for formal rules and procedures

    • E.

      Stress more participative management

    Correct Answer
    E. Stress more participative management
    Explanation
    Organizations based on the human relations model prioritize participative management, which means that they encourage employees to be involved in decision-making processes and value their input. This approach emphasizes teamwork, collaboration, and employee empowerment. In contrast, organizations based on the bureaucratic model tend to have a more rigid hierarchy of authority, stress authoritative management, and give more emphasis to formal rules and procedures.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following perspective would be most likely to view conflict as an unwanted element in an organization?

    • A.

      The conflict perspective

    • B.

      The functionalist perspective

    • C.

      The interactionist perspective

    • D.

      The negotiated order perspective

    • E.

      The bureaucratic perspective

    Correct Answer
    B. The functionalist perspective
    Explanation
    The functionalist perspective would most likely view conflict as an unwanted element in an organization because this perspective focuses on the stability and harmony of social systems. According to functionalism, organizations should have clear roles and responsibilities, and any conflict would disrupt the smooth functioning of the system. Conflict is seen as a dysfunction that hinders the achievement of organizational goals and creates tension among members. Therefore, the functionalist perspective would aim to minimize or eliminate conflict in order to maintain a well-functioning organization.

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  • Jun 30, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 16, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Melkinsey2000
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