Individual goals ? group goals
Task dimensions? social dimensions
Engagement ? disengagement
E. all of the above
Conflict ? cohesion
Conformity ? nonconformity
Structure ? spontaneity
Engaged ? disengaged
All of the above
Physiological and safety needs
Safety and belongingness needs
Belongingness and esteem needs
Esteem needs and self-actualization needs
Self-actualization and control needs
Spend time with them in social settings.
Tell them how valuable they are to the group.
Make them chair of a subcommittee.
Give them special, individual assignments.
Let them know how much you like them as friends.
Explains that punishments and rewards serve different motivational purposes in groups.
Explains why the probability of achieving a goal is as important as the goal itself.
Explains why some women have low achievement needs and fear success.
Explains why group goals should be shared and visionary.
Explains why expectations and values are the same.
Schutz's Theory of Interpersonal Needs
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Myers-Briggs Personality Theory
Allow time for "talking out" ideas.
Encourage visioning, creativity, and brainstorming.
Keep meetings short and relevant.
Keep the time frame open.
Encourage cooperation and harmony.
Provide thinking time before and during discussions.
Request real and practical information.
Encourage debate on substantive issues.
Focus on a variety of alternatives.
Encourage closure on issues.
Groups can waste time, make decisions too quickly, and create more work.
Groups need to gather and use objective facts but often get bogged down in unrealistic discussions.
Groups provide opportunities for cooperation, growth, and friendship.
Groups get work done when they're structured and task focused.
Groups need the freedom to examine multiple options during a discussion.
Inclusion, affection, control, and openness.
Meaningfulness, choice, competence, and progress.
Achievement, responsibility, recognition, and advancement.
Esteem, belongingness, self-actualization, and safety.
Motivation, assessment, rewards, and punishment.
A. seeking and taking advantage of new opportunities.
B. recognizing rather than minimizing the value of your skills.
C. recognizing and celebrating group accomplishments.
D. developing a group method of tracking and measuring progress.
E. volunteering for worthwhile group tasks that interest you.
A. Express enthusiasm; don't be critical or cynical.
B. Set high standards for yourself.
C. Seek and take advantage of new opportunities.
D. Develop a group method for tracking and measuring progress.
E. Recognize and celebrate the accomplishments of others.
A. Set high standards for yourself and others.
B. Recognize and celebrate group accomplishments.
C. Become well informed about the group's work.
D. Let members make decisions about how the group does its work.
E. Encourage members to volunteer for worthy group tasks that interest them.
A. Schedule a face-to-face meeting.
B. Let the group create its own agenda.
C. Ensure that everyone contributes.
D. Structure the meetings with flexibility.
E. Inject a degree of humor and fun.
A. tells members what to do.
B. tells members how they are doing.
C. focuses on group work and how that work contributes to group success.
D. substitutes "it" statements for "you" statements.
E. does all of the above.
A. "It" statements avoid using the word "you" when describing individual or group behavior.
B. "It" statements focus on the task rather than on individual group members.
C. "It" statements provide your personal opinion about a member of the group.
D. "It" statements are based on objective information about the group's work.
E. "It" statements answer the question "How is it going?" rather than "How am I doing?"
A. a punishment.
B. a form of feedback that identifies deficiencies.
C. an action that should only be taken by the leader.
D. the last step before expulsion.
E. a personal attack on the member.
A. Are you certain you have all the facts concerning the situation?
B. Are group members aware that rules or standards have been violated?
C. Will the reprimand benefit the group or be counterproductive?
D. Were other groups or group members involved in the incident?
E. Will the reprimand help you achieve your personal goals?
A. They are granted by supervisors rather than group members.
B. They satisfy only physical and safety needs.
C. They motivate group members to work together.
D. They appeal to members' passions.
E. They place primary emphasis on the group's goals.
A. low salaries.
B. lack of extrinsic rewards.
C. annoying colleagues.
D. the need for praise and recognition.
E. lack of medical and pension benefits.
A. legitimate and reward
B. referent and persuasive
D. coercive and charismatic
E. all of the above types of
A. fair; equitable; competitive; appropriate
B. predictable; immediate; consistent; impersonal
C. universal; compassionate; standard; final
D. meaningful; choices of options; based on competencies; progressive
E. intrinsic; extrinsic; material; personal