Food And Nutrition 3rd Edition - Chapter 37 Testbank

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Food And Nutrition 3rd Edition - Chapter 37 Testbank - Quiz


The Food and Nutrition testbanks consist of multiple choice questions that test your knowledge of the topics covered in the book. You can use these questions to check your understanding as you read through each chapter, or practise for your exam.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    _______________ and _____________ are thought to play a significant role in susceptibility to cancer but carcinogens such as _____________ and _____________ are also thought to be involved.

    • A.

      Environment, bacteria and viruses, diet and tobacco

    • B.

      Environment, genetics, burnt toast and caffeine

    • C.

      Genetics, phytochemicals, caffeine and antioxidants

    • D.

      Genetics, environment, fruit and vegetables

    • E.

      Genetics, environment, tobacco and diet

    Correct Answer
    E. Genetics, environment, tobacco and diet
    Explanation
    Genetics and environment are believed to have a significant impact on an individual's susceptibility to cancer. Carcinogens such as tobacco and certain dietary factors are also believed to play a role in the development of cancer.

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  • 2. 

    What we eat can play a role at which of the following stages of carcinogenesis?

    • A.

      None

    • B.

      Initiation only

    • C.

      Progression only

    • D.

      Differentiation only

    • E.

      All stages

    Correct Answer
    E. All stages
    Explanation
    The correct answer is All stages. Carcinogenesis refers to the process of cancer development. What we eat can influence all stages of this process, including initiation, progression, and differentiation. Certain dietary factors, such as consuming a high-fat or low-fiber diet, can increase the risk of cancer initiation by causing DNA damage. Additionally, dietary choices can affect the progression of cancer by promoting tumor growth and metastasis. Finally, nutrition plays a crucial role in the differentiation of cancer cells, influencing their behavior and potential for spreading. Therefore, what we eat can have a significant impact on all stages of carcinogenesis.

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  • 3. 

    Examples of food mutagens are:

    • A.

      Vanilla from vanillin plant

    • B.

      Cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon

    • C.

      Nitrosamines from food nitrites

    • D.

      Chlorophyllin

    • E.

      Vitamin E

    Correct Answer
    C. Nitrosamines from food nitrites
    Explanation
    Nitrosamines are a type of food mutagen that can be formed when food containing nitrites is cooked or processed at high temperatures. Nitrites are commonly used as preservatives in processed meats and are converted into nitrosamines during cooking or digestion. Nitrosamines have been shown to be carcinogenic and can increase the risk of certain types of cancer. Therefore, the presence of nitrosamines in food is a concern and efforts are made to minimize their formation during food processing.

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  • 4. 

    Epidemiological studies of the diet-cancer relationship demonstrate:

    • A.

      A causal relationship between fat intake and large bowel cancer

    • B.

      The same incidence of bowel cancer in Finland and Denmark as they have similar fibre intakes

    • C.

      Protective effects of dairy products against coronary heart disease

    • D.

      Changes in patterns of cancer incidence with migration

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Changes in patterns of cancer incidence with migration
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Changes in patterns of cancer incidence with migration." This means that epidemiological studies have shown that patterns of cancer incidence can change when people migrate from one place to another. This suggests that environmental factors, such as diet and lifestyle, play a role in the development of cancer. This answer is supported by the information provided in the question, which states that epidemiological studies have demonstrated this relationship.

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  • 5. 

    Convincing evidence has been found to show nutrition is a risk factor for which of the following cancers?

    • A.

      Lung, prostate, pancreas

    • B.

      Lung, breast, cervix

    • C.

      Lung, stomach, bowel

    • D.

      Bowel, pancreas, cervix

    • E.

      Bowel, prostate, ovaries

    Correct Answer
    C. Lung, stomach, bowel
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Lung, stomach, bowel. Convincing evidence has been found to show that nutrition is a risk factor for these specific cancers. This means that the type of food and nutrients a person consumes can increase the likelihood of developing lung, stomach, or bowel cancer.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is thought to be protective against colon cancer?

    • A.

      Antioxidant supplements

    • B.

      Refined cereal products

    • C.

      Animal fat

    • D.

      Fruits and vegetables

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Fruits and vegetables
    Explanation
    Fruits and vegetables are thought to be protective against colon cancer because they are rich in fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Fiber helps to promote regular bowel movements and prevent constipation, which can reduce the risk of colon cancer. Additionally, the antioxidants found in fruits and vegetables help to neutralize harmful free radicals in the body, which can contribute to the development of cancer. On the other hand, refined cereal products, animal fat, and antioxidant supplements do not have the same protective effects and may even increase the risk of colon cancer.

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  • 7. 

    Cooking methods recommended in the guidelines for the prevention of cancer by nutritional means include:

    • A.

      Barbecuing

    • B.

      Stewing

    • C.

      Deep frying

    • D.

      Charring

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Stewing
    Explanation
    The cooking method of stewing is recommended in the guidelines for the prevention of cancer by nutritional means because it involves cooking food slowly in liquid at a low heat. This method helps to retain nutrients in the food and prevents the formation of harmful compounds that can be produced during high-temperature cooking methods like barbecuing, deep frying, and charring. Stewing also allows for the flavors of the ingredients to blend together, creating a delicious and healthy dish.

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  • 8. 

    A major challenge in the nutritional management of patients with cancer can be:

    • A.

      Sufficiently restricting energy intake

    • B.

      Finding palatable foods

    • C.

      Avoiding high fat foods

    • D.

      Providing sufficient vitamin supplements

    • E.

      Providing sufficient starch and fibre

    Correct Answer
    B. Finding palatable foods
    Explanation
    Patients with cancer often experience changes in their taste preferences and appetite due to the disease itself or its treatment. This can make it challenging for them to find foods that they find enjoyable or palatable. It is important for patients to have a good appetite and enjoy their meals in order to maintain adequate nutrition during their treatment. Therefore, finding palatable foods is a major challenge in the nutritional management of patients with cancer.

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  • 9. 

    Body fatness is NOT implicated in the following cancers:

    • A.

      Prostate

    • B.

      Endometrium

    • C.

      Gallbladder

    • D.

      Breast

    • E.

      Oesophagus

    Correct Answer
    A. Prostate
    Explanation
    Body fatness is not implicated in prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is primarily influenced by factors such as age, family history, and genetic predisposition. While obesity may increase the risk of other types of cancers like breast and endometrial cancer, there is no strong evidence linking it to prostate cancer.

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  • 10. 

    To reduce risk of cancer an individual should consider:

    • A.

      Limiting meat intake, maintaining a healthy weight range and taking dietary supplements

    • B.

      Limit salt intake, limit meat intake but not worry about levels of physical activity

    • C.

      Eat fruit, vegetables and legumes, limit meat intake, maintain a healthy weight range

    • D.

      Maintaining a healthy weight range, maintaining a minimum consumption of alcohol and limiting plant foods

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Eat fruit, vegetables and legumes, limit meat intake, maintain a healthy weight range
    Explanation
    Eating fruit, vegetables, and legumes can provide essential nutrients and antioxidants that help reduce the risk of cancer. Limiting meat intake can decrease exposure to potentially harmful compounds found in processed and red meats. Maintaining a healthy weight range is important as obesity is linked to an increased risk of cancer. Therefore, this combination of dietary choices and weight management can contribute to reducing the risk of cancer.

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  • 11. 

    An effective public health campaign for the prevention of cancer would involve:

    • A.

      International organisations and industry; all levels of government

    • B.

      Media and workplaces

    • C.

      Non-government organizations

    • D.

      Households and communities as active participants

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    An effective public health campaign for the prevention of cancer would involve the collaboration and participation of various stakeholders. International organizations and industry can contribute by providing funding, resources, and expertise. All levels of government can play a role in implementing policies and regulations that promote healthy behaviors and environments. Media and workplaces can help raise awareness and disseminate information about cancer prevention. Non-government organizations can support community initiatives and provide education and support services. Lastly, involving households and communities as active participants ensures that individuals are empowered to make healthy choices and create supportive environments.

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  • Current Version
  • Apr 16, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 22, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Allenandunwin
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