Food And Nutrition 3rd Edition - Chapter 33 Testbank

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Food And Nutrition 3rd Edition - Chapter 33 Testbank - Quiz


The Food and Nutrition testbanks consist of multiple choice questions that test your knowledge of the topics covered in the book. You can use these questions to check your understanding as you read through each chapter, or practise for your exam.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The prevalence of Type II diabetes:

    • A.

      Is higher in rural environments

    • B.

      Is unclear as there may be many individuals with the disease undiagnosed

    • C.

      Is particularly low in many cultural groups such as people from Nauru and Australian Aboriginal groups

    • D.

      Is unrelated to intrauterine growth retardation

    • E.

      Is lower in countries which have undertaken rapid socio-cultural change

    Correct Answer
    B. Is unclear as there may be many individuals with the disease undiagnosed
    Explanation
    The prevalence of Type II diabetes is unclear because there may be many individuals with the disease who have not been diagnosed. This means that the actual number of people with Type II diabetes could be higher than what is currently reported.

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  • 2. 

    The most distinguishing features of Type I versus Type II diabetes are usually:

    • A.

      Rate of onset, degree of insulin secretion

    • B.

      Lower desirable blood glucose levels, dietary treatment

    • C.

      Types of insulin required, risk of complications

    • D.

      A and b

    • E.

      A, b and c

    Correct Answer
    A. Rate of onset, degree of insulin secretion
    Explanation
    Type I and Type II diabetes differ in terms of their rate of onset and degree of insulin secretion. Type I diabetes has a rapid onset, often occurring in childhood or adolescence, while Type II diabetes develops gradually and is more common in adults. In Type I diabetes, there is a complete lack of insulin secretion by the pancreas, whereas in Type II diabetes, there is either insufficient insulin production or the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin. Therefore, the correct answer is "Rate of onset, degree of insulin secretion."

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  • 3. 

    Common signs of poorly controlled blood sugar levels include:

    • A.

      Thirst

    • B.

      Polyuria

    • C.

      Lethargy

    • D.

      Dehydration

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above" because all the listed signs - thirst, polyuria (excessive urination), lethargy, and dehydration - are commonly associated with poorly controlled blood sugar levels. Thirst and polyuria occur as the body tries to eliminate excess sugar through urine, while lethargy and dehydration result from the body's inability to effectively use glucose for energy. Therefore, experiencing all these signs together indicates that blood sugar levels are not well managed.

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  • 4. 

    According to 1998 criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes proposed by The American Diabetes Association and WHO, an individual whose fasting venous plasma glucose was 9mmol/L, 2 hours after receiving a 75g glucose load, would be classified as:

    • A.

      Having impaired glucose tolerance

    • B.

      Not having diabetes

    • C.

      Having diabetes

    • D.

      Having impaired fasting glycaemia

    • E.

      Requiring an oral glucose tolerance test

    Correct Answer
    C. Having diabetes
    Explanation
    According to the 1998 criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes proposed by The American Diabetes Association and WHO, an individual whose fasting venous plasma glucose was 9mmol/L, 2 hours after receiving a 75g glucose load, would be classified as having diabetes. This is because a fasting venous plasma glucose level of 9mmol/L indicates elevated blood sugar levels, which is a characteristic of diabetes. Additionally, the 2-hour glucose load test further confirms the diagnosis of diabetes.

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  • 5. 

    ___________________ appears to predict the subsequent development of clinical nephropathy and coronary heart disease in individuals with diabetes:

    • A.

      Elevated serum cholesterol levels

    • B.

      Elevated serum triglyceride levels

    • C.

      Small amounts of butyric acid in the urine

    • D.

      Small amounts of albumin in the urine

    • E.

      Large amounts of alcohol in the diet

    Correct Answer
    D. Small amounts of albumin in the urine
    Explanation
    Small amounts of albumin in the urine, known as microalbuminuria, is an early sign of kidney damage in individuals with diabetes. It indicates that the kidneys are not functioning properly and are allowing albumin, a protein, to leak into the urine. This is a predictor for the subsequent development of clinical nephropathy, which is kidney disease, and coronary heart disease in individuals with diabetes. Therefore, monitoring urine albumin levels is important in identifying individuals at risk for these complications and taking appropriate measures to prevent further damage.

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  • 6. 

    The main feature of a diet for the treatment of Type II diabetes is:

    • A.

      Control of overall nutrient composition and distribution of carbohydrate over the day

    • B.

      Avoidance of all sugar and sugar containing foods

    • C.

      Avoidance of fat, particularly saturated

    • D.

      Inclusion of high glycemic index foods at each meal

    • E.

      A low carbohydrate intake providing 30-40% of total energy

    Correct Answer
    A. Control of overall nutrient composition and distribution of carbohydrate over the day
    Explanation
    The main feature of a diet for the treatment of Type II diabetes is to control the overall nutrient composition and distribution of carbohydrate over the day. This means carefully managing the types and amounts of carbohydrates consumed throughout the day to help regulate blood sugar levels. This approach helps to prevent spikes in blood sugar and promotes better glycemic control, which is crucial for managing diabetes. Additionally, it is important to note that the other options mentioned, such as avoiding all sugar and sugar-containing foods or avoiding fat, particularly saturated fat, are not the main focus of a diabetes diet.

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  • 7. 

    Fred, a male of European descent, is diagnosed with metabolic syndrome after a visit to his GP. This is because he presented with:

    • A.

      A waist measurement of 95cm; a fasting BGL of 7mmol; a blood pressure of 130/97

    • B.

      A waist measurement of 94cm; a triglyceride level of 1.5mmol/L; and a blood pressure of 130/85

    • C.

      A waist measurement of 89cm; a fasting BGL of 6 mmol; and a triglyceride level of 2 mmol/L

    • D.

      A waist measurement of 89cm; a triglyceride level of 2 mmol/L; and a blood pressure of 130/85

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. A waist measurement of 95cm; a fasting BGL of 7mmol; a blood pressure of 130/97
    Explanation
    Fred is diagnosed with metabolic syndrome because he presents with a waist measurement of 95cm, which exceeds the cutoff point for abdominal obesity. Additionally, his fasting blood glucose level of 7mmol and blood pressure of 130/97 also meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Both high blood glucose levels and elevated blood pressure are common features of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, this combination of measurements indicates that Fred has metabolic syndrome.

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  • 8. 

    The indicator of good long term blood glucose control is:

    • A.

      LDL-cholesterol

    • B.

      HDL-cholesterol

    • C.

      Lycosylated haemoglobin

    • D.

      Plasma glucose

    • E.

      Red blood cell count

    Correct Answer
    C. Lycosylated haemoglobin
    Explanation
    The indicator of good long term blood glucose control is lycosylated haemoglobin. Lycosylated haemoglobin, also known as HbA1c, is a form of hemoglobin that is bound to glucose. It provides an average measure of blood glucose levels over the past 2-3 months. A higher level of lycosylated haemoglobin indicates poor blood glucose control, while a lower level indicates good control. Therefore, monitoring lycosylated haemoglobin levels is important in assessing long term blood glucose control in individuals with diabetes.

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  • 9. 

    The effects of sucrose in the diabetic diet are much more pronounced if:(nb: P/S = polyunsaturated fat / saturated fat)

    • A.

      Energy intake is excessive and / or P/S ratio is high

    • B.

      Energy intake is excessive and / or P/S ratio is low

    • C.

      Energy intake is low and / or P/S ratio is high

    • D.

      Energy intake is low and / or P/S ratio is low

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Energy intake is excessive and / or P/S ratio is low
    Explanation
    When energy intake is excessive, it means that the person is consuming more calories than their body needs. This can lead to weight gain and increased blood sugar levels, which can worsen the effects of sucrose in the diabetic diet. Additionally, a low P/S ratio indicates a higher intake of saturated fats, which can also contribute to insulin resistance and poor blood sugar control in individuals with diabetes. Therefore, when energy intake is excessive and the P/S ratio is low, the effects of sucrose in the diabetic diet are much more pronounced.

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  • 10. 

    There is concern about the strong reliance on the use of Glycemic Index in the management of diabetes because of:

    • A.

      Large individual variation in responses

    • B.

      Different results being found among different centres

    • C.

      Differences due to mixed meals

    • D.

      A and b

    • E.

      A, b and c

    Correct Answer
    E. A, b and c
    Explanation
    The strong reliance on the use of Glycemic Index in the management of diabetes is concerning because there is a large individual variation in responses to different foods. Additionally, different results have been found among different centers, indicating inconsistencies in the application of the Glycemic Index. Furthermore, the differences due to mixed meals further complicate the use of Glycemic Index as a reliable tool in diabetes management. Overall, all three factors contribute to the concern about the strong reliance on the Glycemic Index in diabetes management.

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  • 11. 

    Type II diabetes is typically caused by:

    • A.

      Destruction of the β cells in the pancreas resulting in decreased or no insulin production

    • B.

      Obesity

    • C.

      Delayed insulin secretion

    • D.

      Insulin resistance

    • E.

      Soy

    Correct Answer
    D. Insulin resistance
    Explanation
    Insulin resistance is the most common cause of Type II diabetes. It occurs when the body's cells become resistant to the effects of insulin, leading to elevated blood sugar levels. This resistance can be caused by various factors, including obesity, physical inactivity, and genetic predisposition. As a result, the pancreas produces more insulin to compensate for the resistance, but eventually, it becomes unable to keep up with the demand, leading to high blood sugar levels and the development of Type II diabetes.

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  • Sep 01, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 22, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Allenandunwin
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