Final Exam For Justice Class

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Final Exam For Justice Class - Quiz

Final Exam for Justice class


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The professional courtroom actors, including judes, prosecuting attorneys, defense attorneys, public defenders, and others who earn a living serving the court

    • A.

      Prosecutor

    • B.

      Prodecutorial discretion

    • C.

      Courtroom work group

    • D.

      Judge

    Correct Answer
    C. Courtroom work group
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Courtroom work group." In a courtroom, there are various professionals such as judges, prosecuting attorneys, defense attorneys, public defenders, and others who work together as a team to ensure the smooth functioning of the court proceedings. They collaborate, interact, and make decisions collectively, forming a cohesive unit known as the courtroom work group. This group plays a vital role in the administration of justice and the fair resolution of cases.

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  • 2. 

    An elected or appointed public official who presides over a court of law and who is authorized to hear and sometimes to dto conduct decide cases and to conduct trials.

    • A.

      Prosecutor

    • B.

      Prosecutorial discretion

    • C.

      Judge

    • D.

      Baliff

    Correct Answer
    C. Judge
    Explanation
    A judge is an elected or appointed public official who presides over a court of law. They have the authority to hear and decide cases, as well as conduct trials.

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  • 3. 

    An attorney whose official duty is to conduct crimninal proceedings on behalf of the state or the people against those accused of having committed criminal offenses

    • A.

      Judge

    • B.

      Prosecutor

    • C.

      Bailiff

    • D.

      Expert witness

    Correct Answer
    B. Prosecutor
    Explanation
    A prosecutor is an attorney whose official duty is to conduct criminal proceedings on behalf of the state or the people against those accused of having committed criminal offenses. They represent the interests of the government and work to gather evidence, present it in court, and argue for the conviction of the accused. The prosecutor's role is to ensure that justice is served and that the guilty are held accountable for their actions.

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  • 4. 

    The decision making power of prosecutors, based on the wide range of choices avalible to them

    • A.

      Prosecutorial discretion

    • B.

      Exculpatory evidence

    • C.

      Defense attorney

    • D.

      Public defender

    Correct Answer
    B. Exculpatory evidence
    Explanation
    Exculpatory evidence refers to information or evidence that could potentially prove the innocence of a defendant in a criminal case. In the context of the given question, the decision-making power of prosecutors is influenced by the presence or absence of exculpatory evidence. If prosecutors possess exculpatory evidence, it may lead them to make different choices, such as dropping charges or offering a plea deal. On the other hand, if such evidence is not available or overlooked, prosecutors may proceed with the case and potentially secure a conviction. Therefore, the existence and consideration of exculpatory evidence significantly impact the decision-making process of prosecutors.

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  • 5. 

    Any information having a tendency to clear a person of guilt or blame

    • A.

      Prosecutorial discretion

    • B.

      Adversarial system

    • C.

      Change of venue

    • D.

      Expulpatory evidence

    Correct Answer
    D. Expulpatory evidence
    Explanation
    Expulpatory evidence refers to any information that has the potential to clear a person of guilt or blame. This evidence can be crucial in a legal setting as it may undermine the prosecution's case or support the defense's argument. It is the responsibility of both the prosecution and the defense to disclose any expulpatory evidence they possess to ensure a fair trial. This evidence can include witness statements, documents, or any other material that contradicts or casts doubt on the defendant's guilt. The presence of expulpatory evidence can significantly impact the outcome of a trial.

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  • 6. 

    What are the three major categoires of defense attorneys assist crimnial crimnal defendants in the U.S

    • A.

      1.) Lawers 2.) Jury 3.) Judge

    • B.

      1.) Private attorneys, court appointed consel and public defenders

    • C.

      1.) Privat attorneys, Jury, Public defenders

    Correct Answer
    B. 1.) Private attorneys, court appointed consel and public defenders
    Explanation
    Private attorneys, court-appointed counsel, and public defenders are the three major categories of defense attorneys that assist criminal defendants in the U.S. Private attorneys are hired by the defendant and work independently. Court-appointed counsel is provided to defendants who cannot afford private representation. Public defenders are attorneys employed by the government to represent defendants who cannot afford a private attorney and do not qualify for court-appointed counsel. These three categories ensure that defendants have access to legal representation regardless of their financial situation.

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  • 7. 

    An attorney employed by a government agency or subagency for the purpose of providing defense services to indigents, or an attorney who has volunteered such service

    • A.

      Public Defender

    • B.

      Baliff

    • C.

      Expert witness

    • D.

      Lay witness

    Correct Answer
    A. Public Defender
    Explanation
    A public defender is an attorney who is employed by a government agency or subagency to provide defense services to individuals who cannot afford to hire their own attorney. They are responsible for representing indigent clients in criminal cases. Public defenders may also be attorneys who have volunteered to provide such services. They play a crucial role in ensuring that everyone has access to legal representation, regardless of their financial situation.

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  • 8. 

    The court officer whose duties are to keep order in the courtroom, to secure witnesses, and to maintain physical cutody of the Jury

    • A.

      Judge

    • B.

      Prosecutor

    • C.

      Juror

    • D.

      Bailiff

    Correct Answer
    D. Bailiff
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Bailiff because a bailiff is a court officer responsible for maintaining order in the courtroom, ensuring the security of witnesses, and physically guarding the jury. The bailiff's primary role is to maintain decorum and security within the courtroom during legal proceedings. They assist the judge in ensuring that the trial proceeds smoothly and that all individuals present in the courtroom follow the rules and regulations.

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  • 9. 

    A person who has special knowlege and skills recogized by the court as relevant to the determination of guilt or innocence. May express opinions or draw conclusions in ther testimony

    • A.

      Subpoena

    • B.

      Lay Witness

    • C.

      Expert Witness

    • D.

      Bailiff

    Correct Answer
    C. Expert Witness
    Explanation
    An expert witness is someone who possesses specialized knowledge and skills that are recognized by the court as relevant to the determination of guilt or innocence. They are allowed to express their opinions and draw conclusions based on their expertise in their testimony. Unlike lay witnesses who can only provide factual observations, an expert witness can provide valuable insights and analysis that can assist the court in making informed decisions.

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  • 10. 

    An eyewitness, Character witness, or other person called on to tesify who is not considered an expert. Must only testify to facts only.

    • A.

      Bailiff

    • B.

      Expert Witness

    • C.

      Lay Witness

    • D.

      Juror

    Correct Answer
    C. Lay Witness
    Explanation
    A lay witness is someone who is not considered an expert and is called upon to testify in court. They are expected to testify only to facts that they have personally observed or experienced. Unlike an expert witness who provides specialized knowledge and opinions, a lay witness provides testimony based on their firsthand knowledge of the events in question. A lay witness's testimony is valuable in providing factual information to the court and helping the judge or jury reach a fair and informed decision.

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  • 11. 

    A written order issued by a judicial officer or grand jury requiring an individual to appear in court and to give testimony or to bring material to be used as evidence.

    • A.

      Lay witness

    • B.

      Change of venue

    • C.

      Rules of evidence

    • D.

      Subpoena

    Correct Answer
    D. Subpoena
    Explanation
    A subpoena is a written order issued by a judicial officer or grand jury that requires an individual to appear in court and provide testimony or bring material to be used as evidence. This legal document is used to compel witnesses to testify or produce evidence, ensuring their presence and cooperation in the legal proceedings.

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  • 12. 

    A member of a trial or grand dury who has been selected for jury duty and is required to serve as an arbiter of the facts in a court of law

    • A.

      Judge

    • B.

      Juror

    • C.

      Prosecutor

    • D.

      Baillif

    Correct Answer
    B. Juror
    Explanation
    A juror is a member of a trial or grand jury who is selected for jury duty and is required to serve as an arbiter of the facts in a court of law. They listen to the evidence presented by both the prosecution and defense, deliberate with other jurors, and ultimately make a decision on the guilt or innocence of the accused. The judge presides over the trial and ensures that the proceedings are conducted fairly and in accordance with the law. The prosecutor presents the case against the accused, and the bailiff is responsible for maintaining order in the courtroom.

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  • 13. 

    The movement of a trial or lawsuit from one jurisdiction to another or from one location to another within the same jurisdiction

    • A.

      Change of venue

    • B.

      Rules of evidence

    • C.

      Adversarial System

    • D.

      Jury Challenges

    Correct Answer
    A. Change of venue
    Explanation
    Change of venue refers to the process of moving a trial or lawsuit from one jurisdiction to another or from one location to another within the same jurisdiction. This may occur due to various reasons such as concerns over impartiality, convenience, or the need for a fair trial. By changing the venue, the court aims to ensure that the proceedings are conducted in a more suitable or unbiased environment.

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  • 14. 

    How many stages are there in a criminal trial

    • A.

      96

    • B.

      291

    • C.

      36

    • D.

      12

    Correct Answer
    B. 291
  • 15. 

    The court rules that govern the admissibility of evidence at criminal hearings and trials

    • A.

      Change of venue

    • B.

      Rules of evidence

    • C.

      Adversarial System

    • D.

      Jury Challenges

    Correct Answer
    B. Rules of evidence
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Rules of evidence." In criminal hearings and trials, the court follows specific rules regarding the admissibility of evidence. These rules determine what evidence can be presented and considered by the court. They ensure that only relevant and reliable evidence is admitted, while excluding any evidence that may be prejudicial or unreliable. These rules aim to maintain fairness and protect the rights of both the prosecution and the defense, ensuring that the evidence presented is trustworthy and supports a just outcome.

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  • 16. 

    The two sided structure under which American crimnal trial courts operate that pits the prosecution against the defense

    • A.

      Prosecutorial discretion

    • B.

      Adversarial System

    • C.

      Plea bargaining

    • D.

      Exculpatory evidence

    Correct Answer
    B. Adversarial System
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Adversarial System. The Adversarial System is a legal framework in which two opposing parties, the prosecution and the defense, present their arguments and evidence in front of a neutral judge or jury. This system ensures that both sides have an equal opportunity to present their case and challenge the evidence and arguments presented by the other side. It promotes fairness and allows for a thorough examination of the facts and legal issues involved in a criminal trial.

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  • 17. 

    What are the 3 types of jury challenges that are recognized in criminal courts

    • A.

      1.)Challenge to provide explanation 2.)challenge to ask questions 3.) challenge to testify

    • B.

      1) challegng to the array, 2.)challenge to plea, 3.) Peremtory challenges

    • C.

      1)peremtory challenges, Challenge to ask questions, challenge to plea

    • D.

      1.) challenge to the array, 2.)challenges for cause, and peremtory challenges,

    Correct Answer
    D. 1.) challenge to the array, 2.)challenges for cause, and peremtory challenges,
    Explanation
    The three types of jury challenges that are recognized in criminal courts are challenge to the array, challenges for cause, and peremptory challenges. A challenge to the array is made when there is a problem with the selection process or composition of the entire jury pool. Challenges for cause are made when a potential juror is believed to be biased or unable to be impartial. Peremptory challenges allow attorneys to dismiss potential jurors without providing a specific reason.

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  • 18. 

    The process wherby, according to law and precedent, members of a particular trial jury are chosen.

    • A.

      Jury selection

    • B.

      Jury Challenges

    • C.

      Scientific Jury selection

    • D.

      Subpoena

    Correct Answer
    A. Jury selection
    Explanation
    Jury selection refers to the process of choosing members for a trial jury based on legal requirements and previous court decisions. It involves the screening of potential jurors to ensure impartiality and fairness in the trial. This process is crucial in upholding the principles of justice and providing a diverse and representative jury for a fair trial. Jury selection may involve challenges from both the prosecution and defense, as well as the use of scientific methods to predict juror behavior and attitudes. Subpoenas may be issued to ensure the attendance of potential jurors for the selection process.

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  • 19. 

    The use of correlational techniques from the social sciences to guage the likelihood that potential juror will vote for conviciton or for acquittal

    • A.

      Jury Challenges

    • B.

      Jury Selection

    • C.

      Scientific Jury selection

    • D.

      Subpoena

    Correct Answer
    C. Scientific Jury selection
    Explanation
    Scientific jury selection refers to the use of correlational techniques from the social sciences to assess the probability that a potential juror will vote for conviction or acquittal. This process involves analyzing various factors such as demographics, attitudes, and beliefs to predict how a juror may lean in a trial. By utilizing scientific methods, attorneys can make more informed decisions during jury selection, aiming to select jurors who are more likely to be sympathetic to their client's case. This practice can potentially increase the chances of a favorable outcome for the party employing scientific jury selection.

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  • 20. 

    The initial statement of the prosecutuion or for the defense describing the facts that he or she intends to present during trial to prove the case

    • A.

      Arragnment

    • B.

      Plea Bargaining

    • C.

      Opening statement

    • D.

      Public defender

    Correct Answer
    C. Opening statement
    Explanation
    An opening statement is the initial statement made by the prosecution or defense in a trial. It is used to outline the facts and evidence that will be presented to prove their case. This statement is not an argument or a summary of the entire case, but rather a preview of what the jury can expect to hear during the trial. It is an opportunity for the attorney to set the stage, establish credibility, and create a favorable impression with the jury.

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  • 21. 

    Anything useful to a jude or jury in deciding the facts of a case. May take form of witness testimony, written documnets, videotapes, etc.

    • A.

      Evidence

    • B.

      Bail

    • C.

      Probative value

    • D.

      Appeal

    Correct Answer
    A. Evidence
    Explanation
    Evidence refers to anything that can be presented in a court of law to help the judge or jury make a decision about the facts of a case. This can include various forms of information such as witness testimony, written documents, videotapes, and more. Evidence is crucial in legal proceedings as it provides support for the arguments and claims made by both the prosecution and the defense. It allows the court to evaluate the credibility and reliability of the information presented and ultimately aids in determining the outcome of the case.

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  • 22. 

    The evidence that , if believed, directly proves a fact. Eye witness testimony and videtaped documentation account for the majority of this type of evidence.

    • A.

      Real evidence

    • B.

      Circumstantial Evidence

    • C.

      Direct Evidence

    Correct Answer
    C. Direct Evidence
    Explanation
    Direct evidence is the type of evidence that, if believed, directly proves a fact. It includes eye witness testimony and video documentation, which are considered reliable and trustworthy forms of evidence. Unlike circumstantial evidence, which relies on inference and interpretation, direct evidence provides clear and conclusive proof of a fact without the need for further inference. This makes direct evidence highly valuable in legal proceedings as it can directly establish the truth of a matter.

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  • 23. 

    The evidence that requires interpretation or that requires a judge or jury to reach a conclusion based on what the evidence indicates

    • A.

      Real Evidence

    • B.

      Circumstantial Evidence

    • C.

      Direct Evidence

    Correct Answer
    B. Circumstantial Evidence
    Explanation
    Circumstantial evidence is the correct answer because it refers to evidence that requires interpretation or inference to reach a conclusion. Unlike direct evidence, which directly proves a fact, circumstantial evidence relies on indirect facts or circumstances that can be used to draw conclusions. This type of evidence is often used in cases where there is no direct witness testimony or physical proof, and instead relies on logical deductions based on the available facts.

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  • 24. 

    Evidence that consists of physical material or traces of physical activity.

    • A.

      Real Evidence

    • B.

      Circumstantial Evidence

    • C.

      Direct Evidence

    Correct Answer
    A. Real Evidence
    Explanation
    Real evidence refers to evidence that consists of physical material or traces of physical activity. This can include objects, documents, fingerprints, DNA samples, or any other tangible evidence that can be presented in court. Real evidence is considered to be more reliable and persuasive than circumstantial or direct evidence, as it provides concrete proof of a fact or event. It can be examined, tested, and analyzed to determine its authenticity and relevance to a case. Real evidence often plays a crucial role in establishing the guilt or innocence of a defendant in a criminal trial.

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  • 25. 

    The oral evidence offered by a sworn witness on the witness stand during a criminal trial

    • A.

      Perjury

    • B.

      Testimony

    • C.

      Subpoena

    • D.

      Deterrence

    Correct Answer
    B. Testimony
    Explanation
    Testimony refers to the oral evidence given by a sworn witness during a criminal trial. It is the statement or declaration made by a witness under oath, providing factual information or personal observations related to the case. Testimony is an essential component of the legal process as it helps the judge and jury in determining the truth and making informed decisions. Perjury, on the other hand, refers to the act of deliberately lying or providing false information while under oath. Subpoena is a legal order requiring a person to appear in court or produce evidence. Deterrence refers to the discouragement of criminal behavior through the threat of punishment.

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  • 26. 

    The intential making of a false statement as part of the testimony by a sworn witness in a judical proceeding on a matter relevant to the case at hand

    • A.

      Testimony

    • B.

      Perjury

    • C.

      White collar crime

    • D.

      Capital offense

    Correct Answer
    B. Perjury
    Explanation
    Perjury refers to the deliberate act of a sworn witness providing false testimony during a judicial proceeding. This false statement is made intentionally and is relevant to the case being heard. Perjury is considered a serious offense as it undermines the integrity of the legal system and can lead to wrongful convictions or the obstruction of justice. It is typically associated with white collar crimes, which involve deceit, fraud, or dishonesty in a professional or business setting. Perjury is not considered a capital offense, which refers to crimes punishable by death.

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  • 27. 

    An oral summation of a case presented to a judge, or to a judge and jury, by the prosecution or by the defense in a criminal trial

    • A.

      Closing argument

    • B.

      Verdict

    • C.

      Perjury

    • D.

      Captial Offense

    Correct Answer
    A. Closing argument
    Explanation
    A closing argument is an oral summation of a case presented to a judge or a judge and jury in a criminal trial. It is the final opportunity for the prosecution or the defense to persuade the judge or jury to reach a favorable verdict. During the closing argument, the attorney summarizes the evidence, highlights key points, and presents a persuasive argument to support their side of the case. The purpose of the closing argument is to provide a compelling conclusion and leave a lasting impression on the judge or jury, influencing their decision-making process.

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  • 28. 

    The decision of the jury in a jury trial or of a judicial officer in a nonjury trial

    • A.

      Perjury

    • B.

      Captial Offense

    • C.

      Clsoing argument

    • D.

      Verdict

    Correct Answer
    D. Verdict
    Explanation
    A verdict refers to the decision made by the jury in a jury trial or by a judicial officer in a nonjury trial. It is the final outcome or judgment reached after considering all the evidence and arguments presented during the trial. The verdict determines whether the defendant is guilty or not guilty of the charges brought against them. It is a crucial part of the legal process as it ultimately decides the fate of the accused individual.

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