Criminal Justice Test

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Criminal Justice Test - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    An eye for an eye is an example of punishment based on

    • A.

      Retribution

    • B.

      Rehabilation

    • C.

      Incapacitation

    • D.

      Deterrence

    Correct Answer
    A. Retribution
    Explanation
    Retribution refers to punishment that is based on the principle of "an eye for an eye," where the offender receives a punishment that is proportionate to the harm they caused. This form of punishment seeks to provide a sense of justice and satisfy the victim or society's desire for revenge. It does not focus on rehabilitating the offender, preventing future crimes, or incapacitating them. Instead, retribution aims to balance the scales of justice by inflicting a punishment that is seen as fair and deserved.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following are most consistent with incapacitation

    • A.

      Drug treatment, indeterminate sentence and parole

    • B.

      Banishment, life in prison and the death penalty

    • C.

      Indefinite sentences, probation and parole

    • D.

      Indefinite sentences, indeterminate sentece and probation

    Correct Answer
    B. Banishment, life in prison and the death penalty
    Explanation
    The answer "banishment, life in prison and the death penalty" is most consistent with incapacitation because all three options involve removing individuals from society and preventing them from committing further crimes. Banishment involves physically removing individuals from a specific area or country, life in prison involves keeping individuals incarcerated for the rest of their lives, and the death penalty involves executing individuals for their crimes. These options aim to incapacitate offenders and protect society from their potential harm.

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  • 3. 

    The older theory of punishment is

    • A.

      Rehabilation

    • B.

      Deterrance

    • C.

      Incapaciation

    • D.

      Retribuation

    Correct Answer
    D. Retribuation
    Explanation
    Retribution refers to the idea that punishment should be inflicted on a wrongdoer as a form of revenge or payback for their actions. This theory of punishment focuses on the idea that individuals should be punished in proportion to the harm they have caused, regardless of any potential benefits or goals such as rehabilitation or deterrence. It is an older theory that emphasizes punishment as a means of satisfying society's need for justice and retribution.

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  • 4. 

    Incapacitation that focuses on offenders with a high risk of serious recidivism is termed ______ incapacitation

    • A.

      Focused

    • B.

      Special

    • C.

      Selective

    • D.

      Preferential

    Correct Answer
    C. Selective
    Explanation
    Selective incapacitation refers to a form of incapacitation that targets individuals who have a high likelihood of committing serious offenses again in the future. This approach aims to remove these high-risk offenders from society in order to prevent them from causing further harm. By focusing on the specific subset of individuals with a high risk of recidivism, selective incapacitation aims to maximize the effectiveness of incapacitation strategies and reduce the overall societal impact of crime.

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  • 5. 

    The concept of __________ dominated most thinking about sentencing for the most of twentieth century

    • A.

      Retribution

    • B.

      Rehabiliation

    • C.

      Incapacitation

    • D.

      Deterrence

    Correct Answer
    B. Rehabiliation
    Explanation
    The concept of rehabilitation dominated most thinking about sentencing for the most of twentieth century. This means that during this time period, the focus of the justice system was on reforming and rehabilitating offenders rather than simply punishing them. The goal was to provide offenders with the necessary tools and support to reintegrate into society as law-abiding citizens. This approach was based on the belief that individuals could change their behavior through rehabilitation programs and interventions.

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  • 6. 

    SInce the mid 1970s, the trend in sentencing has been to

    • A.

      Turn toward rehabiliation

    • B.

      Increased the use of indeterminate sentencing

    • C.

      Ignore incapacitation and deterrence

    • D.

      Decrese judicial and parole board discretion

    Correct Answer
    D. Decrese judicial and parole board discretion
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "decrease judicial and parole board discretion." This means that since the mid 1970s, there has been a trend to reduce the power and decision-making authority of judges and parole boards in determining sentences. This could be due to a shift in focus towards other goals of sentencing, such as rehabilitation, and a decrease in the emphasis on incapacitation and deterrence.

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  • 7. 

    A sentence of one to five years imprisonment is a __________ sentence

    • A.

      Determinate

    • B.

      Fixed

    • C.

      Indeterminate

    • D.

      Mandatory minimum

    Correct Answer
    C. Indeterminate
    Explanation
    An indeterminate sentence refers to a flexible period of imprisonment, where the exact duration is not specified. In this case, a sentence of one to five years imprisonment is considered indeterminate because the specific length of time within that range is not specified. This allows for the possibility of early release or parole based on factors such as good behavior or rehabilitation progress.

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  • 8. 

    A ____ or fixed sentence is a sentence of a specific number of years imprisonment

    • A.

      Determinate

    • B.

      Indeterminate

    • C.

      Indefinite

    • D.

      Definite

    Correct Answer
    A. Determinate
    Explanation
    A determinate or fixed sentence is a sentence of a specific number of years imprisonment. This means that the length of the sentence is predetermined and known in advance. It is different from an indeterminate sentence, where the length of imprisonment is not specified and can vary depending on factors such as good behavior or parole eligibility. In the context of the given question, the term "determinate" accurately describes a sentence with a specific duration.

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  • 9. 

    Wide sentencing discretion and makig the punihsment fit the criminal is most consistent with

    • A.

      General deterrance

    • B.

      Rehabilitation

    • C.

      Retribution

    • D.

      Just deserts

    Correct Answer
    B. Rehabilitation
    Explanation
    Wide sentencing discretion and making the punishment fit the criminal is most consistent with rehabilitation. This approach focuses on reforming the offender and helping them reintegrate into society rather than solely punishing them for their actions. By allowing judges to have flexibility in sentencing, they can tailor the punishment to address the specific needs and circumstances of the individual, with the aim of reducing the likelihood of reoffending. This approach recognizes that individuals can change and seeks to provide them with the necessary support and resources to rehabilitate and lead a law-abiding life.

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  • 10. 

    The _______ amendment bans cruel and unusual punishments

    • A.

      Fifth

    • B.

      Sixth

    • C.

      Eighth

    • D.

      Ninth

    Correct Answer
    C. Eighth
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the eighth amendment. The eighth amendment of the United States Constitution prohibits the imposition of cruel and unusual punishments. This amendment ensures that individuals are protected from excessive fines, bail, and cruel or degrading treatment by the government. It is an important safeguard of civil liberties and helps to ensure that punishments are proportionate and humane.

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  • 11. 

    Beginning around 1975, trends in prison populations showed

    • A.

      Slight decreases

    • B.

      Slight increases

    • C.

      Marked decreases

    • D.

      Marked increases

    Correct Answer
    A. Slight decreases
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "slight decreases." This is because the sentence states that the trends in prison populations began around 1975, indicating a starting point for the analysis. The word "slight" suggests that the decreases were not significant or drastic. Therefore, it can be inferred that there were small decreases in prison populations during this period.

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  • 12. 

    Traditionally in the U.S., the primary alternative to prison was

    • A.

      Parole

    • B.

      Banishment

    • C.

      Intermediate

    • D.

      Probation

    Correct Answer
    D. Probation
    Explanation
    Probation is the correct answer because it is a commonly used alternative to prison in the U.S. Probation allows individuals who have been convicted of a crime to serve their sentence in the community under supervision, rather than being incarcerated. It provides an opportunity for rehabilitation and reintegration into society while still holding individuals accountable for their actions. Parole, on the other hand, is a conditional release from prison before the completion of the full sentence. Banishment and intermediate are not commonly used alternatives to prison in the U.S.

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  • 13. 

    Symbolic restitution usually involves some form of

    • A.

      Community service

    • B.

      Direct pyment to victim

    • C.

      A fine

    • D.

      House arrest

    Correct Answer
    A. Community service
    Explanation
    Symbolic restitution refers to the act of compensating for a wrongdoing or harm caused to the community or an individual. Community service is a common form of symbolic restitution where the offender is required to perform unpaid work for the benefit of the community. This serves as a way for the offender to make amends, contribute positively, and learn from their actions. It also helps in promoting accountability, rehabilitation, and restoring trust within the community. Therefore, community service is a suitable option for symbolic restitution.

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  • 14. 

    In many jurisdiction with indeterminate sentencing, the earliest the convict can be paroled is typically when time served plus ____ equals the minium sentence

    • A.

      Merit credits

    • B.

      Positive days

    • C.

      Rehabiliation credits

    • D.

      Good time

    Correct Answer
    D. Good time
    Explanation
    In many jurisdictions with indeterminate sentencing, the earliest a convict can be paroled is typically when time served plus "good time" equals the minimum sentence. Good time refers to the reduction in sentence that a convict can earn for demonstrating good behavior and participating in rehabilitation programs while in prison. This reduction allows them to be eligible for parole earlier than their original minimum sentence.

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  • 15. 

    Fines are most consistent with the punihsment theory of

    • A.

      Retribution

    • B.

      Rehabilitation

    • C.

      Deterrence

    • D.

      Incapacitation

    Correct Answer
    A. Retribution
    Explanation
    Retribution is the theory of punishment that focuses on the idea of "an eye for an eye." It argues that offenders should be punished in proportion to the harm they have caused, in order to restore the moral balance and satisfy the sense of justice in society. Fines can be seen as a form of retribution because they require the offender to pay a monetary penalty as a consequence for their actions. This punishment aims to make the offender suffer in a similar way to the harm they have caused, providing a sense of retribution for the victim and society.

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  • 16. 

    Evidence shows that the success at rehabilitation centers on what

    • A.

      The quality, including the funding, of the rehabilitation program

    • B.

      That the program forces inmates tochange their behavior by participating job training, counseling, and other reentry programs

    • C.

      The desire of the inmate to change behavior

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. The desire of the inmate to change behavior
    Explanation
    The given correct answer states that the success at rehabilitation centers depends on the desire of the inmate to change their behavior. This implies that without the genuine willingness and motivation of the inmate to make a positive change in their behavior, the effectiveness of the rehabilitation program may be limited. The quality and funding of the program, as well as the participation in job training, counseling, and other reentry programs, are important factors, but ultimately, the desire to change is crucial for successful rehabilitation.

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  • 17. 

    Sentences of flogging, branding, or chopping off a hand are no long permitted in the United States. Why?

    • A.

      Because states have prohibited these kinds of punishment

    • B.

      Because of the Eighth Amendments ban on cruel and unusual punishment

    • C.

      Because of activism of human rights

    • D.

      Floggin is still permitted in some U.S. jurisdiction

    Correct Answer
    B. Because of the Eighth Amendments ban on cruel and unusual punishment
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Because of the Eighth Amendment's ban on cruel and unusual punishment." The Eighth Amendment of the United States Constitution prohibits the use of cruel and unusual punishment. This means that sentences such as flogging, branding, or chopping off a hand are considered unconstitutional and are no longer permitted in the United States. The Eighth Amendment helps to protect individuals from excessive or inhumane punishments, ensuring that the punishment fits the crime.

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  • 18. 

    Most prisoners on death row have atleast one prior felong conviction

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that the majority of prisoners on death row have been convicted of at least one felony before their current conviction. This implies that these individuals have a history of criminal behavior, which may have contributed to their sentencing on death row. The answer "true" aligns with this understanding, indicating that the statement is accurate.

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  • 19. 

    Retribution focuses on the crime committed, not on the defendant

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
  • 20. 

    The executive branch of government becomes involved in punishment by way of pardons and parole

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The executive branch of government has the power to grant pardons and parole, which are forms of punishment. Pardons involve forgiving a person for their crime and typically result in the person's release from prison. Parole, on the other hand, allows a person to be released from prison before completing their full sentence, but under certain conditions and supervision. Both pardons and parole involve the executive branch's involvement in punishment, making the statement true.

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  • 21. 

    The second amendment prohibits cruel and unusual punishment

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The second amendment does not prohibit cruel and unusual punishment. The second amendment of the United States Constitution actually guarantees the right to bear arms. The prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment is found in the Eighth Amendment, not the Second Amendment. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 22. 

    An indeterminate sentence can also be called a indefinite sentence because it represents a range based on whether or not treatment is successful

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    An indeterminate sentence is a type of sentence that does not have a fixed duration and can vary based on certain conditions, such as the success of treatment. It represents a range of time that a person may serve in prison, and the actual length of the sentence is determined by factors like rehabilitation progress. Therefore, it can also be referred to as an indefinite sentence, as it is not specifically defined or predetermined.

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  • 23. 

    Restitution is infrequently ordered in federal court because most defendants do not have the ability to pay

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Restitution is infrequently ordered in federal court because most defendants do not have the ability to pay. This statement is false because restitution is actually commonly ordered in federal court. Restitution is a form of compensation that requires defendants to pay back the victims for any financial losses they have suffered as a result of the defendant's actions. While it is true that some defendants may not have the ability to pay, the court still has the authority to order restitution and may explore other means of collecting the owed amount, such as wage garnishment or asset seizure.

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  • 24. 

    Courtroom work groups use ____ penalties in seeking individual sentences

    • A.

      Usual crime

    • B.

      Normal

    • C.

      Going rate

    • D.

      Typical sanction

    Correct Answer
    B. Normal
    Explanation
    In a courtroom, work groups, including judges, prosecutors, and defense attorneys, often use "normal" penalties when seeking individual sentences. This suggests that they rely on established sentencing guidelines or precedents that are typically applied in similar cases. These guidelines help ensure consistency and fairness in the sentencing process. By using "normal" penalties, the work groups aim to maintain a sense of uniformity in the criminal justice system.

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  • 25. 

    The most important factor in setting normal penalties in the

    • A.

      Seriousness of the offense

    • B.

      Prior record of the offender

    • C.

      Persuasiveness of the prosecutor

    • D.

      Skill of the defense attorney

    Correct Answer
    A. Seriousness of the offense
    Explanation
    The seriousness of the offense is the most important factor in setting normal penalties because it determines the level of harm caused and the potential danger posed by the offender. The severity of the offense helps in determining the appropriate punishment that would serve as a deterrent and ensure justice is served. The seriousness of the offense also takes into account any aggravating factors that may have been involved, such as premeditation or use of a weapon. Overall, the seriousness of the offense is a crucial factor in determining the appropriate penalties to ensure fairness and public safety.

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  • 26. 

    Factors such as age, mental capacity, and social stability may have an influece on sentencing and are called ____

    • A.

      Mitigating factors

    • B.

      Positive and negative sanctions

    • C.

      Latent and patent considerations

    • D.

      Exacerbating and exculpatory factors

    Correct Answer
    A. Mitigating factors
    Explanation
    Mitigating factors are aspects such as age, mental capacity, and social stability that can influence the severity of a sentence. These factors are taken into consideration by the court when determining the appropriate punishment for a crime. They are called mitigating factors because they can potentially lessen the culpability or blameworthiness of the offender, leading to a more lenient sentence.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following factors is least likely to deemed unlawfully discrimiatory in sentence decision

    • A.

      Employment history

    • B.

      Race

    • C.

      Ethnicity

    • D.

      Religion

    Correct Answer
    A. Employment history
    Explanation
    Employment history is least likely to be deemed unlawfully discriminatory in sentence decision because it is a relevant factor that can be legally considered when making decisions related to employment. Employers often take into account an individual's past work experience, skills, and qualifications when making hiring or promotion decisions. As long as the employment history is used in a fair and non-discriminatory manner, it is unlikely to be deemed unlawful. On the other hand, race, ethnicity, and religion are protected characteristics under anti-discrimination laws and using them as factors in sentence decision would be considered unlawful discrimination.

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  • 28. 

    Beginning in the 1960s and 1970s, both liberal and conservatives began calling for ____ in sentencing.

    • A.

      A more emphasis on rehabilitation

    • B.

      More punishment for drug dealers

    • C.

      Decreasing judical discretion

    • D.

      Decreasing use of mandatory minimums

    Correct Answer
    C. Decreasing judical discretion
    Explanation
    In the 1960s and 1970s, both liberals and conservatives started advocating for decreasing judicial discretion in sentencing. This means that they wanted to limit the power of judges to make decisions based on their own judgment and instead have more standardized and consistent sentencing guidelines. This was seen as a way to ensure fairness and reduce potential bias in the criminal justice system. By reducing judicial discretion, it was believed that sentences would become more predictable and consistent across different cases.

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  • 29. 

    In most indeterminate sentencing schemes, the convict is leased from prison

    • A.

      Only after serving the full sentence

    • B.

      When the trial judge feels the convict can safety be released

    • C.

      When the parole board grants parole

    • D.

      Only after serving 2/3 of the maximum setence

    Correct Answer
    C. When the parole board grants parole
    Explanation
    In most indeterminate sentencing schemes, the decision to release a convict from prison is based on the parole board granting parole. This means that the convict is not automatically released after serving the full sentence or when the trial judge feels they can safely be released. Instead, the parole board evaluates the convict's behavior, progress, and potential risk to society before making a decision on whether to grant parole. This allows for a more individualized approach to determining when a convict is ready to reenter society.

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  • 30. 

    Federal court sentence guidelines are

    • A.

      Popular with taxpayers because they reduce federal prison populations

    • B.

      Popular among federal judges because it mkes diffclt decisions easier

    • C.

      Critized for allowing too much discretion and too much leniency

    • D.

      Critzed as too harsh, unfair, rigid, and complex

    Correct Answer
    D. Critzed as too harsh, unfair, rigid, and complex
    Explanation
    The given answer states that federal court sentence guidelines are criticized as being too harsh, unfair, rigid, and complex. This implies that there are individuals or groups who believe that these guidelines result in sentences that are excessively severe, unjust, inflexible, and difficult to understand. These criticisms suggest that there may be concerns about the fairness and effectiveness of the guidelines in achieving their intended purpose.

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  • 31. 

    A sentence for a specific term of year that is within the legislative minimum and maximum is a _____ sentence

    • A.

      Determinate

    • B.

      Indeterminate

    • C.

      Mandatory minimum

    • D.

      Empirical

    Correct Answer
    A. Determinate
    Explanation
    A sentence for a specific term of year that is within the legislative minimum and maximum is called a determinate sentence. This means that the length of the sentence is predetermined and fixed, providing a clear and specific timeframe for the individual's incarceration. Unlike indeterminate sentences, which have a range of possible release dates, determinate sentences have a definite duration. The term is derived from "determinate sentencing," a system in which the judge imposes a fixed sentence based on the specific offense committed.

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  • 32. 

    The rape and murder of seven year old _______ helped the drive for sex offender registration laws

    • A.

      Polly Klaas

    • B.

      Aimee Willard

    • C.

      Megan Kanka

    • D.

      Tracy Stemmons

    Correct Answer
    C. Megan Kanka
    Explanation
    The rape and murder of seven-year-old Megan Kanka played a significant role in the push for sex offender registration laws. This tragic event brought attention to the need for communities to be aware of convicted sex offenders living in their neighborhoods. Megan's case highlighted the importance of providing information to parents and communities to help protect children from potential harm. As a result, Megan's Law was enacted, requiring sex offenders to register their addresses with local law enforcement and making this information available to the public.

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  • 33. 

    Which of the following is not a consequence of tougher sentecing laws?

    • A.

      Fewer plea bargains

    • B.

      More trials

    • C.

      Increasing prison population

    • D.

      Lower taxes

    Correct Answer
    D. Lower taxes
    Explanation
    Tougher sentencing laws typically lead to fewer plea bargains, more trials, and an increasing prison population. However, it does not directly result in lower taxes. This is because the cost of maintaining a larger prison population and conducting more trials can often outweigh any potential savings in the long run. Therefore, lower taxes cannot be considered a consequence of tougher sentencing laws.

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  • 34. 

    The murder ofyoung __________ spurred California to pass its three strikes law

    • A.

      Polly Klaas

    • B.

      Aimee Willard

    • C.

      Megan Kanka

    • D.

      Tracy Stemmonds

    Correct Answer
    A. Polly Klaas
    Explanation
    The murder of Polly Klaas spurred California to pass its three strikes law. This high-profile case involved the abduction and murder of a young girl, which had a significant impact on public perception and the urgency to address violent crimes. The tragedy of Polly Klaas's murder was a catalyst for the implementation of stricter sentencing laws, such as the three strikes law, aimed at preventing repeat offenders and protecting the community from further harm.

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  • 35. 

    Offical discretion can sometimes be nullify or compensate for serve punishment laws

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Official discretion refers to the authority of government officials to make decisions based on their judgment and without being bound by strict rules or laws. In some cases, officials may choose to nullify or compensate for severe punishment laws if they believe it is necessary or appropriate. This means that official discretion can indeed override or mitigate the application of strict punishment laws. Therefore, the statement "Offical discretion can sometimes nullify or compensate for severe punishment laws" is true.

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  • 36. 

    The most important facto in setting normal penalties is the defendants family situaton

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is false. The most important factor in setting normal penalties is not the defendant's family situation. There are several factors that are considered in setting penalties, such as the severity of the crime committed, the defendant's criminal history, the impact of the crime on the victim and society, and the need for deterrence and rehabilitation. While the defendant's family situation may be taken into account as a mitigating factor, it is not the most important factor in determining penalties.

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  • 37. 

    Sentencing inconsistencies based on extralegal or unlaful is termed sentence disparity

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
  • 38. 

    Three strikes laws were invalidated by the U.S Supreme Court in 2002 in Ewing v. California

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false. Three strikes laws were not invalidated by the U.S Supreme Court in 2002 in Ewing v. California. In fact, in that case, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of California's three strikes law, which imposes longer sentences for repeat offenders.

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  • 39. 

    A judge generally follow the recomendation for the sentencing set out in the PSI

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Judges generally follow the recommendations for sentencing set out in the PSI (Pre-Sentence Investigation). The PSI is a report prepared by probation officers that provides information about the defendant's background, criminal history, and the circumstances surrounding the offense. It also includes recommendations for an appropriate sentence based on the severity of the crime and the defendant's risk of reoffending. While judges have discretion in sentencing, they often rely on the information and recommendations provided in the PSI to make informed decisions. Therefore, it is generally true that judges follow the recommendations outlined in the PSI.

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