Exercise Physiology Practice Paper

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Exercise Physiology Practice Paper - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    An articulation is otherwise known as what?

    • A.

      Joint

    • B.

      Protein

    • C.

      A contraction

    • D.

      A chemical messenger

    Correct Answer
    A. Joint
    Explanation
    An articulation refers to a joint in the body where two or more bones come together. It allows movement and flexibility in the skeletal system. The term "joint" accurately describes this anatomical structure and is commonly used in medical and anatomical contexts.

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  • 2. 

    The growth plate of a long bone is found in the ...

    • A.

      Epiphysis

    • B.

      Diaphysis

    • C.

      Metaphysis

    • D.

      Periosteum

    Correct Answer
    A. Epiphysis
    Explanation
    The growth plate of a long bone is found in the epiphysis. The epiphysis is the rounded end of a long bone, which is separated from the shaft (diaphysis) by the growth plate. The growth plate, also known as the epiphyseal plate, is a layer of cartilage that allows the bone to grow in length during childhood and adolescence. It is located in the epiphysis and is responsible for the longitudinal growth of the bone. The diaphysis is the main shaft of the bone, while the metaphysis is the region between the growth plate and the diaphysis. The periosteum is a connective tissue that covers the outer surface of the bone.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is a short bone?

    • A.

      Metatarsal

    • B.

      Scapula

    • C.

      Clavicle

    • D.

      Vertebrae

    Correct Answer
    A. Metatarsal
    Explanation
    A short bone refers to a bone that is roughly cube-shaped and provides stability and support to the body. The metatarsal is a type of short bone found in the foot, specifically in the midfoot region. It is one of the five long bones in the foot, connecting the tarsal bones to the phalanges. The scapula, clavicle, and vertebrae are not short bones, as they have different shapes and functions in the body.

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  • 4. 

    This structure is otherwise known as the power house of cells

    • A.

      Nucleus

    • B.

      Mitochondria

    • C.

      Lyosomes

    • D.

      Golgi complex

    Correct Answer
    B. Mitochondria
    Explanation
    Mitochondria are often referred to as the powerhouses of cells because they are responsible for producing energy in the form of ATP through cellular respiration. They have their own DNA and are capable of self-replication, which suggests that they were once independent organisms that formed a symbiotic relationship with eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria have a highly folded inner membrane that increases their surface area, allowing for more ATP production. This energy is essential for various cellular processes, making mitochondria crucial for the overall functioning and survival of cells.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following cell organelles are responsible for aerobic ATP production?

    • A.

      Ribosomes

    • B.

      Nucleus

    • C.

      Mitochondria

    • D.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    Correct Answer
    C. Mitochondria
    Explanation
    Mitochondria are responsible for aerobic ATP production. They are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell because they generate energy in the form of ATP through a process called cellular respiration. This process takes place in the inner membrane of the mitochondria, where glucose and oxygen are broken down to produce ATP. Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis, the nucleus contains genetic material, and the endoplasmic reticulum is involved in protein synthesis and lipid metabolism. Therefore, none of these organelles are directly responsible for aerobic ATP production.

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  • 6. 

     Which of the following is responsible for allowing transportation between intra and extracellular fluids?

    • A.

      T-tubule

    • B.

      Sarcoplasmic reticulum

    • C.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • D.

      Plasma membrane

    Correct Answer
    D. Plasma membrane
    Explanation
    The plasma membrane is responsible for allowing transportation between intra and extracellular fluids. It acts as a selectively permeable barrier, regulating the movement of substances in and out of the cell. It contains various channels, transporters, and pumps that facilitate the transport of ions, nutrients, and waste products. This allows for the exchange of molecules and ions between the intracellular and extracellular environments, maintaining homeostasis and enabling cellular functions.

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  • 7. 

    Ribosomes are responsible for which crucial role in the cell?

    • A.

      Fat metabolism

    • B.

      Packaging macromolecules

    • C.

      Protein synthesis

    • D.

      Calcium release

    Correct Answer
    C. Protein synthesis
    Explanation
    Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis in the cell. They are small organelles found in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes read the genetic information in mRNA and use it to assemble amino acids into proteins. This process is essential for the growth, repair, and functioning of cells. Without ribosomes, the cell would not be able to produce the necessary proteins needed for various cellular processes and functions. Therefore, protein synthesis is a crucial role of ribosomes in the cell.

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  • 8. 

    The conversion of glycogen to glucose is referred to as:

    • A.

      Glycolysis

    • B.

      Glycogenesis

    • C.

      Glycogenolysis

    • D.

      Gluconeogenesis

    Correct Answer
    C. Glycogenolysis
    Explanation
    Glycogenolysis is the correct answer because it refers to the process of breaking down glycogen into glucose molecules. This process occurs when the body needs glucose for energy, such as during periods of fasting or intense exercise. Glycolysis, on the other hand, is the breakdown of glucose molecules into pyruvate, while glycogenesis is the synthesis of glycogen from glucose molecules. Gluconeogenesis is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, such as amino acids or glycerol.

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  • 9. 

    High energy phosphate found in muscle cells:

    • A.

      Creosote

    • B.

      Creatine

    • C.

      Maltose

    • D.

      Clavicle

    Correct Answer
    B. Creatine
    Explanation
    Creatine is the correct answer because it is a high energy phosphate that is naturally found in muscle cells. It plays a crucial role in providing energy for muscle contractions during high-intensity exercise. Creatine is synthesized from amino acids in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas, and then transported to the muscles where it is stored as phosphocreatine. When energy is needed, phosphocreatine donates a phosphate group to ADP, regenerating ATP, the main energy currency of cells. This process allows for rapid and efficient energy production, making creatine an essential component for muscle function and performance.

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  • 10. 

    The energy system that supplies energy for 8-10 seconds  is referred to as

    • A.

      Aerobic glycolysis

    • B.

      ATP-PC

    • C.

      Anaerobic glycolysis

    • D.

      Krebs Cycle

    Correct Answer
    B. ATP-PC
    Explanation
    The correct answer is ATP-PC. ATP-PC stands for adenosine triphosphate-phosphocreatine system, which is a quick and immediate source of energy for short-duration, high-intensity activities lasting 8-10 seconds. This system provides energy by breaking down ATP and phosphocreatine stored in the muscles, allowing for rapid energy release.

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  • 11. 

    At low intensities lactic acid is converted back into ATP through which system:

    • A.

      The systemic circulation

    • B.

      The pulmonary circulation

    • C.

      The Cori Cycle

    • D.

      The Krebs cycle

    Correct Answer
    C. The Cori Cycle
    Explanation
    The Cori Cycle is the correct answer because it is the process by which lactic acid, produced during anaerobic metabolism in muscles, is converted back into ATP. In this cycle, lactic acid is transported to the liver, where it is converted into glucose through a series of chemical reactions. The glucose is then transported back to the muscles, where it can be used as a source of energy to produce ATP. This cycle allows for the recycling of lactic acid and helps to maintain energy production during low-intensity exercise.

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  • 12. 

    How many bones are found in the appendicular skeleton?

    • A.

      126

    • B.

      80

    • C.

      106

    • D.

      66

    Correct Answer
    A. 126
    Explanation
    The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the limbs, including the arms and legs, as well as the shoulder and pelvic girdles. The correct answer, 126, indicates that there are a total of 126 bones in the appendicular skeleton.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is NOT  within the appendicular skeleton?

    • A.

      Sternum

    • B.

      Humerus

    • C.

      Fibia

    • D.

      Ulnar

    Correct Answer
    A. Sternum
    Explanation
    The sternum is not within the appendicular skeleton. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones that make up the limbs and their attachments, such as the arms and legs. The sternum, on the other hand, is part of the axial skeleton, which includes the bones of the skull, spine, and rib cage.

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  • 14. 

    How many ATP can be produced from 1 glucose molecule through the electron transport chain?

    • A.

      22

    • B.

      4

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      36

    Correct Answer
    D. 36
    Explanation
    In cellular respiration, the electron transport chain is the final step in ATP production. During this process, electrons from glucose are transferred through a series of protein complexes, generating a proton gradient that drives ATP synthesis. Each NADH molecule produced during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle can generate 3 ATP, while each FADH2 molecule can generate 2 ATP. Since one glucose molecule produces 10 NADH and 2 FADH2 molecules, the total ATP production from the electron transport chain is 10 * 3 + 2 * 2 = 36 ATP.

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  • 15. 

    The growth plate of bone is replaced by ?

    • A.

      The epiphysis

    • B.

      The epiphyseal line

    • C.

      The mid line

    • D.

      The diaphysis

    Correct Answer
    B. The epiphyseal line
    Explanation
    The growth plate of bone, also known as the epiphyseal plate, is replaced by the epiphyseal line. The growth plate is a layer of cartilage located at the ends of long bones in children and adolescents. It is responsible for bone growth and lengthening. As an individual reaches adulthood, the growth plate ossifies and is replaced by the epiphyseal line, which is a thin line of bone. This indicates that the bone has stopped growing in length.

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  • 16. 

    During high intensity immediate all out events, which is the predominant energy system?

    • A.

      Aerobic energy system

    • B.

      ATP-PC

    • C.

      Aerobic glycolysis

    • D.

      ATP

    Correct Answer
    D. ATP
    Explanation
    During high intensity immediate all out events, the predominant energy system is ATP. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the primary source of energy for muscle contraction and is rapidly broken down to provide energy for short bursts of intense activity. The other energy systems mentioned, such as the aerobic energy system and aerobic glycolysis, are more suited for longer duration activities and do not provide energy as quickly as ATP.

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  • 17. 

    What is the structural classification of joints based on?

    • A.

      Joint cavity and type of connecting tissue

    • B.

      Muscle length

    • C.

      Type of activity

    • D.

      Type of bone

    Correct Answer
    A. Joint cavity and type of connecting tissue
    Explanation
    The structural classification of joints is based on the joint cavity and the type of connecting tissue present. This classification helps in understanding the different types of joints in the body and their specific functions. The joint cavity refers to the space between the articulating bones, and the type of connecting tissue refers to the specific tissues that hold the bones together and allow for movement. Understanding these factors helps in identifying the specific characteristics and functions of different joints in the body.

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  • 18. 

    The tubular shaft of a long bone is:

    • A.

      Epiphysis

    • B.

      Diaphysis

    • C.

      Metaphysis

    • D.

      Periosteum

    Correct Answer
    B. Diaphysis
    Explanation
    The tubular shaft of a long bone is called the diaphysis. This is the main part of the bone that provides support and strength. It is made up of compact bone tissue and contains the medullary cavity, which houses the bone marrow. The diaphysis plays a crucial role in weight-bearing and movement. The epiphysis refers to the ends of the long bone, while the metaphysis is the region between the diaphysis and epiphysis. The periosteum is a fibrous membrane that covers the outer surface of the bone.

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  • 19. 

     What is the purpose of the articular cartilage?

    • A.

      To bind bone to bone

    • B.

      To help shock absorb

    • C.

      To reduce friction between bones

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. To help shock absorb
    C. To reduce friction between bones
    Explanation
    The purpose of the articular cartilage is to help absorb shock and reduce friction between bones. It acts as a cushion between the bones, preventing them from rubbing against each other and causing damage. This cartilage also helps to distribute the forces and pressures that are applied to the joint during movement, thereby protecting the bones and allowing for smooth and pain-free motion.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is an irregular bone?

    • A.

      Ribs

    • B.

      Scapula

    • C.

      Clavicle

    • D.

      Vertebrae

    Correct Answer
    D. Vertebrae
    Explanation
    The vertebrae is an irregular bone because it does not have a consistent shape or pattern like other bones in the body. It is made up of several small bones stacked on top of each other, forming the spinal column. The irregular shape of the vertebrae allows for flexibility and movement, which is necessary for functions such as bending and twisting of the spine.

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  • 21. 

    This structure contains an inner complex featuring Cristae

    • A.

      Nucleus

    • B.

      Mitochondria

    • C.

      Lyosomes

    • D.

      Golgi complex/apparatus

    Correct Answer
    B. Mitochondria
    Explanation
    The correct answer is mitochondria. Mitochondria are organelles found in the cells of eukaryotes that are responsible for producing energy in the form of ATP through cellular respiration. They have a unique structure with an inner membrane that is highly folded into structures called cristae. These cristae provide a large surface area for chemical reactions to occur, allowing mitochondria to efficiently produce ATP.

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  • 22. 

    The lactic acid energy system is referred to as:

    • A.

      Aerobic glycolysis

    • B.

      ATP-PC System

    • C.

      Anaerobic glycolysis

    • D.

      Electron transport chain

    Correct Answer
    C. Anaerobic glycolysis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is anaerobic glycolysis. The lactic acid energy system is an anaerobic process that occurs when there is not enough oxygen available for aerobic energy production. During anaerobic glycolysis, glucose is broken down into pyruvate, which is then converted into lactic acid. This process allows for the production of ATP without the need for oxygen.

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  • 23. 

    During low intensity long duration events, which is the predominant energy system?

    • A.

      Anaerobic glycolysis

    • B.

      Lactic acid system

    • C.

      Aerobic system

    • D.

      ATP-PC System

    Correct Answer
    C. Aerobic system
    Explanation
    During low intensity long duration events, the predominant energy system is the aerobic system. This system utilizes oxygen to produce ATP, the main source of energy for the body. It is efficient in providing energy over extended periods of time and is primarily used during activities such as jogging, cycling, or long-distance swimming. The aerobic system relies on the oxidation of carbohydrates and fats to generate ATP, ensuring a sustained energy supply for the muscles.

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  • 24. 

    Which type of synovial joint is found at the knee?

    • A.

      Ball and socket

    • B.

      Pivot

    • C.

      Hinge

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Hinge
    Explanation
    A hinge joint is found at the knee. This type of synovial joint allows movement in only one plane, similar to a door hinge. The knee joint primarily allows flexion and extension, enabling the leg to bend and straighten. The other options, ball and socket and pivot joints, do not accurately describe the type of joint found at the knee.

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  • 25. 

    What action has occurred when bringing the body part closer to the midline?

    • A.

      Adduction

    • B.

      Rotation

    • C.

      Circumduction

    • D.

      Abduction

    Correct Answer
    A. Adduction
    Explanation
    Adduction is the action that occurs when bringing a body part closer to the midline. This movement involves the body part moving towards the center of the body. For example, when you bring your arm towards your body, you are performing adduction. This movement is the opposite of abduction, which is the action of moving a body part away from the midline.

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  • 26. 

    As a right handed golfer uses his/her right  foot to generate ground reaction forces during the impact phase of the swing, the following predominant movement will occur

    • A.

      Dorsiflexion

    • B.

      Inversion

    • C.

      Plantarflexion

    • D.

      Eversion

    Correct Answer
    C. Plantarflexion
    Explanation
    During the impact phase of a golf swing, a right-handed golfer uses their right foot to generate ground reaction forces. Plantarflexion refers to the movement of the foot where the toes are pointed downwards, and this movement is commonly observed during the golf swing. As the golfer shifts their weight and rotates their body, the right foot pushes off the ground, causing plantarflexion. This movement allows for a powerful transfer of energy from the ground to the golf club, resulting in an effective swing.

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  • 27. 

    As a right handed player turns his right wrist through and over the ball during the impact position, this represents the following movement:

    • A.

      Supination

    • B.

      Circumduction

    • C.

      Pronation

    • D.

      Protraction

    Correct Answer
    C. Pronation
    Explanation
    Pronation refers to the movement of the forearm where the palm is turned downwards or facing towards the ground. In the given scenario, a right-handed player is turning his right wrist through and over the ball during the impact position, which involves the turning of the palm downwards. This movement is consistent with pronation.

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  • 28. 

    If a golfer's head is too close to their chest at set-up position, this represents the following movement of the head:

    • A.

      Protraction

    • B.

      Depression

    • C.

      Elevation

    • D.

      Flexion

    Correct Answer
    B. Depression
    Explanation
    If a golfer's head is too close to their chest at set-up position, it represents depression of the head. Depression refers to the downward movement of a body part, in this case, the golfer's head moving downward towards the chest. This can affect the golfer's posture and alignment during the swing, potentially impacting their performance.

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