Exercise Physiology Practice Final

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Practice Final for exercise physiology


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Arteries in the coronary circulation originate 

    • A.

      In front of pulmonary semilunar valves

    • B.

      Behind aortic semilunar valves

    • C.

      In front of AV valves

    • D.

      Nove of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Behind aortic semilunar valves
    Explanation
    The arteries in the coronary circulation originate behind the aortic semilunar valves. This is because the coronary arteries branch off from the ascending aorta, which is located behind the aortic semilunar valves. This positioning allows for oxygenated blood to be pumped into the coronary arteries and subsequently supply the heart muscle with the necessary nutrients and oxygen for proper functioning.

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  • 2. 

    After leaving the myocardium, blood from the coronary circulation enters the coronary sinus

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    After the blood has passed through the myocardium, it enters the coronary sinus. The coronary sinus is a large vein located on the posterior side of the heart. It collects deoxygenated blood from the coronary circulation and drains it into the right atrium of the heart. This allows for the blood to be returned to the heart and then pumped to the lungs for oxygenation. Therefore, the statement that blood from the coronary circulation enters the coronary sinus is true.

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  • 3. 

    The pulmonary circuit

    • A.

      Pumps deoxygenated blood to the left side of the heart via pulmonary veins

    • B.

      Pumps oxygenated blood to the right side of the heart via systemic arteries

    • C.

      Pumps oxygenated blood to the left side of the heart via pulmonary veins

    • D.

      Pumps deoygenated blood to the right side of the heart via pulmonary arteries

    Correct Answer
    C. Pumps oxygenated blood to the left side of the heart via pulmonary veins
    Explanation
    The pulmonary circuit is responsible for carrying deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs, where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide. Once the blood is oxygenated, it returns to the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins. Therefore, the correct answer is that the pulmonary circuit pumps oxygenated blood to the left side of the heart via pulmonary veins.

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  • 4. 

    The systemic circulation begins at the left side of the heart

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The systemic circulation refers to the pathway of blood flow from the left side of the heart to the rest of the body and back to the right side of the heart. The left side of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out into the aorta, the largest artery in the body. From the aorta, the oxygenated blood is distributed to all the organs, tissues, and cells in the body through a network of smaller arteries, arterioles, and capillaries. Eventually, the deoxygenated blood returns to the right side of the heart through the veins to be pumped to the lungs for oxygenation again. Therefore, the statement that the systemic circulation begins at the left side of the heart is true.

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  • 5. 

    The myocardium receives blood from the arota

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    receives blood from the coronary arteries

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  • 6. 

    Cardiac muscle tissue is also known as endocardium

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    myocardium

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  • 7. 

    Function of this later of the heart serves as a lubricative outer covering

    • A.

      Myocardium

    • B.

      Pericardium

    • C.

      Endocardium

    • D.

      Epicardium

    Correct Answer
    D. Epicardium
    Explanation
    The epicardium is the outermost layer of the heart and serves as a lubricative outer covering. It helps protect the heart and provides a smooth surface for the heart to beat against. The epicardium also contains blood vessels and nerves that supply the heart muscle.

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  • 8. 

    The myocardium is mainly aerobic

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The myocardium refers to the muscular tissue of the heart. It is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. The myocardium requires a constant supply of oxygen to function properly. This is because the heart needs to generate a significant amount of energy to contract and pump blood effectively. Aerobic metabolism, which relies on oxygen, is the most efficient way for the myocardium to produce this energy. Therefore, it can be concluded that the myocardium is mainly aerobic.

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  • 9. 

    The energy for the myocardium is mainly carbohydrates

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Fatty acids

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  • 10. 

    An untrained individual may have 30 percent of cardiac injury from a myocardial infarction

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    60 percent

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  • 11. 

    The cardiac cycle has 2 phases

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    3 phases
    Ventricular Diastole
    Ventricular Systole
    Isovolumetric Relaxation

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  • 12. 

    Ventricular Systole is the first phase of the cardiac cycle

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement "Ventricular Systole is the first phase of the cardiac cycle" is incorrect. In the cardiac cycle, ventricular systole is the second phase, following the atrial systole. During ventricular systole, the ventricles contract, forcing blood out of the heart and into the arteries. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 13. 

    Ventricular diastole is when the ventricles are relaxed/relaxing

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Ventricular diastole refers to the phase of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are relaxed or relaxing. During this phase, the ventricles fill with blood from the atria. Therefore, the statement that ventricular diastole is when the ventricles are relaxed/relaxing is true.

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  • 14. 

    During isovolumetric contraction (check all that apply)

    • A.

      Ventricular pressure rises

    • B.

      AV valves open

    • C.

      Ventricular pressure drops

    • D.

      AV valves close

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Ventricular pressure rises
    D. AV valves close
    Explanation
    During isovolumetric contraction, the ventricles of the heart are contracting but there is no change in the volume of blood in the ventricles. As the ventricles contract, the pressure within them increases, leading to ventricular pressure rising. At the same time, the AV valves, which separate the atria from the ventricles, close to prevent the backflow of blood into the atria. Therefore, the correct answers are ventricular pressure rises and AV valves close.

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  • 15. 

    During isovolumetric relaxation

    • A.

      Ventricles relax

    • B.

      Ventricular pressure drops

    • C.

      Atria refills

    • D.

      Semilunar valves close

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Ventricles relax
    B. Ventricular pressure drops
    C. Atria refills
    D. Semilunar valves close
    Explanation
    During isovolumetric relaxation, the ventricles of the heart relax, which causes the ventricular pressure to drop. As a result, the atria are able to refill with blood. Additionally, the semilunar valves close during this phase. This prevents the backflow of blood from the arteries into the ventricles. Therefore, all of the given statements are correct.

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  • 16. 

    The atria contract during ventricular diastole

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    During ventricular diastole, the ventricles are relaxed and filling with blood. The atria, on the other hand, are in a state of contraction called atrial systole. This contraction helps to push the remaining blood from the atria into the ventricles, completing the filling process. Therefore, the statement that the atria contract during ventricular diastole is true.

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  • 17. 

    The atria relaxes during ventricular systole

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    During ventricular systole, the ventricles contract to pump blood out of the heart. In order for this to happen efficiently, the atria must relax to allow the blood to flow from the atria into the ventricles. This relaxation of the atria allows for proper filling of the ventricles before they contract. Therefore, the statement that the atria relaxes during ventricular systole is true.

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  • 18. 

    The ventricles contract ___ sec after the atria

    • A.

      .01

    • B.

      .2

    • C.

      .03

    • D.

      .1

    • E.

      .3

    Correct Answer
    D. .1
    Explanation
    The ventricles contract approximately 0.1 seconds after the atria. This delay allows for the atria to fully empty their blood into the ventricles before the ventricles contract, ensuring efficient blood flow and proper functioning of the heart.

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  • 19. 

    Resting systole of the ventricles is longer than diastole

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    resting systole is .3 sec while resting diastole is .5 sec

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  • 20. 

    Systole during heavy exercise is longer than diastole during heavy exericse

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    During heavy exercise, the heart needs to pump more blood to meet the increased demand for oxygen and nutrients in the muscles. This is achieved by increasing the duration of systole, which is the phase of the cardiac cycle when the heart contracts and pumps blood out of the chambers. By prolonging systole, the heart has more time to pump a larger volume of blood. On the other hand, diastole, the phase when the heart relaxes and fills with blood, is shorter during heavy exercise to allow for more frequent contractions and maintain a higher heart rate. Therefore, the statement that systole is longer than diastole during heavy exercise is true.

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  • 21. 

    The heart at rest beats at ____ bpm

    • A.

      70

    • B.

      75

    • C.

      50

    • D.

      65

    Correct Answer
    B. 75
    Explanation
    The heart at rest beats at 75 bpm. This is the normal resting heart rate for a healthy adult. The heart rate can vary depending on factors such as age, fitness level, and overall health. However, a resting heart rate of 75 bpm is considered within the normal range.

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  • 22. 

    During heavy exercise, the heart beats at ___ bpm

    • A.

      200

    • B.

      150

    • C.

      165

    • D.

      180

    Correct Answer
    D. 180
    Explanation
    During heavy exercise, the heart beats at 180 bpm. This is because during intense physical activity, the body requires more oxygen and nutrients to meet the increased demand. The heart pumps faster to deliver oxygen-rich blood to the muscles and organs, allowing them to function optimally. This increased heart rate helps to supply the necessary nutrients and remove waste products efficiently.

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  • 23. 

    What is considered normal blood presssure?

    • A.

      115/75 mmHg

    • B.

      140/90 mmHg

    • C.

      120/80 mmHg

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. 120/80 mmHg
    Explanation
    The normal blood pressure is considered to be 120/80 mmHg. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and consists of two numbers - the systolic pressure (top number) and the diastolic pressure (bottom number). A blood pressure reading of 120/80 mmHg indicates that the systolic pressure is 120 mmHg and the diastolic pressure is 80 mmHg. This is considered to be within the normal range and is a healthy blood pressure reading.

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  • 24. 

    Systolic pressure provides an indication of peripheral resistance

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Systolic pressure does not provide an indication of peripheral resistance. Systolic pressure refers to the maximum pressure in the arteries during a cardiac cycle, while peripheral resistance is the resistance to blood flow in the smaller arteries and arterioles. While systolic pressure can be influenced by factors such as cardiac output and arterial compliance, it does not directly indicate peripheral resistance. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 25. 

    Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Pulse pressure is defined as the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. Systolic pressure is the highest pressure in the arteries during a heartbeat, while diastolic pressure is the lowest pressure between heartbeats. The pulse pressure is important because it reflects the force exerted on the arterial walls when the heart contracts. A wider pulse pressure may indicate increased arterial stiffness or other cardiovascular conditions. Therefore, the statement that pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure is true.

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  • 26. 

    Which formula is correct in calculating the Mean Arterial Pressure

    • A.

      MAP = DBP +.33(DBP + SBP)

    • B.

      MAP = DBP + .33(SBP - DBP)

    • C.

      MAP = SBP +.33(DBP - SBP)

    • D.

      MAP = SBP - .33(DBP + SBP)

    Correct Answer
    B. MAP = DBP + .33(SBP - DBP)
    Explanation
    The correct formula for calculating Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) is MAP = DBP + .33(SBP - DBP). This formula takes into account both the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) readings. The difference between SBP and DBP represents the pulse pressure, and adding one-third of this pulse pressure to the DBP provides an estimation of the average pressure in the arteries over a cardiac cycle.

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  • 27. 

    Blood pressure above ____ is known as high blood pressure

    • A.

      140/80 mmHg

    • B.

      135/90 mmHg

    • C.

      120/80 mmHg

    • D.

      140/90 mmHg

    Correct Answer
    D. 140/90 mmHg
    Explanation
    Blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg is known as high blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and consists of two numbers: the top number represents systolic pressure (the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats) and the bottom number represents diastolic pressure (the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest). High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, can lead to serious health complications if left untreated.

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  • 28. 

    Hypertension can cause(check all that apply)

    • A.

      Right ventricular hypertrophy

    • B.

      Kidney damage

    • C.

      Stroke

    • D.

      Atherosclerosis

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Kidney damage
    C. Stroke
    D. Atherosclerosis
    Explanation
    Hypertension, or high blood pressure, can cause kidney damage, stroke, and atherosclerosis. When the blood pressure is consistently high, it puts strain on the blood vessels and organs, including the kidneys. Over time, this can lead to kidney damage and impair their ability to filter waste from the blood. Additionally, high blood pressure can cause damage to the blood vessels in the brain, increasing the risk of stroke. Atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by the buildup of plaque in the arteries, is also associated with hypertension and can further increase the risk of stroke and other cardiovascular complications.

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  • 29. 

    Cardiac output and total vascular resistance influence mean arterial pressure

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cardiac output refers to the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute, while total vascular resistance refers to the resistance encountered by blood flow in the blood vessels. Mean arterial pressure is the average pressure in the arteries during one cardiac cycle. Both cardiac output and total vascular resistance play a significant role in determining mean arterial pressure. An increase in cardiac output or a decrease in total vascular resistance will result in an increase in mean arterial pressure, while a decrease in cardiac output or an increase in total vascular resistance will lead to a decrease in mean arterial pressure. Therefore, it is true that cardiac output and total vascular resistance influence mean arterial pressure.

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  • 30. 

    An increase in blood pressure results in

    • A.

      A decrease in sympathetic nervous system activity

    • B.

      An increase in parasympathetic nervous system activity

    • C.

      A decrease in parasympathetic nervous system activity

    • D.

      No change at all

    Correct Answer
    A. A decrease in sympathetic nervous system activity
    Explanation
    An increase in blood pressure triggers a reflex response known as the baroreceptor reflex. This reflex aims to restore blood pressure to its normal range. When blood pressure increases, the baroreceptors in the arteries detect the change and send signals to the brain. In response, the brain sends signals to decrease sympathetic nervous system activity. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for the "fight or flight" response, which includes increasing heart rate and constricting blood vessels. By decreasing sympathetic activity, the body can counteract the increase in blood pressure and restore balance.

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  • 31. 

    Long term regulation by the mean arterial blood pressure is influenced by

    • A.

      The heart

    • B.

      The kidneys

    • C.

      The adrenal glands

    • D.

      The circulatory system

    Correct Answer
    B. The kidneys
    Explanation
    The kidneys play a crucial role in long-term regulation of mean arterial blood pressure. They help maintain blood pressure by adjusting the volume of blood and the concentration of electrolytes in the body. The kidneys regulate blood pressure by filtering waste and excess fluid from the blood, which helps maintain the balance of sodium, potassium, and water in the body. This process, known as renal regulation, helps ensure that blood pressure remains within a normal range. Therefore, the kidneys have a significant influence on long-term regulation of mean arterial blood pressure.

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  • 32. 

    An decrease in blood pressure results in an increase in sympathetic nervous system activity

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A decrease in blood pressure triggers the body's sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for the "fight or flight" response. This response increases heart rate, constricts blood vessels, and releases stress hormones, all of which work to raise blood pressure back to normal levels. Therefore, an increase in sympathetic nervous system activity is a physiological response to low blood pressure, making the statement true.

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  • 33. 

    When blood viscosity increases, blood pressure decreases

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    An increase in blood viscosity actually leads to an increase in blood pressure rather than a decrease. Blood viscosity refers to the thickness or stickiness of the blood. When blood becomes thicker, it has a harder time flowing through blood vessels, causing resistance and therefore an increase in blood pressure. This is because the heart has to pump harder to push the thicker blood through the vessels. Therefore, the given statement is false.

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  • 34. 

    When blood volume increases, blood pressure increases

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    When blood volume increases, there is more blood circulating in the blood vessels. This increased volume of blood puts more pressure on the walls of the blood vessels, leading to an increase in blood pressure. Therefore, it is true that when blood volume increases, blood pressure also increases.

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  • 35. 

    When heart rate increase, blood pressure increases

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    When the heart rate increases, it means that the heart is pumping blood at a faster rate. This increased pumping action leads to an increase in the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the arteries, resulting in an increase in blood pressure. Therefore, it is true that when heart rate increases, blood pressure increases.

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  • 36. 

    When peripheral resistance decreases, blood pressure increases

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    When peripheral resistance decreases, blood pressure actually decreases. Peripheral resistance refers to the resistance that blood encounters as it flows through the small arteries and arterioles. When this resistance decreases, it allows blood to flow more easily, resulting in a decrease in blood pressure. Conversely, when peripheral resistance increases, it restricts blood flow and causes an increase in blood pressure. Therefore, the statement that blood pressure increases when peripheral resistance decreases is incorrect.

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  • 37. 

    Contraction of the heart depends on electrical stimulation of the _________

    • A.

      Epithelium of the heart

    • B.

      Fibrocardium

    • C.

      Endothelium

    • D.

      Myocardium

    Correct Answer
    D. Myocardium
    Explanation
    The contraction of the heart is controlled by electrical stimulation, which originates from the myocardium. The myocardium is the muscular middle layer of the heart that is responsible for the pumping action. It consists of specialized cardiac muscle cells that are capable of generating electrical impulses and coordinating the contraction of the heart. The contraction of the myocardium propels blood throughout the body and ensures the proper functioning of the cardiovascular system.

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  • 38. 

    The pacemaker of the heart is known as the _________

    • A.

      SA node

    • B.

      AV node

    • C.

      Bundle fibers

    • D.

      Purkinje fibers

    Correct Answer
    A. SA node
    Explanation
    The pacemaker of the heart is known as the SA node. The SA node, or sinoatrial node, is a group of specialized cells located in the right atrium of the heart. It generates electrical impulses that regulate the heart's rhythm and initiate each heartbeat. These impulses are then conducted to the rest of the heart, causing it to contract and pump blood effectively. The SA node is often referred to as the natural pacemaker of the heart because it sets the pace for the rest of the cardiac conduction system.

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  • 39. 

    The _________ consists of autorhythmic cells

    • A.

      AV node

    • B.

      SA node

    • C.

      Pukinje fibers

    • D.

      Bundle branches

    Correct Answer
    B. SA node
    Explanation
    The SA node, also known as the sinoatrial node, is responsible for initiating the electrical impulses that regulate the heart's rhythm. It is located in the right atrium of the heart and is often referred to as the "natural pacemaker" of the heart. The SA node consists of autorhythmic cells that generate electrical signals, causing the atria to contract and initiating the heartbeat.

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  • 40. 

    Autorhythmic cells depolarize spontaneously 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Autorhythmic cells are specialized cells found in the heart that have the ability to generate their own electrical impulses without any external stimulation. These cells depolarize spontaneously, meaning they initiate action potentials on their own. This is important for the regulation of the heart's rhythm and the coordination of its contractions. Therefore, the statement "Autorhythmic cells depolarize spontaneously" is true.

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  • 41. 

    Baroreceptors are activated/stimulated when BP is too low

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    stimulated when too high

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  • 42. 

    The ______ represents atrial depolarization 

    • A.

      QRS Complex

    • B.

      P Wave

    • C.

      T Wave

    • D.

      ST Segment

    Correct Answer
    B. P Wave
    Explanation
    The P wave represents atrial depolarization, which is the electrical activation of the atria. It is the first deflection seen on an electrocardiogram (ECG) and indicates the contraction of the atria. Atrial depolarization leads to the contraction of the atria, which helps in filling the ventricles with blood.

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  • 43. 

    The ECG may indicate coronary heart disease

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The ECG (electrocardiogram) is a test that measures the electrical activity of the heart. It can provide valuable information about the heart's rhythm and any potential abnormalities. Coronary heart disease is a condition where the blood vessels that supply the heart with oxygen and nutrients become narrowed or blocked. This can lead to chest pain, heart attacks, and other complications. The ECG can detect certain patterns or changes in the heart's electrical activity that may indicate the presence of coronary heart disease. Therefore, the statement "The ECG may indicate coronary heart disease" is true.

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  • 44. 

    The QRS complex represents ____________

    • A.

      Atrial repolarization

    • B.

      Atrial depolarization

    • C.

      Ventricular depolarization

    • D.

      Ventricular repolarization

    Correct Answer
    C. Ventricular depolarization
    Explanation
    The QRS complex represents ventricular depolarization. This is the electrical activation of the ventricles, causing them to contract and pump blood out of the heart. The QRS complex is seen on an electrocardiogram (ECG) as a series of waves and intervals, and it indicates the initiation of the main pumping action of the heart. Atrial repolarization and depolarization occur during the P wave and T wave, respectively, while ventricular repolarization occurs during the T wave.

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  • 45. 

    An ST segment depression indicates myocardial infarction 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    myocardial ischemia

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  • 46. 

    One should stop exercise if their exercise induced ST segment is greater than 1 mm

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    only if greater that 2 mm

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  • 47. 

    A T wave inversion is an indicator of ischemia

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    T wave inversion refers to a change in the electrical pattern of the heart seen on an electrocardiogram (ECG). It is commonly associated with myocardial ischemia, which is a condition where there is reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. Ischemia can be caused by various factors such as atherosclerosis or coronary artery disease. The T wave inversion is considered an important indicator of ischemia because it suggests abnormalities in the repolarization of the heart muscle. Therefore, the statement "A T wave inversion is an indicator of ischemia" is true.

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  • 48. 

    Atherosclerosis is fatty plaque that narrows the aorta

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    narrows the coronary arteries

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  • 49. 

    The amount of blood pumped by the heart each minute is known as the _________

    • A.

      End Volume Systole

    • B.

      Frank Starling Mechanism

    • C.

      Stroke volume

    • D.

      Cardiac output

    Correct Answer
    D. Cardiac output
    Explanation
    The amount of blood pumped by the heart each minute is known as cardiac output. This term refers to the volume of blood that is ejected by the heart from the left ventricle into the systemic circulation in one minute. It is calculated by multiplying the stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped with each heartbeat) by the heart rate (the number of heartbeats per minute). Cardiac output is an important measure of heart function and can be influenced by various factors such as exercise, stress, and certain medical conditions.

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  • 50. 

    The number of beats per minute is known as the heart rate

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the heart rate is indeed the number of beats per minute. It is a measure of how many times the heart contracts or beats in a minute, indicating the speed at which the heart is pumping blood throughout the body. Heart rate can vary depending on factors such as physical activity, emotions, and overall health. Monitoring heart rate is important in assessing cardiovascular health and can provide valuable information about fitness levels and potential health issues.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 01, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Kingslo
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