Exam 4 For Sociology

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Sociology Quizzes & Trivia

Chptr test over 10 and 11


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    "Race" refers to:

    • A.

      Skin color, when it is other than white

    • B.

      A variety of members of any minority group or category within a mulicultural society

    • C.

      A shared cultural heritage, including language and religion

    • D.

      A socially constructed category of people who share biological traits that members of a society consider important

    Correct Answer
    D. A socially constructed category of people who share biological traits that members of a society consider important
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a socially constructed category of people who share biological traits that members of a society consider important. This means that race is not a fixed or inherent characteristic, but rather a concept created by society to categorize people based on physical attributes that are deemed significant. It highlights the idea that race is not based solely on skin color, but also includes other biological traits that are considered important within a particular society.

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  • 2. 

    All but one of the following statements are correct. Which one is NOT correct?

    • A.

      Minorities have a distinctive identity

    • B.

      Usually, peopl can readily identify a member of a minority

    • C.

      A minority does not have to be a numerical minority

    • D.

      All people in a minority category are disadvantaged.

    Correct Answer
    D. All people in a minority category are disadvantaged.
    Explanation
    The statement "All people in a minority category are disadvantaged" is not correct. While it is true that some people in minority categories may face disadvantages, it is not true for all individuals in a minority. There can be individuals within a minority category who are successful, privileged, or not facing any disadvantages. Disadvantages can vary based on various factors such as socioeconomic status, education, and individual circumstances.

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  • 3. 

    Scapegoat theory states that prejudice is created by:

    • A.

      Culture itself

    • B.

      People w/rigid personalities

    • C.

      Frustration among disadvantaged people

    • D.

      High levels of immigration

    Correct Answer
    C. Frustration among disadvantaged people
    Explanation
    The correct answer is frustration among disadvantaged people. The scapegoat theory suggests that individuals who are disadvantaged or facing frustration in their lives tend to direct their anger and blame towards a specific group, often a minority or marginalized community. This is a way for them to cope with their own frustrations and find a target to blame for their problems. This theory highlights the role of frustration in creating prejudice and discrimination.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following terms refers to a state in which racial and ethnic minorities are distinct but have social equality?

    • A.

      Genocide

    • B.

      Assimilation

    • C.

      Segregation

    • D.

      Pluralism

    Correct Answer
    D. Pluralism
    Explanation
    Pluralism refers to a state in which racial and ethnic minorities are distinct but have social equality. In this state, different racial and ethnic groups coexist and maintain their cultural identities while also having equal rights and opportunities in society. This concept promotes diversity, tolerance, and acceptance, allowing individuals from different backgrounds to live together harmoniously without assimilation or segregation.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is NOT a case of institutional discrimination?

    • A.

      A police dept. promotes people of one race faster than those of another race

    • B.

      A bank usually refuses loans to people of some racial category

    • C.

      A mother wants her child to stay away from a child of a different race

    • D.

      A school district requires children to attend a school with others of the same race

    Correct Answer
    C. A mother wants her child to stay away from a child of a different race
    Explanation
    The given answer, "a mother wants her child to stay away from a child of a different race," is not a case of institutional discrimination because it is an individual's personal preference or bias, rather than a systemic or institutional practice that discriminates against a particular race or group of people. Institutional discrimination refers to policies, practices, or norms within organizations or institutions that systematically disadvantage certain racial or ethnic groups. In this case, the discrimination is based on an individual's personal beliefs or attitudes, rather than being endorsed or enforced by an institution.

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  • 6. 

    What is the term for a category of people who are distinguished by physical or cultural traits and who are socially disadvantaged?

    • A.

      Ethnic category

    • B.

      Out-group

    • C.

      Minority

    • D.

      Racial category

    Correct Answer
    C. Minority
    Explanation
    The term "minority" refers to a category of people who are socially disadvantaged and are distinguished by physical or cultural traits. This group typically holds less power and influence within a society compared to the dominant group. They may face discrimination and have limited access to resources and opportunities. The term "minority" encompasses various marginalized groups, including racial, ethnic, religious, and gender minorities.

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  • 7. 

    While prejudice is a matter of ..............., discrimination is a matter of ....................

    • A.

      Biology, culture

    • B.

      Choice, social structure

    • C.

      Attitudes, action

    • D.

      Abnormality, what a society considers normal

    Correct Answer
    C. Attitudes, action
    Explanation
    Prejudice refers to preconceived opinions or attitudes towards a person or group based on stereotypes, while discrimination refers to the actions taken based on those prejudices. Attitudes represent the thoughts, beliefs, and feelings individuals have towards others, whereas actions involve the behaviors or treatment towards individuals or groups. Therefore, prejudice is a matter of attitudes, while discrimination is a matter of action.

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  • 8. 

    What is the term for social org in which males dominate females?

    • A.

      Matriarchy

    • B.

      Gerontocracy

    • C.

      Monarchy

    • D.

      Patriarchy

    Correct Answer
    D. Patriarchy
    Explanation
    Patriarchy refers to a social organization in which males hold primary power and dominate over females. This system is characterized by male control over key aspects of society, such as politics, economics, and decision-making. In a patriarchal society, women often face gender-based discrimination and are typically assigned subordinate roles. This term accurately describes the social organization where males have a dominant position over females.

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  • 9. 

    Gender refers to:

    • A.

      The personal traits and social positions that member of a society attach to being female and male

    • B.

      The degree of inequality between men and women in a society

    • C.

      The secondary sex characteristics of individuals

    • D.

      People's sexual orientation

    Correct Answer
    A. The personal traits and social positions that member of a society attach to being female and male
    Explanation
    Gender refers to the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female and male. It encompasses the cultural, social, and psychological characteristics that are typically associated with masculinity and femininity. Gender is not solely determined by biological sex, but is constructed and influenced by societal norms, expectations, and roles. It includes behaviors, roles, responsibilities, and expectations that are considered appropriate for individuals based on their perceived gender identity. Gender is a social construct that varies across different cultures and societies, and can evolve over time.

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  • 10. 

    The point of describing gender in the Israeli kibbutzim is:

    • A.

      To show that gender is basically biological

    • B.

      To show that boys and girls must be raised by biological parents

    • C.

      To show that women can dominate men

    • D.

      To show that cultures define gender in diff. ways

    Correct Answer
    D. To show that cultures define gender in diff. ways
    Explanation
    The point of describing gender in the Israeli kibbutzim is to show that cultures define gender in different ways. This is evident from the fact that the Israeli kibbutzim had a unique approach to gender roles and equality, where traditional gender roles were challenged and women had more dominant roles. This example highlights that gender is not solely determined by biology, but rather shaped by cultural norms and practices.

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  • 11. 

    Margaret Mead's research on gender in three societies in New Guinea illustrates that:

    • A.

      All societies consider men to be more aggresive than women

    • B.

      What is feminine to one society may be masculine to another

    • C.

      Farming is always done by men

    • D.

      All societies display much the same gender definitions

    Correct Answer
    B. What is feminine to one society may be masculine to another
    Explanation
    Margaret Mead's research on gender in three societies in New Guinea demonstrates that the perception of femininity and masculinity varies across different societies. This means that what is considered feminine in one society may be seen as masculine in another. This finding challenges the idea that there are universal and fixed definitions of gender roles and highlights the influence of cultural and societal factors in shaping gender norms and expectations.

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  • 12. 

    In the United States in 2007, women in the labor force working full time earned ....... as much as men working full time

    • A.

      Around 27%

    • B.

      Exactly 47%

    • C.

      About 76%

    • D.

      More than 97%

    Correct Answer
    C. About 76%
    Explanation
    The correct answer is about 76%. This means that women in the labor force working full time earned approximately 76% of what men working full time earned in the United States in 2007. This suggests a significant gender pay gap, with women earning less than men for the same amount of work.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following statements is the best reason to see women as a minority in the United States?

    • A.

      Men outnumber women

    • B.

      At every class levell, women have less income, wealth, edu., and pwr than men do

    • C.

      Women see themselves as a minority

    • D.

      All of the above are correct

    Correct Answer
    B. At every class levell, women have less income, wealth, edu., and pwr than men do
    Explanation
    The best reason to see women as a minority in the United States is that at every class level, women have less income, wealth, education, and power than men do. This statement highlights the systemic gender disparities that exist in various aspects of life, such as economic opportunities, education, and decision-making power. It suggests that women face structural barriers and discrimination that result in their marginalized status compared to men.

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  • 14. 

    In the US, a mojority of bachelor degrees are earned by men

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is false. In the US, a majority of bachelor degrees are actually earned by women. According to recent data, women have been outpacing men in terms of earning bachelor's degrees for several years now. This trend is seen across various fields of study, including science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The increasing number of women pursuing higher education has contributed to closing the gender gap in educational attainment.

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  • 15. 

    In athletics, the performance gap between male and female athletes is get'n bigger

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement suggests that the performance gap between male and female athletes in athletics is increasing. However, the correct answer is False. This means that the statement is incorrect and the performance gap between male and female athletes is not getting bigger.

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  • 16. 

    Like race or social class, gender is a major dimension of social stratification

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Gender is indeed a major dimension of social stratification, alongside race and social class. Social stratification refers to the division of society into different groups based on various factors, such as wealth, power, and prestige. Gender plays a significant role in this division, as societies often have established norms, roles, and expectations for individuals based on their gender. This can lead to unequal access to resources, opportunities, and social status for individuals based on their gender, making it a key aspect of social stratification.

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  • 17. 

    The ? "is it a boy or a girl?" is commonly asked of new parents, a fact that shows the importance of sex in shaping a child's entire life.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that the question "is it a boy or a girl?" is commonly asked of new parents, indicating that society places significance on a child's sex. This implies that a child's sex can have a profound impact on their entire life, influencing various aspects such as societal expectations, gender roles, and opportunities available to them. Therefore, the answer "True" is correct as it aligns with the given explanation.

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  • 18. 

    In most cases, race and ethnicity amount to the same thing

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Race and ethnicity are two distinct concepts. Race refers to the biological and physical characteristics of individuals, such as skin color, hair texture, and facial features. Ethnicity, on the other hand, relates to the cultural and social characteristics that define a group of people, such as language, customs, and traditions. While there may be some overlap between race and ethnicity, they are not interchangeable terms. Therefore, the statement that in most cases, race and ethnicity amount to the same thing is false.

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  • 19. 

    Segregation refers to the physical and social seperation of categories of ppl

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Segregation refers to the physical and social separation of categories of people based on factors such as race, ethnicity, or social class. This practice has been historically prevalent in many societies, leading to inequality and discrimination. It involves the establishment of separate facilities, institutions, and neighborhoods for different groups, often resulting in unequal access to resources and opportunities. The statement is true because segregation has been a significant issue in various parts of the world, and its consequences continue to impact marginalized communities.

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  • 20. 

    Conflict theory says that prejudice benefits pwrful ppl by dividing society

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    According to conflict theory, prejudice benefits powerful individuals by creating divisions within society. Prejudice allows those in power to maintain their dominance and control over marginalized groups. By promoting stereotypes and discrimination, the powerful can justify their unequal distribution of resources and maintain their social, economic, and political advantages. This theory suggests that prejudice serves as a tool for maintaining social inequality and reinforcing the power dynamics within society.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the follwoing items would Gerhard Lenski especially highlight as bringing about change in society?

    • A.

      New religious ideas

    • B.

      The discovery of new sources of energy

    • C.

      Conflict between workers and factory owners

    • D.

      The extent to which ppl share moral values

    Correct Answer
    B. The discovery of new sources of energy
    Explanation
    Gerhard Lenski, a sociologist, would particularly highlight the discovery of new sources of energy as bringing about change in society. This is because the availability and utilization of new energy sources have a profound impact on various aspects of society, such as economic systems, technological advancements, and social structures. The discovery of new energy sources often leads to industrialization, urbanization, and shifts in power dynamics, ultimately shaping the overall development and transformation of a society.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following does NOT characterize changes brought on by industrialization?

    • A.

      New forms of transportation and communication make the world seem smaller

    • B.

      Tradition becomes a more pwrful part of culture

    • C.

      The economy becomes more productive

    • D.

      The pace of social change increases

    Correct Answer
    B. Tradition becomes a more pwrful part of culture
  • 23. 

    The term "cultural lag" refers to the fact that:

    • A.

      Time often seems to stand still

    • B.

      Material things usually change faster than nonmaterial things like ideas and attitudes

    • C.

      Change is faster in some societies than in others

    • D.

      Most change involves returning to earlier patterns.

    Correct Answer
    B. Material things usually change faster than nonmaterial things like ideas and attitudes
    Explanation
    Cultural lag refers to the idea that material aspects of society, such as technology and infrastructure, tend to change at a faster pace than nonmaterial aspects, such as values, beliefs, and attitudes. This means that while advancements in technology and material goods may progress rapidly, societal norms and attitudes often take longer to catch up and adapt to these changes.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 04, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Tmacattack
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