Epidemiology Practice Quiz: Trivia Exam!

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Epidemiology Practice Quiz: Trivia Exam! - Quiz


Epidemiology is the division of science that deals with specific patterns in health and diseases in delineated populations. It has developed methodology used in clinical research, public health studies, and study in the biological sciences. During this quiz, you will need to know the difference between mass screening and selective screening and the positive and negative predictive value. This challenging quiz is all about epidemiology. You can do it.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Mass Screening is

    • A.

      The proportion of people screened positive by a test and actually have the disease, this is the + value

    • B.

      The standards of care, anyone that could be at risk should be screend

    • C.

      The screening of people who are at high risk of disease.

    Correct Answer
    B. The standards of care, anyone that could be at risk should be screend
  • 2. 

    Selective screening is

    • A.

      The standards of care, anyone that could be at risk should be screend

    • B.

      This is the ability of a test to identify only those non diseased individuals who actually do not have the disease

    • C.

      The screening of people who are at high risk of disease.

    Correct Answer
    C. The screening of people who are at high risk of disease.
    Explanation
    Selective screening is the process of screening individuals who are at a high risk of developing a particular disease. This approach focuses on identifying and testing only those individuals who have a higher likelihood of being affected by the disease, rather than screening the entire population. By targeting high-risk individuals, selective screening aims to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of screening programs, ensuring that resources are used appropriately and that individuals who are most in need of early detection and intervention are identified.

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  • 3. 

    Describe sensitivity

    • A.

      The ability of a test to correctly identify all individuals who have been screened and actually have the disease

    • B.

      This is the ability of a test to identify only those non diseased individuals who actually do not have the disease

    • C.

      The proportion of people screened positive by a test and actually have the disease, this is the + value

    Correct Answer
    A. The ability of a test to correctly identify all individuals who have been screened and actually have the disease
    Explanation
    Sensitivity refers to the ability of a test to correctly identify all individuals who have been screened and actually have the disease. In other words, it measures the proportion of true positive results among all the individuals who actually have the disease. A test with high sensitivity will accurately detect the presence of the disease in those who have it, minimizing false negative results.

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  • 4. 

    Describe specificity.

    • A.

      The ability of a test to correctly identify all individuals who have been screened and actually have the disease

    • B.

      This is the ability of a test to identify only those non diseased individuals who actually do not have the disease

    • C.

      The proportion of people screened positive by a test and actually have the disease, this is the + value

    Correct Answer
    B. This is the ability of a test to identify only those non diseased individuals who actually do not have the disease
    Explanation
    Specificity refers to the ability of a test to correctly identify individuals who do not have the disease. It measures the proportion of non-diseased individuals who are correctly identified as negative by the test. In other words, it determines the test's ability to avoid false positives and accurately exclude individuals without the disease.

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  • 5. 

    The positive predictive value is

    • A.

      The probability of those who have screened negative and actually do NOT have the disease tested for

    • B.

      The proportion of people screened positive by a test and actually have the disease, this is the + value

    Correct Answer
    B. The proportion of people screened positive by a test and actually have the disease, this is the + value
    Explanation
    The positive predictive value refers to the proportion of people who test positive for a disease and actually have the disease. It is a measure of the accuracy of a diagnostic test in correctly identifying individuals with the disease. In other words, it quantifies the probability that a positive test result is a true positive. This value is important in determining the reliability and usefulness of a test in clinical practice.

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  • 6. 

    The negative predictive value is

    • A.

      The proportion of people screened positive by a test and actually have the disease, this is the + value

    • B.

      The probability of those who have screened negative and actually do NOT have the disease tested for

    Correct Answer
    B. The probability of those who have screened negative and actually do NOT have the disease tested for
    Explanation
    The negative predictive value is the probability of those who have screened negative and actually do NOT have the disease tested for. This means that it measures the proportion of people who tested negative for a disease and are truly disease-free. It is a useful measure in screening tests to determine the likelihood of a negative test result accurately ruling out the presence of the disease.

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  • 7. 

    The equation for Sensitivity is this: A/(A+C)

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The equation for sensitivity is A/(A+C), where A represents the true positive and C represents the false negative. This equation is used to calculate the proportion of true positive cases correctly identified by a test or model. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 8. 

    The equation for Specificity is 

    • A.

      C/(B+D)

    • B.

      D/(B+C)

    • C.

      A/(B+D)

    Correct Answer
    B. D/(B+C)
    Explanation
    The equation for Specificity is D/(B+C), where:
    D represents the number of true negatives (TN)
    B represents the number of false positives (FP)
    C represents the number of false negatives (FN)
    This equation expresses the probability that a test returns a negative result given that the patient does not have the disease.

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  • 9. 

    The definition of an agent is

    • A.

      Is the person or animal that provides substinance for an infectious agent under natural conditions

    • B.

      With the presence of, excessive presence, or lack of is essential for the occurance of a disease

    • C.

      This is the domain in which disease-causing agents may exist, survive, or come from

    Correct Answer
    B. With the presence of, excessive presence, or lack of is essential for the occurance of a disease
    Explanation
    The given answer correctly states that the presence, excessive presence, or lack of an agent is essential for the occurrence of a disease. This means that for a disease to occur, there must be an agent present, and its presence can either be normal, excessive, or lacking. The answer also implies that the agent is responsible for causing the disease and that it can exist, survive, or come from a specific domain or environment.

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  • 10. 

    Define a Host.

    • A.

      With the presence of, excessive presence, or lack of is essential for the occurance of a disease

    • B.

      This is the domain in which disease-causing agents may exist, survive, or come from

    • C.

      Is the person or animal that provides substinance for an infectious agent under natural conditions

    Correct Answer
    C. Is the person or animal that provides substinance for an infectious agent under natural conditions
    Explanation
    A host is defined as the person or animal that provides sustenance for an infectious agent under natural conditions. In other words, it is the individual or organism that allows the infectious agent to survive and multiply within their body. The presence, excessive presence, or lack of a host is crucial for the occurrence of a disease. The host provides an environment in which disease-causing agents can exist, survive, or originate from.

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  • 11. 

    The third and last factor is Environment, what does this refer to

    • A.

      Is the person or animal that provides substinance for an infectious agent under natural conditions

    • B.

      With the presence of, excessive presence, or lack of is essential for the occurance of a disease

    • C.

      This is the domain in which disease-causing agents may exist, survive, or come from

    Correct Answer
    C. This is the domain in which disease-causing agents may exist, survive, or come from
    Explanation
    The term "Environment" in this context refers to the domain in which disease-causing agents may exist, survive, or come from. It encompasses the conditions and surroundings in which these agents can thrive and potentially cause disease. This factor highlights the importance of understanding the specific environments in which infectious agents can be found, as it can help identify and prevent the spread of diseases.

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  • 12. 

    The epidemiological triangle consists of three components, which of these does not belong?

    • A.

      Agent

    • B.

      Host

    • C.

      Resevoir

    • D.

      Bacterium

    • E.

      Environment

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Resevoir
    D. Bacterium
    Explanation
    The epidemiological triangle consists of three components: agent, host, and environment. These components interact with each other to determine the occurrence and spread of a disease. The reservoir, which refers to the habitat where the agent normally lives and multiplies, is not a separate component but is considered part of the environment. Bacterium, on the other hand, is a type of agent that can cause infectious diseases. Therefore, the correct answer is Reservoir, Bacterium.

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  • 13. 

    Define infectivity.

    • A.

      This is the ability of an agent to enter and multiply in a susceptible host

    • B.

      This is the degree to which an agent produces toxic substances

    • C.

      The severity of the disease

    Correct Answer
    A. This is the ability of an agent to enter and multiply in a susceptible host
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "This is the ability of an agent to enter and multiply in a susceptible host." Infectivity refers to the capability of a pathogen or agent to invade and reproduce within a susceptible host, leading to infection. It is a measure of how easily a disease can spread from one individual to another. The higher the infectivity of a pathogen, the more easily it can enter and multiply in a susceptible host, resulting in a higher likelihood of transmission and infection.

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  • 14. 

    What is virulence?

    • A.

      This is the ability of an agent to enter and multiply in a susceptible host

    • B.

      The severity of the disease

    • C.

      This is the degree to which an agent produces toxic substances

    Correct Answer
    B. The severity of the disease
    Explanation
    Virulence refers to the severity of the disease caused by an agent. It measures the extent to which the agent is capable of causing harm or damage to the host. The higher the virulence, the more severe the disease symptoms are likely to be. This can include factors such as the agent's ability to invade and multiply within the host, as well as its production of toxic substances that contribute to the disease's severity.

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  • 15. 

    Define Toxicity

    • A.

      The severity of the disease

    • B.

      This is the ability of an agent to enter and multiply in a susceptible host

    • C.

      This is the degree to which an agent produces toxic substances

    Correct Answer
    C. This is the degree to which an agent produces toxic substances
    Explanation
    Toxicity refers to the degree to which an agent produces toxic substances. It measures the ability of an agent to produce harmful or poisonous effects on an organism. The higher the toxicity, the more severe the effects of the agent on the organism. This can include substances that cause damage to cells, organs, or the overall health of the organism.

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  • 16. 

    Define active immunity.

    • A.

      Immunity gained from a person to person transaction

    • B.

      The development of immunity from previous exposure to an agent before a vaccine or natural infection

    • C.

      Resistance of the entire community because of the people immunity within the community

    Correct Answer
    B. The development of immunity from previous exposure to an agent before a vaccine or natural infection
    Explanation
    Active immunity refers to the development of immunity in an individual as a result of previous exposure to a specific pathogen, either through natural infection or vaccination. This exposure triggers the immune system to produce specific antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and respond to the pathogen in the future, providing long-term protection against subsequent infections. This type of immunity is different from passive immunity, which is acquired through the transfer of pre-formed antibodies from another individual.

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  • 17. 

    Define passive immunity.

    • A.

      Acquired immunity from previous exposure to an agent before a vaccine or natural infection

    • B.

      Resistance of the entire community because of the people immunity within the community

    • C.

      Immunity gained from a person to person transaction

    Correct Answer
    C. Immunity gained from a person to person transaction
    Explanation
    Passive immunity refers to the transfer of antibodies from one person to another. This can occur naturally, such as when a mother passes antibodies to her baby through breastfeeding, or it can be artificially induced, such as through the administration of antibodies as a treatment for certain diseases. This type of immunity is temporary and does not provide long-lasting protection like active immunity, which is acquired through vaccination or natural infection.

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  • 18. 

    Herd immunity is...

    • A.

      Immunity gained from a person to person transaction

    • B.

      Acquired immunity from previous exposure to an agent before a vaccine or natural infection

    • C.

      Resistance of the entire community because of the people immunity within the community

    Correct Answer
    C. Resistance of the entire community because of the people immunity within the community
    Explanation
    Herd immunity refers to the resistance of an entire community to the spread of a contagious disease due to a large portion of the population being immune to the disease. This immunity can be acquired either through previous exposure to the disease or through vaccination. When a significant proportion of the population is immune, it becomes difficult for the disease to spread, providing protection to those who are not immune, such as individuals who are unable to receive vaccines or have weakened immune systems.

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  • 19. 

    Passive immunity is the acquired immunity from natural infection.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Passive immunity is not acquired through natural infection but rather through the transfer of antibodies from another source. This can occur naturally, such as through the transfer of antibodies from a mother to her fetus during pregnancy, or artificially, such as through the administration of antibodies from another individual or animal. Therefore, the given statement is false.

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  • 20. 

    Define incubation period.

    • A.

      The doubling time of the agent and the communicability time between exposures

    • B.

      When someone is infected but does not show any symptoms, this is like typhoid mary

    • C.

      Time from when the agent first invaded and the first symptom

    Correct Answer
    C. Time from when the agent first invaded and the first symptom
    Explanation
    The incubation period refers to the time interval between when the agent (such as a virus or bacteria) first enters the body and the appearance of the first symptoms. It is during this period that the agent multiplies and establishes an infection within the host, but the individual does not yet show any signs or symptoms of being infected. This period can vary depending on the specific agent and can range from hours to days or even weeks. Understanding the incubation period is crucial in determining the potential for transmission of the infection and implementing appropriate control measures.

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  • 21. 

    Subclinical illness is..

    • A.

      When someone is infected but does not show any symptoms, this is like typhoid mary

    • B.

      Time from when the agent first invaded and the first symptom

    • C.

      The doubling time of the agent and the communicability time between exposures

    Correct Answer
    A. When someone is infected but does not show any symptoms, this is like typhoid mary
    Explanation
    Subclinical illness refers to a state where an individual is infected with a disease-causing agent but does not exhibit any noticeable symptoms. This can be likened to the case of "Typhoid Mary," who was a carrier of typhoid fever but did not display any signs of illness herself. The answer correctly explains that subclinical illness occurs when someone is infected but remains asymptomatic.

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  • 22. 

    Generation time is defined as?

    • A.

      When someone is infected but does not show any symptoms, this is like typhoid mary

    • B.

      The doubling time of the agent and the communicability time between exposures

    • C.

      Time from when the agent first invaded and the first symptom

    Correct Answer
    B. The doubling time of the agent and the communicability time between exposures
    Explanation
    Generation time is the time interval between the infection of a person and the infection of the people they subsequently infect. It is determined by the doubling time of the infectious agent, which is the time it takes for the number of infectious particles to double, and the communicability time, which is the duration during which an infected person can transmit the infection to others. This concept is similar to the case of Typhoid Mary, where she was infected with typhoid fever but did not show any symptoms, yet she was able to transmit the disease to others.

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  • 23. 

    As they relate to environmental characteristics, what is the physical?

    • A.

      Plants and animals that can act as reservoirs

    • B.

      The environment that houses the agent

    • C.

      Overcrowding usually due to economic issues

    Correct Answer
    B. The environment that houses the agent
    Explanation
    The physical environment refers to the surroundings or habitat where the agent, which could be a pathogen or infectious agent, resides or is present. It includes factors such as temperature, humidity, air quality, and other physical attributes that can influence the survival, transmission, and spread of the agent. Understanding the physical environment is crucial in studying and controlling the agent's behavior and its impact on plants, animals, and humans.

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  • 24. 

    As it relates to environmental characteristics, what is climatologic?

    • A.

      An environment where disease spreads the quickest

    • B.

      Overcrowding usually due to economic issues

    • C.

      Plants and animals that can act as reservoirs

    Correct Answer
    A. An environment where disease spreads the quickest
    Explanation
    Climatologic refers to an environment where disease spreads the quickest. This implies that certain climatic conditions, such as temperature, humidity, and precipitation, can create an environment that is conducive to the rapid spread of diseases. These conditions may facilitate the survival and reproduction of disease-causing organisms, as well as increase the likelihood of transmission between hosts. Therefore, understanding the climatologic characteristics of an environment is crucial for assessing the risk and implementing appropriate measures to prevent and control the spread of diseases.

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  • 25. 

    Relating to environmental characteristics, biologic is 

    • A.

      Overcrowding usually due to economic issues

    • B.

      An environment where disease spreads the quickest

    • C.

      Plants and animals that can act as reservoirs

    Correct Answer
    C. Plants and animals that can act as reservoirs
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "plants and animals that can act as reservoirs." This answer refers to the environmental characteristic of biologic, which means relating to living organisms. Plants and animals that can act as reservoirs are those that can harbor and transmit infectious agents, such as bacteria or viruses, to other organisms. They serve as a source of infection and can contribute to the spread of diseases within an ecosystem.

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  • 26. 

    Social/Economic is described as what?

    • A.

      Plants and animals that can act as reservoirs

    • B.

      Overcrowding usually due to economic issues

    • C.

      An environment where disease spreads the quickest

    Correct Answer
    B. Overcrowding usually due to economic issues
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "overcrowding usually due to economic issues." Social/Economic is described as a situation where overcrowding occurs primarily because of economic problems. This implies that when there are economic difficulties, people tend to live in overcrowded conditions, which can have negative consequences on various aspects, including public health and the spread of diseases.

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  • 27. 

    A(n)_______ is the level at which a disease is always present.

    Correct Answer
    Endemic
    Explanation
    An endemic disease is one that is consistently present within a specific population or geographic area. This means that the disease is constantly occurring at a certain level, rather than being sporadic or temporary. Endemic diseases are typically well-adapted to the environment and are often transmitted within the population without causing large-scale outbreaks. The term "endemic" is used to describe diseases like malaria in certain regions or the common cold in many parts of the world.

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  • 28. 

    A(n)  ________ is a place where the agent lives and multiplies.

    Correct Answer
    Reservoir
    Explanation
    A reservoir is a place where an agent, such as a pathogen or a bacteria, lives and multiplies. It serves as a source or a habitat for the agent, allowing it to thrive and reproduce. Reservoirs can be natural environments like bodies of water or forests, or they can be man-made structures like storage tanks or containers. In the context of diseases, reservoirs are important in understanding how infections spread and can help in implementing control measures.

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  • 29. 

    A(n) infection that can be transmitted from animals is called  

    Correct Answer
    Zoonosis
    Explanation
    Zoonosis is the correct answer because it refers to an infection that can be transmitted from animals to humans. This term encompasses a wide range of diseases, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, that can be transmitted through direct contact with animals, consumption of contaminated food or water, or exposure to contaminated environments. Zoonotic infections are a significant public health concern, and understanding their transmission and prevention is essential for protecting both human and animal populations.

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  • 30. 

    An indirect mean of transmission may be anything other than 

    • A.

      Person to Animal

    • B.

      Person to Person

    • C.

      Object to Person

    Correct Answer
    B. Person to Person
    Explanation
    An indirect means of transmission refers to the transmission of a disease through intermediate sources or vectors. In this case, the correct answer is "Person to Person," which means that the disease can be transmitted from one individual to another without the involvement of animals or objects. This could occur through direct contact, respiratory droplets, or other modes of transmission between individuals.

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  • 31. 

    An indirect mean of transmission are things such as:

    • A.

      Vehicle-borne infections

    • B.

      Contaminated objects

    • C.

      Non-moving objects

    • D.

      Sterile objects

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Vehicle-borne infections
    B. Contaminated objects
    C. Non-moving objects
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes vehicle-borne infections, contaminated objects, and non-moving objects. These are examples of indirect means of transmission of diseases. Vehicle-borne infections refer to diseases that are transmitted through vehicles like mosquitoes or ticks. Contaminated objects can spread diseases when people come into contact with them, such as touching a contaminated surface and then touching their face. Non-moving objects can also be sources of transmission, such as contaminated water or food. Sterile objects, on the other hand, do not contribute to the transmission of diseases as they are free from any pathogens.

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  • 32. 

    Fomites are inanimate objects this can be which of the following?

    • A.

      Ashley the girl next door

    • B.

      A chair

    • C.

      James, the dirty kid down the hall

    Correct Answer
    B. A chair
    Explanation
    Fomites are inanimate objects that can carry and transmit infectious agents. In this case, the correct answer is "a chair" because it is an inanimate object that can potentially harbor and transmit pathogens. Ashley and James are not inanimate objects, so they do not fit the definition of fomites.

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  • 33. 

    Give an example of a Vector-borne illness.

    • A.

      Spores in the air

    • B.

      An arboviral carrier

    • C.

      Contaminated objects and are nonmoving

    Correct Answer
    B. An arboviral carrier
    Explanation
    An arboviral carrier refers to an organism, typically a mosquito or tick, that can transmit a virus to humans or animals through their bites. This means that the illness is transmitted through vectors, such as mosquitoes or ticks, rather than being spread through spores in the air or contaminated objects. An example of a vector-borne illness is malaria, which is transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito.

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  • 34. 

    Give an example of an airborne illness.

    • A.

      Spores in the air

    • B.

      An arboviral carrier

    • C.

      Contaminated objects and are nonmoving

    Correct Answer
    A. Spores in the air
    Explanation
    An example of an airborne illness is when spores are present in the air. This means that the illness-causing agents, such as fungi or bacteria, are released into the air and can be inhaled by individuals, leading to infection or illness. Airborne illnesses can be spread through respiratory droplets or dust particles containing the spores, making them easily transmissible in crowded or enclosed spaces.

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  • 35. 

    Bacterial diseases are diseases such as?

    • A.

      West nile virus

    • B.

      Gonorrhea

    • C.

      The Clep

    Correct Answer
    B. Gonorrhea
    Explanation
    Bacterial diseases are caused by bacteria, and gonorrhea is one such disease. West Nile virus, on the other hand, is caused by a virus and not bacteria. The Clep is not a disease but rather a standardized test. Therefore, gonorrhea is the correct answer as it is a bacterial disease.

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  • 36. 

    Arboviral disease are those such as:

    • A.

      Cancer

    • B.

      Headaches

    • C.

      The west nile virus

    Correct Answer
    C. The west nile virus
    Explanation
    Arboviral diseases are caused by arboviruses, which are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes, ticks, or other arthropods. Cancer and headaches are not caused by arboviruses, so they are not considered arboviral diseases. The West Nile virus, on the other hand, is an arbovirus that can cause a range of symptoms, from mild flu-like symptoms to severe neurological diseases. Therefore, the correct answer is the West Nile virus.

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  • 37. 

    Parasitic diseases are ones that are caused by a parasite which cause illness from the 

    • A.

      Amount of nutrients they take from you

    • B.

      Toxins they release

    • C.

      How big they become

    Correct Answer
    B. Toxins they release
    Explanation
    Parasitic diseases are caused by parasites that release toxins into the body, leading to illness. These toxins can disrupt normal bodily functions and cause various symptoms and complications. The parasites rely on these toxins to survive and reproduce within their host. By releasing toxins, parasites can weaken the immune system, damage organs, and interfere with the body's natural processes. Therefore, the toxins released by parasites play a crucial role in causing illness in parasitic diseases.

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  • 38. 

    The attack rate is calculated by  # Ill/(Ill + Well) multiplied by 100

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The attack rate is calculated by dividing the number of ill individuals by the sum of the number of ill and well individuals, and then multiplying the result by 100. This calculation gives the proportion of individuals who are ill out of the total number of individuals at risk. Therefore, the statement "The attack rate is calculated by Ill/(Ill + Well) multiplied by 100" is true.

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  • 39. 

    The following stressors are positive life stressors 

    • A.

      Marriage

    • B.

      Children

    • C.

      Exams

    • D.

      Losing your keys

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Marriage
    B. Children
    Explanation
    Marriage and having children are considered positive life stressors because they are major life events that bring joy, fulfillment, and personal growth. While they may also come with challenges and adjustments, the overall impact of marriage and parenthood is often seen as positive and rewarding. On the other hand, exams and losing keys are not typically viewed as positive stressors, as they can cause anxiety, frustration, and inconvenience.

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  • 40. 

    Stress is 

    • A.

      Physical

    • B.

      Chemical

    • C.

      Bodily

    • D.

      Emotional

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Physical
    B. Chemical
    D. Emotional
    Explanation
    Stress can manifest in various ways, including physical, chemical, and emotional symptoms. Physical stress refers to the strain placed on the body due to factors such as overexertion or injury. Chemical stress refers to the impact of toxins or substances on the body, such as exposure to pollutants or drugs. Emotional stress relates to psychological strain, such as feeling overwhelmed or anxious. Therefore, stress can affect the body physically, chemically, and emotionally, making all three options correct.

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  • 41. 

    Chronic strains, are those stressors which are long term and

    • A.

      Will be dealt with over a long period of time

    • B.

      Forever and ever

    • C.

      For a few days

    Correct Answer
    A. Will be dealt with over a long period of time
    Explanation
    Chronic strains refer to stressors that persist over an extended period of time. These stressors are not temporary and will require ongoing management and coping strategies. Unlike short-term stressors that may only last for a few days, chronic strains are long-lasting and may need to be addressed indefinitely.

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  • 42. 

    In 2007 it was found that 17.4% of men are current smokers and 22.7% of women were current smokers 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because it states that 22.7% of women were current smokers in 2007, which contradicts the given information that only 17.4% of men were current smokers. If the statement were true, it would imply that a higher percentage of women were smokers than men, which is not supported by the given data.

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  • 43. 

    In 2002 what percentage of high schoolers were found to be smokers

    • A.

      28%

    • B.

      22%

    • C.

      18%

    Correct Answer
    B. 22%
    Explanation
    In 2002, 22% of high schoolers were found to be smokers. This indicates that a significant portion of high school students were engaging in smoking behavior during that time period.

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  • 44. 

    In what year was it found by the U.S. Surgeon General that second hand smoke causes disease and premature death in children and in adults who do not smoke

    • A.

      2001

    • B.

      2004

    • C.

      2006

    Correct Answer
    C. 2006
    Explanation
    In 2006, the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that secondhand smoke causes disease and premature death in children and adults who do not smoke. This finding was significant as it highlighted the harmful effects of passive smoking on individuals who are exposed to smoke from others. It emphasized the need for smoke-free environments and public health measures to protect non-smokers from the dangers of secondhand smoke.

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  • 45. 

    Psychiatric epidemiology is the study of

    • A.

      The occurence of mental disorders

    • B.

      The contributing factors of sexual disease

    • C.

      The cause of why people become ill

    Correct Answer
    A. The occurence of mental disorders
    Explanation
    Psychiatric epidemiology is the study of the occurrence of mental disorders. It involves analyzing the patterns, prevalence, and distribution of mental illnesses within a population. This field aims to understand the factors that contribute to the development of mental disorders, such as genetic, environmental, and social influences. By studying the occurrence of mental disorders, researchers can gain insights into their causes, risk factors, and potential interventions for prevention and treatment.

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  • 46. 

    Contributing factor to an illness is defined as 

    • A.

      The occurence of mental disorders

    • B.

      A co-morbidity in the form of a psychiatric disease

    • C.

      The contributing factors of sexual disease

    Correct Answer
    B. A co-morbidity in the form of a psychiatric disease
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "A co-morbidity in the form of a psychiatric disease." A contributing factor to an illness refers to the presence of a psychiatric disease that co-occurs with the primary illness. This means that the individual is suffering from two or more illnesses simultaneously, with one of them being a psychiatric disease. This co-morbidity can have a significant impact on the overall health and treatment outcomes of the individual.

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  • 47. 

    Autism is defined as 

    • A.

      A condition that impairs functioning in the social, communicative, and behavioral domains

    • B.

      Cognive functioning

    • C.

      Mental retardation

    Correct Answer
    A. A condition that impairs functioning in the social, communicative, and behavioral domains
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a condition that impairs functioning in the social, communicative, and behavioral domains. This answer accurately describes autism as a condition that affects an individual's ability to interact socially, communicate effectively, and exhibit appropriate behavior. It highlights the key features of autism and distinguishes it from other conditions such as cognitive functioning or mental retardation.

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  • 48. 

    Autism's attributes are manifested by difficulties in what areas?

    • A.

      Cogntive functioning

    • B.

      Learning

    • C.

      Social

    • D.

      Sensory process

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cogntive functioning
    B. Learning
    D. Sensory process
    Explanation
    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects cognitive functioning, learning, and sensory processing. Individuals with autism often experience challenges in areas such as problem-solving, attention, memory, and language. They may also have difficulties with acquiring new skills and knowledge, as well as processing and understanding information. Additionally, individuals with autism may have sensory sensitivities or differences, which can affect how they perceive and respond to sensory stimuli such as sounds, lights, textures, and smells.

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  • 49. 

    The traditional black box epidemiology is defined as 

    • A.

      The measurement of media use and video games

    • B.

      How much a plane can go for without crashing

    • C.

      An uncovered association between risk and disease without knowing why

    Correct Answer
    C. An uncovered association between risk and disease without knowing why
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "an uncovered association between risk and disease without knowing why". This definition refers to traditional black box epidemiology, which focuses on identifying a correlation between a risk factor and a disease outcome without fully understanding the underlying mechanisms or causality. It involves studying the association between exposure and disease without delving into the specifics of how and why the association exists.

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  • 50. 

    Molecular epidemiology is described as the use of molecular markers in addition to genes to establish exposure to the disease relationship 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Molecular epidemiology involves the use of molecular markers, such as genes, to study the relationship between exposure and disease. By analyzing these markers, researchers can identify specific genetic variations that may be associated with increased risk of developing certain diseases. This approach allows for a more precise understanding of how genetic factors contribute to disease development and can help inform strategies for prevention and treatment. Therefore, the statement that molecular epidemiology uses molecular markers in addition to genes to establish exposure-disease relationships is true.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Nov 07, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 11, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Kaiello
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