Endocrine Medications (Minus Diabetic Medications)

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Endocrine System Quizzes & Trivia

Pharmacology - For Nursing Class 2011

This quiz regards the following: Hypo and Hyperythyroidism, Hypo and Hyperparathyroidism, Growth Hormone, and will contain drugs associated with the Adrenal Glands.

Enjoy!

If I make a typo or have a mistake in info let me know. This information is taken from the powerpoint and lecture notes.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Mark all that apply to Anterior Pituitary Glands.

    • A.

      It includes target glands : thyroid and parathyroid glands

    • B.

      It produces Oxytocin

    • C.

      It is considered the "master gland"

    • D.

      It includes target glands: Adrenal and Gonads

    • E.

      Secretes hormones that stimulate the relaease of other hormones from target glands

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. It includes target glands : thyroid and parathyroid glands
    C. It is considered the "master gland"
    D. It includes target glands: Adrenal and Gonads
    E. Secretes hormones that stimulate the relaease of other hormones from target glands
    Explanation
    The anterior pituitary gland includes target glands such as the thyroid and parathyroid glands, the adrenal glands, and the gonads. It is considered the "master gland" because it secretes hormones that regulate the function of other endocrine glands in the body. Additionally, the anterior pituitary gland secretes hormones that stimulate the release of other hormones from these target glands, further regulating various physiological processes in the body.

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  • 2. 

    Mark all that apply to the Posterior Pituitary Gland

    • A.

      Is located beneath the hypothalamus

    • B.

      Aids in the excretion of Oytocin (responsible for uterine activity during PG and contributes to the release of breast milk)

    • C.

      Stores the Antidiuretic Hormones (ADH/ vasopression)

    • D.

      Is responsible for the release of growth hormone and melanocyte stimulating hormone

    • E.

      Is located at the base of the brain

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Is located beneath the hypothalamus
    B. Aids in the excretion of Oytocin (responsible for uterine activity during PG and contributes to the release of breast milk)
    C. Stores the Antidiuretic Hormones (ADH/ vasopression)
    E. Is located at the base of the brain
    Explanation
    The Posterior Pituitary Gland is located beneath the hypothalamus and at the base of the brain. It aids in the excretion of Oytocin, which is responsible for uterine activity during pregnancy and contributes to the release of breast milk. Additionally, it stores the Antidiuretic Hormones (ADH/ vasopression).

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  • 3. 

    Mark all that is true about Growth Hormone...

    • A.

      Acts only on bones

    • B.

      Has a effect on insulin resistance

    • C.

      Acts on all body tissues (bones and muscles)

    • D.

      Is regulated only by the GH-inhibiting hormone or somatostatin

    • E.

      Is effected by the amount of sleep, exercise, and stress

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Has a effect on insulin resistance
    C. Acts on all body tissues (bones and muscles)
    E. Is effected by the amount of sleep, exercise, and stress
    Explanation
    Growth hormone has a effect on insulin resistance, meaning that it can affect the body's ability to respond to insulin. It also acts on all body tissues, including bones and muscles, promoting growth and development. The amount of sleep, exercise, and stress can also have an impact on growth hormone levels, affecting its production and release. Therefore, all of the statements provided in the answer are true.

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  • 4. 

    True of False.  Hormonal deficit is usually related to pituitary defects.

    Correct Answer(s)
    true
    Explanation
    Hormonal deficit is usually related to pituitary defects because the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, plays a crucial role in regulating hormone production and release. It controls the functions of other endocrine glands in the body, such as the thyroid, adrenal glands, and reproductive organs. If there is a defect or dysfunction in the pituitary gland, it can lead to a hormonal deficit, as the gland may not produce or release enough hormones. Therefore, it is true that hormonal deficit is usually related to pituitary defects.

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  • 5. 

    True or False.  Malfunctioning of the Pituitary Gland can cause excess or a deficit of hormonal stimulation.

    Correct Answer(s)
    True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the pituitary gland is responsible for producing and releasing hormones that regulate various bodily functions. If the pituitary gland malfunctions, it can either produce an excess or a deficit of hormones, leading to hormonal imbalances and related health issues. This can result in conditions such as hyperpituitarism or hypopituitarism, depending on whether there is an overproduction or underproduction of hormones.

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  • 6. 

    True or false.  If excess hormone is secreted from a target gland, hormonal released from the anterior pituitary is suppressed.  This is called NEGITIVE FEEDBACK SYSTEM.

    Correct Answer(s)
    true
    Explanation
    When excess hormone is secreted from a target gland, it inhibits the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland. This is an example of negative feedback system, where the output of a system (hormones from the target gland) inhibits the input (hormones from the anterior pituitary gland), leading to a decrease in the overall hormone levels. This helps maintain hormonal balance in the body.

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  • 7. 

    What increases the release of Growth Hormone?  There may be more than one.

    • A.

      Exercise

    • B.

      Emotional deprivation

    • C.

      Hypoglycemia

    • D.

      Hyperglycemia

    • E.

      Hypothyroidism

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Exercise
    C. Hypoglycemia
    Explanation
    Exercise and hypoglycemia both increase the release of growth hormone. During exercise, the body requires more energy, and growth hormone is released to help mobilize energy stores and promote muscle growth and repair. Hypoglycemia, which is low blood sugar, also triggers the release of growth hormone as a response to low energy availability. Hyperglycemia, on the other hand, is high blood sugar and does not stimulate the release of growth hormone. Hypothyroidism, a condition characterized by an underactive thyroid gland, can actually decrease the release of growth hormone. Emotional deprivation, although not mentioned in the explanation, does not have a direct impact on the release of growth hormone.

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  • 8. 

    What drugs are used for Growth Hormone DEFICIENCY?  Remeber that these drugs should only be given @ BEDTIME....SQ

    • A.

      Somatrem (Protropin)

    • B.

      Bromocriptine (Parlodel)

    • C.

      Somatropin (Humatrope)

    • D.

      Octreotide (Sandostatin)

    • E.

      Levothroxine (Synthroid)

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Somatrem (Protropin)
    C. Somatropin (Humatrope)
    Explanation
    The drugs Somatrem (Protropin) and Somatropin (Humatrope) are used for Growth Hormone Deficiency. These drugs are typically administered at bedtime.

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  • 9. 

    What drugs should be used for GH EXCESS

    • A.

      Somatrem (Protropin)

    • B.

      Bromocriptine (Parlodel)

    • C.

      Levothroxine (Synthroid)

    • D.

      Octreotide (Sandostatin)

    • E.

      Somatropin (Humatrope)

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Bromocriptine (Parlodel)
    D. Octreotide (Sandostatin)
    Explanation
    Bromocriptine (Parlodel) and Octreotide (Sandostatin) should be used for GH (growth hormone) excess. Bromocriptine is a dopamine agonist that inhibits the release of growth hormone, while Octreotide is a somatostatin analog that also inhibits the release of growth hormone. Both drugs are used to treat conditions such as acromegaly, a disorder characterized by excessive growth hormone production.

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  • 10. 

    Click on all that are true.

    • A.

      Sandostatin is a once per month growth hormone suppressant

    • B.

      Parlodel decreases prolactin tumors

    • C.

      Acromegaly disproportional growth is associated with childhood

    • D.

      Radiation and Surgery are also treatments for GH excess

    • E.

      GH Dificiency Hormones must be replaced before epiphyses of long bones are fused

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Sandostatin is a once per month growth hormone suppressant
    B. Parlodel decreases prolactin tumors
    D. Radiation and Surgery are also treatments for GH excess
    E. GH Dificiency Hormones must be replaced before epiphyses of long bones are fused
    Explanation
    Sandostatin is a once per month growth hormone suppressant, which means it is used to reduce the production of growth hormone in the body. Parlodel decreases prolactin tumors, indicating that it is used to treat tumors that produce excessive amounts of prolactin hormone. Radiation and Surgery are also treatments for GH excess, suggesting that they are alternative methods to reduce excessive growth hormone levels. GH Deficiency Hormones must be replaced before epiphyses of long bones are fused, indicating that hormone replacement therapy is necessary to ensure proper growth and development before the growth plates in the long bones close.

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  • 11. 

    True or False.  Corticosteroids may cause a increase in growth.

    Correct Answer(s)
    False
    Explanation
    Corticosteroids may inhibit growth response.

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  • 12. 

    True or False.  Prolonged Growth Hormone Therapy can antagonize insulin secretion and eventually cause DM.

    Correct Answer(s)
    True
    Explanation
    Prolonged Growth Hormone Therapy can lead to antagonizing insulin secretion and ultimately cause Diabetes Mellitus (DM). This is because growth hormone can interfere with the function of insulin, which is responsible for regulating blood sugar levels. When insulin secretion is disrupted, it can result in insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism, leading to the development of DM. Therefore, it is important to monitor and manage insulin levels carefully during Growth Hormone Therapy to minimize the risk of developing DM.

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  • 13. 

    What is true or is associated with the thyroid gland?

    • A.

      It produces Calcitonin

    • B.

      Thyroxine (t4) turns into Triiodothyronine (t3)

    • C.

      Controls metabolic rate

    • D.

      Is stimulated by the Anterior pituitary gland with the secretion of TSH

    • E.

      Operates by Negative Feedback

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. It produces Calcitonin
    B. Thyroxine (t4) turns into Triiodothyronine (t3)
    C. Controls metabolic rate
    D. Is stimulated by the Anterior pituitary gland with the secretion of TSH
    E. Operates by Negative Feedback
    Explanation
    The thyroid gland produces calcitonin, a hormone that helps regulate calcium levels in the body. Thyroxine (T4) is converted into triiodothyronine (T3), which are both thyroid hormones that play a role in regulating metabolism. The thyroid gland controls metabolic rate, influencing how the body uses energy. It is stimulated by the anterior pituitary gland, which secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to signal the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland operates through negative feedback, meaning that when thyroid hormone levels are high, it inhibits the release of TSH to maintain balance.

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  • 14. 

    What produces Calcitonin?  What does it do?

    • A.

      Decreased bone storage of calcium and renal excretion

    • B.

      Parathyroid

    • C.

      Decreases blood serum calcium

    • D.

      Adrenal glands

    • E.

      Thyroid

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Decreases blood serum calcium
    E. Thyroid
    Explanation
    The thyroid gland produces calcitonin, which is a hormone that helps to decrease the level of calcium in the blood serum. This hormone works by inhibiting the breakdown of bone tissue, which reduces the release of calcium into the bloodstream. Additionally, calcitonin promotes the excretion of calcium by the kidneys, further lowering the blood serum calcium levels.

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  • 15. 

    (Hypo) What drug should only be used when taking thyroid cancer patient's off thyroid replacement for radioactive iodine treatment for reoccurring cancer?

    • A.

      Levothyroxine

    • B.

      Liotrix

    • C.

      Liothronine

    • D.

      Levothroid

    • E.

      Lynthroid

    Correct Answer
    C. Liothronine
    Explanation
    Liothronin also has a shorter half-life and duration of action

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  • 16. 

    What secretes TSH, which stimulates the thyroid gland to produce T4 and T3

    • A.

      Posterior Pituitary Gland

    • B.

      Anterior Pituitary Gland

    Correct Answer
    B. Anterior Pituitary Gland
    Explanation
    The anterior pituitary gland secretes TSH, which stimulates the thyroid gland to produce T4 and T3. TSH stands for thyroid-stimulating hormone and is produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland in response to low levels of T4 and T3 in the blood. When TSH binds to receptors on the thyroid gland, it triggers the production and release of T4 and T3, which are important hormones for regulating metabolism and growth in the body. Therefore, the anterior pituitary gland plays a crucial role in the regulation of thyroid hormone production.

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  • 17. 

    Stimulation of thyroid hormones....

    • A.

      Increase oxygen consumption

    • B.

      Increase cardiac output

    • C.

      Decrease cardiac output

    • D.

      Decrease oxygen consumption

    • E.

      Increase carbohydrate use

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Increase oxygen consumption
    B. Increase cardiac output
    E. Increase carbohydrate use
    Explanation
    Stimulation of thyroid hormones is known to increase the metabolic rate of the body, leading to an increase in oxygen consumption. This is because thyroid hormones play a crucial role in regulating the body's metabolism, including the breakdown of nutrients and the production of energy. Additionally, thyroid hormones also have a direct effect on the heart, increasing cardiac output. This means that more blood is pumped out of the heart per minute, resulting in an increase in overall oxygen consumption. Furthermore, thyroid hormones also promote the use of carbohydrates as a source of energy, further contributing to the increase in oxygen consumption.

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  • 18. 

    What is the Primary cause of bothHypersecretion - hyperthyroidismhyposecretion - hypothyroidism?

    • A.

      Pituitary Disorder

    • B.

      Thyroid Gland Disorder

    Correct Answer
    B. Thyroid Gland Disorder
    Explanation
    Secondary cause = Pituitary

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  • 19. 

    A decrease in T4 and a normal or elevated TSH indicates a ?

    • A.

      Thyroid Disorder

    • B.

      Pituitary Disorder

    Correct Answer
    A. Thyroid Disorder
    Explanation
    A decrease in T4 and a normal or elevated TSH indicates a thyroid disorder. T4 is a thyroid hormone that is produced by the thyroid gland. When its levels decrease, it suggests a malfunction in the thyroid gland, leading to a thyroid disorder. TSH, on the other hand, is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid to produce T4. If TSH is normal or elevated, it indicates that the pituitary gland is functioning properly and trying to compensate for the low T4 levels. Therefore, the combination of low T4 and normal or elevated TSH points towards a thyroid disorder.

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  • 20. 

    A increase in TSH and a Increase in T4    or aDecrease in TSH and a Decrease in T4 is contributed to a ? disorder

    • A.

      Pituitary

    • B.

      Thyroid

    Correct Answer
    A. Pituitary
    Explanation
    An increase in TSH and a decrease in T4 levels indicate a disorder in the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland produces TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), which stimulates the thyroid gland to produce T4 (thyroxine). If there is an increase in TSH and a decrease in T4, it suggests that the pituitary gland is overproducing TSH, but the thyroid gland is not responding properly to produce enough T4. This imbalance in hormone levels is characteristic of a pituitary disorder.

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  • 21. 

    What is the correct term for hypothyroidism in a adult?

    • A.

      Myxedema

    • B.

      Cretinism

    Correct Answer
    A. Myxedema
    Explanation
    Myxedema is the correct term for hypothyroidism in adults. Hypothyroidism is a condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone, leading to a decrease in metabolism and a variety of symptoms. Myxedema specifically refers to the severe form of hypothyroidism, characterized by swelling, thickening, and dryness of the skin. Cretinism, on the other hand, is a term used to describe hypothyroidism that occurs in infants and children, leading to stunted growth and intellectual disability.

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  • 22. 

    What is the correct term for congenital hypothyroidism in a infant or child?

    • A.

      Myxedema

    • B.

      Cretinism

    Correct Answer
    B. Cretinism
    Explanation
    Cretinism is the correct term for congenital hypothyroidism in an infant or child. Cretinism is a condition caused by a deficiency of thyroid hormone during fetal development, leading to stunted growth, intellectual disability, and other physical and mental abnormalities. It is characterized by delayed physical and mental development, short stature, coarse facial features, and impaired cognitive function. Myxedema, on the other hand, refers to severe hypothyroidism in adults and is not specific to infants or children.

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  • 23. 

    S/s lethargy, memory impairment, emotional changes, slow speech, edema of the face, cold intolerance, slow pulse, constipation and weigh gain are all signs of ?

    • A.

      Hyperthyroidism

    • B.

      Hypoparathyroidism

    • C.

      Hypothyroidism

    • D.

      Hyperparathyroidism

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypothyroidism
    Explanation
    The symptoms described in the question, such as lethargy, memory impairment, emotional changes, slow speech, edema of the face, cold intolerance, slow pulse, constipation, and weight gain, are all characteristic signs of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones, leading to a decrease in metabolism and a variety of symptoms.

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  • 24. 

    Hypothyroidism is characterized by Free T4 and TSH.  (True or False)

    Correct Answer
    True
    Explanation
    Hypothyroidism is also the most common thyroid gland dysfunction

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  • 25. 

    How long does it take Levothroxine to take effect?  Weeks?

    • A.

      2-4

    • B.

      1-3

    • C.

      4-6

    • D.

      6-8

    • E.

      Works immediately

    Correct Answer
    C. 4-6
    Explanation
    Lab values are checked at least 4 weeks post start of new dose

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  • 26. 

    Hypothyroidism drug interactions with Levothyroxine, Liothronine, and Liotrix.  Choose all that apply.

    • A.

      Interacts with decongestants = cardiac s/s (palpations)

    • B.

      Interacts with decongestions = resp s/s (respitatory depression)

    • C.

      Anticoagulants will decrease effects

    • D.

      Anticoagulants will increase effects

    • E.

      Insulin and antidiabetic drugs combined may need to be increased

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Interacts with decongestants = cardiac s/s (palpations)
    C. Anticoagulants will decrease effects
    E. Insulin and antidiabetic drugs combined may need to be increased
    Explanation
    Hypothyroidism drugs such as Levothyroxine, Liothronine, and Liotrix can interact with decongestants and cause cardiac symptoms such as palpitations. Additionally, anticoagulants can decrease the effects of these drugs. Finally, when insulin and antidiabetic drugs are combined with hypothyroidism drugs, the dosage may need to be increased.

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  • 27. 

    S/s = rapid pulse (tachycardia), palpitations, excessive perspiration, heat intolerance, nervousness, irritability, bulging eyes (exophthalmos) and weight loss are all signs and symptoms of ....

    • A.

      Hyperparathyroidism

    • B.

      Hyperthyroidism

    • C.

      Hypothyroidism

    • D.

      Hypoparathyroidism

    Correct Answer
    B. Hyperthyroidism
    Explanation
    The given signs and symptoms such as rapid pulse, palpitations, excessive perspiration, heat intolerance, nervousness, irritability, bulging eyes (exophthalmos), and weight loss are all indicative of hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland produces an excessive amount of thyroid hormones. These symptoms occur due to the increased metabolic rate caused by the excess thyroid hormones.

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  • 28. 

    Hyperthyroidism treatments.  Choose all that apply

    • A.

      Thyroidectomy w/ life long hormonal therapy

    • B.

      Radioactive isotropic therapy

    • C.

      Propylthiouracil

    • D.

      Methimazole

    • E.

      Thyrotoxicosis

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Thyroidectomy w/ life long hormonal therapy
    C. Propylthiouracil
    D. Methimazole
    Explanation
    The correct answer choices for hyperthyroidism treatments are thyroidectomy with lifelong hormonal therapy, propylthiouracil, and methimazole. Thyroidectomy is the surgical removal of the thyroid gland, which can be an effective treatment for hyperthyroidism. Lifelong hormonal therapy is necessary after thyroidectomy because the patient will no longer produce thyroid hormones naturally. Propylthiouracil and methimazole are both antithyroid medications that can help to reduce the production of thyroid hormones in the body. These medications are commonly used as first-line treatments for hyperthyroidism.

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  • 29. 

    Which Hyperthyroid medication is 10X more potent and has a longer 1/2 life?

    • A.

      Propylthiouracil

    • B.

      Methimazole

    • C.

      Iodine - if used before thyroidectomy

    • D.

      Thyrotoxicosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Methimazole
    Explanation
    Methimazole is the correct answer because it is 10 times more potent and has a longer half-life compared to Propylthiouracil. Methimazole is a medication used to treat hyperthyroidism by reducing the production of thyroid hormones. Its potency and longer half-life make it a more effective option for managing hyperthyroidism.

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  • 30. 

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with

    • A.

      Thyroid nodules

    • B.

      Grave's Disease

    • C.

      Thyrotoxicosis

    • D.

      Hyperfunction of the thryroid gland

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Thyroid nodules
    B. Grave's Disease
    C. Thyrotoxicosis
    D. Hyperfunction of the thryroid gland
    Explanation
    Hyperthyroidism is a condition characterized by an overactive thyroid gland, which leads to increased production of thyroid hormones. This excess production can be caused by various factors, including thyroid nodules, Grave's Disease, thyrotoxicosis, and hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. Thyroid nodules are abnormal growths or lumps in the thyroid gland that can produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormones. Grave's Disease is an autoimmune disorder that causes the thyroid gland to produce too much thyroid hormone. Thyrotoxicosis refers to the condition of having an excess of thyroid hormones in the bloodstream. Hyperfunction of the thyroid gland simply means that the thyroid gland is producing an excessive amount of hormones.

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  • 31. 

    Hyperthyroidism medication drug interactions.  Choose all that apply.

    • A.

      Decreases anticoagulant effects

    • B.

      Increases the effects of insulin and antidiabetics

    • C.

      Decreases the effects of insuling and antidiabetics

    • D.

      Increases anticoagulants effects

    • E.

      Digoxin increase the action of thyroid drugs

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Decreases the effects of insuling and antidiabetics
    D. Increases anticoagulants effects
    E. Digoxin increase the action of thyroid drugs
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "decreases the effects of insulin and antidiabetics, increases anticoagulants effects, digoxin increase the action of thyroid drugs". Hyperthyroidism medication can interact with other drugs, leading to changes in their effectiveness. In this case, the medication can decrease the effects of insulin and antidiabetic drugs, potentially leading to poor blood sugar control. It can also increase the effects of anticoagulant drugs, which can increase the risk of bleeding. Additionally, digoxin, a medication used to treat heart conditions, can interact with thyroid drugs and increase their action.

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  • 32. 

    What is the main association with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM?

    • A.

      Hypokalcemia

    • B.

      Hypocalcemia

    • C.

      Hypovolemia

    • D.

      Hydrostatic fluid

    • E.

      Hyponatremia

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypocalcemia
    Explanation
    can also be caused by vitamin d deficiency, renal impairment or diuretic therapy

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  • 33. 

    What drugs are associated with Hypoparathyroidism

    • A.

      Calcifediol (Calderol)

    • B.

      Calcitonin (Cibacalcin)

    • C.

      Calcitionin (Miacalcin)

    • D.

      Etidronate (didronel)

    • E.

      Calcitriol (Rocaltrol)

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Calcifediol (Calderol)
    E. Calcitriol (Rocaltrol)
    Explanation
    Rocaltrol is a vitamin D supplement

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  • 34. 

    What drugs are associated with Hyperparathyroidism?

    • A.

      Calcifediol (Calderol)

    • B.

      Calcitonin (Cibacalcin)

    • C.

      Calcitionin (Miacalcin)

    • D.

      Etidronate (didronel)

    • E.

      Calcitriol (Rocaltrol)

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Calcitonin (Cibacalcin)
    C. Calcitionin (Miacalcin)
    D. Etidronate (didronel)
    Explanation
    Miacalcin is also used in osteoprosis (keeps Ca+ in the bone) and can be given intranasal

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  • 35. 

    The main cause of Hyperparathyroidism is attributed to the onset of Hypercalcemia.  Other than hypercalcemia what else can contribute to hyperparathyroidism?

    • A.

      Prolonged immobility (bedrest)

    • B.

      Hyperthyroidism

    • C.

      Lung cancer

    • D.

      Too much exercise

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Prolonged immobility (bedrest)
    B. Hyperthyroidism
    C. Lung cancer
    Explanation
    can also be caused by malignancies of parathyroid gland or ectopic PTH secretion from lung cancer, hyperthyroidism or prolonged immobitlity in which clacium is lost from bone

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  • 36. 

    Glucocorticoids have a profound influence on electrolytes and metabolism of carbs, proteins and fats

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Glucocorticoids are a type of steroid hormone that plays a crucial role in regulating electrolyte balance and metabolism. They affect the levels of sodium and potassium in the body, which in turn influences fluid balance and blood pressure. Glucocorticoids also have a significant impact on the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. They can increase blood sugar levels by promoting gluconeogenesis (the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources) and inhibiting glucose uptake by cells. Additionally, glucocorticoids can stimulate the breakdown of proteins and fats, leading to increased release of amino acids and fatty acids into the bloodstream. Therefore, the statement that glucocorticoids have a profound influence on electrolytes and metabolism of carbs, proteins, and fats is true.

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  • 37. 

    Adrenal Glands are associated with Cushing's and Addison Sydrome.  True or False?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because both Cushing's and Addison's Syndrome are disorders related to the adrenal glands. Cushing's Syndrome occurs when there is an excess production of cortisol hormone by the adrenal glands, while Addison's Syndrome happens when the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol and aldosterone hormones. Therefore, the adrenal glands are indeed associated with both these syndromes.

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  • 38. 

    Catecholamines are sumpathomimetic (fight or flight hormones)  and are released by the adrenal glands in response to stress. They are part of the sympathetic nervous system.  The most abundant Catecholamines are Epinephrine and Norepinphrine.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Catecholamines, such as epinephrine and norepinephrine, are indeed sympathomimetic hormones released by the adrenal glands in response to stress. They are part of the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for the fight or flight response. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 39. 

    Excessive ACTH leads to hyper secretion of gluocoriticoids.  This causes what?

    • A.

      Addision Syndrome

    • B.

      Cushing's Syndrome

    Correct Answer
    B. Cushing's Syndrome
    Explanation
    Excessive ACTH leads to hyper secretion of glucocorticoids, which causes Cushing's Syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by the excessive production of cortisol, a hormone that regulates metabolism and immune response. Symptoms of Cushing's Syndrome include weight gain, muscle weakness, high blood pressure, and mood swings. It can be caused by various factors, such as the prolonged use of corticosteroid medications or tumors in the pituitary or adrenal glands.

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  • 40. 

    Glucocorticoids are used for?

    • A.

      Allergic reations

    • B.

      For MS, RA, UC, asthma, organ transplant

    • C.

      Inflammation

    • D.

      Bronchoconstriction

    • E.

      Vasoconstriction

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Allergic reations
    B. For MS, RA, UC, asthma, organ transplant
    C. Inflammation
    Explanation
    Glucocorticoids are used for allergic reactions, multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ulcerative colitis (UC), asthma, organ transplant, and inflammation. These medications have anti-inflammatory properties and can suppress the immune system, making them effective in treating various conditions associated with inflammation and immune dysfunction. They help alleviate symptoms such as swelling, redness, pain, and allergic reactions by reducing the production of inflammatory substances in the body. Glucocorticoids can also be used to prevent organ rejection after transplantation.

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  • 41. 

    Side effects for Glucocorticoids

    • A.

      Hyperglycemia

    • B.

      Hypoglycemia

    • C.

      Edema

    • D.

      Dehydration

    • E.

      Euphoria

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Hyperglycemia
    C. Edema
    E. Euphoria
    Explanation
    Glucocorticoids are a class of medications that can have various side effects. Hyperglycemia is one of the side effects, which means high blood sugar levels. This occurs because glucocorticoids can increase the production of glucose in the body. Edema, or swelling, is another possible side effect of glucocorticoids. This can happen due to fluid retention caused by the medication. Euphoria, a feeling of extreme happiness or excitement, can also occur as a side effect of glucocorticoids. This may be due to the impact of the medication on certain brain chemicals.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
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    Quiz Created by
    Kcupery
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