Motor Function Quiz: How Much Do You Know About Motor Function?

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Motor Function Quiz: How Much Do You Know About Motor Function? - Quiz

Ready to put your knowledge to the test? Take our Motor Function Quiz to see how much you really know about motor function! This quiz is all about understanding how our bodies move and function, from basic movements to complex coordination.
Motor function refers to the ability of the body to perform coordinated movements involving muscles, nerves, and the brain. It encompasses various aspects, including gross motor skills (such as walking and running) and fine motor skills (such as writing and grasping objects).
This quiz delves into the intricacies of motor function, covering topics such as the Read moreanatomy of the nervous system, the role of motor neurons, the coordination of muscle movements, and the factors that influence motor development and control.


Motor Function Questions and Answers

  • 1. 

    Reflexes require conscious input from the brain.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Reflexes are automatic, involuntary responses to stimuli that occur without conscious input from the brain. Instead, they are mediated by neural pathways known as reflex arcs, which involve sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. When a stimulus is detected by sensory receptors, such as touch or pain, sensory neurons transmit signals to the spinal cord or brainstem, where a rapid and automatic response is generated without conscious thought.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following reflexes requires the most synapses?

    • A.

      Stretch Reflex

    • B.

      Tendon Refelx

    • C.

      Flexor/Withdrawal Reflex

    Correct Answer
    C. Flexor/Withdrawal Reflex
    Explanation
    The Flexor/Withdrawal Reflex is a protective reflex that causes the rapid withdrawal of a body part (such as a hand or foot) away from a painful or threatening stimulus, such as heat, sharp objects, or intense pressure. This reflex involves multiple synapses in the spinal cord, as sensory neurons transmit signals from the stimulus to interneurons, which then relay the signal to motor neurons that control the muscles responsible for withdrawing the limb.

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  • 3. 

    Which pair of reflexes work in opposition to one another?

    • A.

      Stretch reflex and tendon reflex

    • B.

      Tendon reflex and flexor reflex

    • C.

      Flexor reflex and stretch reflex

    Correct Answer
    A. Stretch reflex and tendon reflex
    Explanation
    The Stretch Reflex, also known as the myotatic reflex, is a protective mechanism that functions to maintain muscle length and tension in response to changes in muscle length. When a muscle is stretched rapidly, such as during a sudden stretch or tap, sensory receptors called muscle spindles detect the change and send signals to the spinal cord.

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  • 4. 

    What tracts are involved in the vestibular system at the level of the brainstem?

    • A.

      Lateral Vestibulospinal Tract

    • B.

      Medial Vestibulospinal Tract

    • C.

      Vestibulospinal Tract

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above." The vestibular system involves multiple tracts at the level of the brainstem. The Lateral Vestibulospinal Tract is responsible for controlling the muscles involved in posture and balance. The Medial Vestibulospinal Tract helps to control neck and upper back muscles. The Vestibulospinal Tract is responsible for coordinating eye movements with head movements. Therefore, all of these tracts are involved in the vestibular system at the level of the brainstem.

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  • 5. 

    The lateral vestibulospinal tract is mainly for posture of the ______ whereas the medial vestibulospinal tract is for posture of the ______.

    • A.

      Body; head

    • B.

      Hands; feet

    • C.

      Feet; hands

    • D.

      Head; body

    Correct Answer
    A. Body; head
    Explanation
    The Lateral Vestibulospinal Tract signals to the arms and legs to compensate for the tilt and movement of the body, particularly during dynamic activities such as walking, running, or maintaining balance. This tract receives input from the vestibular organs in the inner ear and helps adjust muscle tone and posture to counteract the effects of body movements or changes in position.

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  • 6. 

    What is the main function of the reticular formation?

    • A.

      Overall arousal

    • B.

      Muscle tone

    • C.

      Eye movements

    • D.

      Autonomic control

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The reticular formation is a complex network of neurons located in the brainstem. It plays a crucial role in regulating various functions of the central nervous system. It is responsible for maintaining overall arousal, which includes wakefulness, alertness, and attention. Additionally, it helps in controlling muscle tone, which is important for maintaining posture and coordinating movements. The reticular formation also contributes to eye movements, enabling us to track objects and shift our gaze. Moreover, it is involved in autonomic control, regulating essential bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration. Therefore, the correct answer is "all of the above."

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  • 7. 

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex requires visual input to function.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) does not require visual input to function.
    The VOR is a reflexive eye movement that stabilizes gaze during head movements, allowing humans and animals to maintain a clear and focused view of their surroundings even when the head is in motion. This reflex is primarily driven by signals from the vestibular organs in the inner ear, which detect changes in head position and movement, particularly angular rotations.

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  • 8. 

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex works via the medial longitudinal fasciculus.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The vestibulo-ocular reflex is a reflex that helps maintain visual stability during head movements. It works by coordinating the movement of the eyes with the movement of the head. The medial longitudinal fasciculus is a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the vestibular system in the inner ear to the oculomotor nuclei in the brainstem. This pathway is essential for transmitting signals from the vestibular system to the muscles that control eye movement. Therefore, it is correct to say that the vestibulo-ocular reflex works via the medial longitudinal fasciculus.

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  • 9. 

    How does the reticular formation influence muscle tone?

    • A.

      Provides overall inhibition of motor neurons.

    • B.

      Sets sensitivity level for motor neurons.

    • C.

      Provides overall excitability of motor neurons.

    • D.

      More than one of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. More than one of the above.
    Explanation
    The reticular formation, a network of neurons located in the brainstem, plays a crucial role in regulating arousal, attention, and motor control. Within the reticular formation, specific nuclei, such as the reticulospinal nuclei, project to the spinal cord and influence motor neuron activity. These nuclei modulate the sensitivity level of motor neurons, adjusting their responsiveness to incoming signals from higher brain centers and sensory input. By modulating motor neuron sensitivity, the reticular formation helps regulate muscle tone, ensuring appropriate levels of muscle contraction and relaxation for posture, movement, and motor coordination. Therefore, the statement "sets sensitivity level for motor neurons" accurately describes one of the ways in which the reticular formation influences muscle tone.

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  • 10. 

    For the reticular formation autonomic control, it receives inputs from ______ and _____ and sends outputs to ______ and ______

    • A.

      Solitary nucleus and hypothalamus; vagal nucleus, thoracic spinal cord.

    • B.

      Vagal nucleus, thoracic spinal cord; solitary nucleus and hypothalamus.

    • C.

      Vagal nucleus and solitary nucleus; thoracic spinal cord and hypothalamus.

    Correct Answer
    A. Solitary nucleus and hypothalamus; vagal nucleus, thoracic spinal cord.
    Explanation
    The reticular formation is involved in autonomic control and receives inputs from the solitary nucleus and hypothalamus. It also sends outputs to the vagal nucleus and thoracic spinal cord. This suggests that the reticular formation plays a role in regulating autonomic functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion, by receiving sensory information from the solitary nucleus and hypothalamus and sending motor commands to the vagal nucleus and thoracic spinal cord.

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  • 11. 

    The inputs to the cerebellum include ________ and _______.

    • A.

      Mossy fibers and deep nuclei of cortex.

    • B.

      Climbing fibers and deep nuclei of cortex.

    • C.

      Mossy fibers and climbing fibers.

    Correct Answer
    C. Mossy fibers and climbing fibers.
    Explanation
    The cerebellum receives inputs from two main sources: mossy fibers and climbing fibers. Mossy fibers transmit sensory information from various parts of the body to the cerebellum, providing it with information about the current state of the body. Climbing fibers, on the other hand, originate from the inferior olive and provide feedback related to motor commands and error signals. Therefore, mossy fibers and climbing fibers are the correct inputs to the cerebellum.

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  • 12. 

    Climbing fibers input more specific info to the cerebellum compared to the mossy fibers.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    True.

    Climbing fibers provide more specific information to the cerebellum compared to mossy fibers.

    Climbing fibers are a type of axon that originates from neurons in the inferior olivary nucleus and projects to the cerebellum. These fibers form synapses with Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex, providing direct and powerful input to these cells. The activity of climbing fibers is highly specific, with each climbing fiber typically synapsing onto only one or a few Purkinje cells. This specificity allows climbing fibers to convey detailed and precise information to the cerebellum, particularly regarding errors in movement or sensory feedback.

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  • 13. 

    The vestibular system at the brainstem level interacts with:

    • A.

      Reticular formation

    • B.

      Cerebellum

    • C.

      Spinal cord

    • D.

      Eye muscles

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The vestibular system, located in the inner ear, is responsible for maintaining balance and spatial orientation. It interacts with various parts of the body to perform its functions. The reticular formation, located in the brainstem, plays a role in regulating arousal and consciousness, and it also receives input from the vestibular system. The cerebellum, located in the brain, coordinates movement and receives information from the vestibular system to maintain balance. The vestibular system also sends signals to the spinal cord to control posture and muscle tone. Additionally, it interacts with the muscles of the eyes to coordinate eye movements. Therefore, the correct answer is that the vestibular system interacts with all of the above-mentioned structures.

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  • 14. 

    What are the 3 layers of the cerebellar cortex?

    • A.

      Molecular layer, granular layer, purkinje cell layer

    • B.

      Molecular layer, granular layer, climbing fiber layer

    • C.

      Granular layer, golgi cell layer, medullary layer

    Correct Answer
    A. Molecular layer, granular layer, purkinje cell layer
    Explanation
    The cerebellar cortex consists of three distinct layers, each with specialized functions:
    Molecular layer: This outermost layer contains a dense network of neuronal processes, including dendrites of Purkinje cells, axons of granule cells (forming parallel fibers), and interneurons. It also contains the synapses between parallel fibers and Purkinje cell dendrites, as well as synapses from other inputs, such as climbing fibers.
    Granular layer: Located beneath the molecular layer, the granular layer contains densely packed granule cells, which are the most numerous type of neuron in the cerebellum. These small neurons receive input from mossy fibers originating from various sources and project their axons (parallel fibers) vertically through the molecular layer, forming synapses with Purkinje cell dendrites and other neurons.
    Purkinje cell layer: This innermost layer consists of a single row of large Purkinje cells, which are the principal output neurons of the cerebellar cortex. Purkinje cells receive input from both climbing fibers (originating from the inferior olivary nucleus) and parallel fibers (originating from granule cells). They integrate this input and send inhibitory signals to deep cerebellar nuclei and other brain regions, thus modulating motor output.

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  • 15. 

    Mossy fibers originate from:

    • A.

      Vestibular nuclei

    • B.

      Reticular formation

    • C.

      Spinal cord

    • D.

      Lateral cuneate nucleus

    • E.

      Pontine nuclei

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Spinal cord
    E. Pontine nuclei
    Explanation
    Mossy fibers are a type of axon that originates from specific regions in the central nervous system. These fibers project to various parts of the brain, including the cerebellum.

    Specifically:
    Mossy fibers originate from neurons located in the spinal cord, transmitting sensory information from the periphery to the cerebellum. This input contributes to motor coordination and balance.
    Mossy fibers also originate from neurons in the pontine nuclei, which are clusters of neurons located in the brainstem. These fibers convey sensory and motor information from the cerebral cortex, brainstem nuclei, and spinal cord to the cerebellum, assisting in motor planning and coordination.

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  • 16. 

    Purkinje cells receive 8,000-20,000 parallel fiber inputs.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    True. Purkinje cells receive inputs from thousands of parallel fibers, which originate from granule cells in the cerebellar cortex. This convergence allows for the integration of signals from multiple sources and plays a crucial role in the computational functions of the cerebellum.

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  • 17. 

    Climbing fibers in the cerebellum send info to:

    • A.

      Purkinje cells

    • B.

      Mossy fibers

    • C.

      Stellate cells

    • D.

      Basket cells

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Purkinje cells
    C. Stellate cells
    D. Basket cells
    Explanation
    Climbing fibers in the cerebellum send information to Purkinje cells, stellate cells, and basket cells. Purkinje cells are the main output neurons of the cerebellum and receive input from climbing fibers, which play a crucial role in motor control and coordination. Stellate cells and basket cells are inhibitory interneurons in the cerebellum that receive input from climbing fibers and help regulate the activity of Purkinje cells. Together, these cells form a complex network that is involved in fine-tuning motor movements and maintaining balance.

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  • 18. 

    The Purkinje cells send ______ output to the deep nuclei cells using ______.

    • A.

      Excitatory; glutamate

    • B.

      Inhibitory; GABA

    • C.

      Excitatory; acetylcholine

    Correct Answer
    B. Inhibitory; GABA
    Explanation
    The Purkinje cells are known to send inhibitory output to the deep nuclei cells using the neurotransmitter GABA. This means that the Purkinje cells decrease the activity of the deep nuclei cells, preventing them from firing and transmitting signals. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps regulate the excitability of neurons in the brain.

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  • 19. 

    The vestibular division of the cerebellum is involved in:

    • A.

      Balance

    • B.

      Eye movements

    • C.

      Muscle tone

    • D.

      Motor rhythms

    • E.

      More than one of the above

    • F.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. More than one of the above
    Explanation
    The Purkinje cells are known to send inhibitory output to the deep nuclei cells using the neurotransmitter GABA. This means that the Purkinje cells decrease the activity of the deep nuclei cells, preventing them from firing and transmitting signals. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps regulate the excitability of neurons in the brain.

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  • 20. 

    The spinal division of the cerebellum is NOT involved with:

    • A.

      Muscle tone

    • B.

      Motor rhythms

    • C.

      Walking

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    The spinal division of the cerebellum, also known as the vermis and intermediate zone, is involved in various aspects of motor control and coordination, including muscle tone, motor rhythms, and walking. Therefore, it is not accurate to say that it is not involved with any of these functions. Instead, it contributes significantly to motor coordination and posture regulation, particularly in movements related to the trunk and proximal limb muscles.

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  • 21. 

    The cortical division of the cerebellum is involved with:

    • A.

      Timing and coordination of complex motor acts

    • B.

      Planning and prediction of rapid movements

    • C.

      Starts and stops

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The cortical division of the cerebellum is involved in multiple functions, including the timing and coordination of complex motor acts, the planning and prediction of rapid movements, as well as the ability to start and stop movements. Therefore, the correct answer is "all of the above." This division of the cerebellum plays a crucial role in motor control and ensures smooth and accurate movements.

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  • 22. 

    Cerebellar Disease is characterized by which of the following; choose all that apply

    • A.

      Intention tremor (tremor when you make a movement)

    • B.

      Dysdiadochokinesia (impaired rapid alternating movements)

    • C.

      Dysarthria (impairment of motor aspects of speech)

    • D.

      Resting tremor (tremor with not moving)

    • E.

      Nystagmus

    • F.

      Incoordination

    • G.

      Ataxia of gait (uncoordinated walking)

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Intention tremor (tremor when you make a movement)
    B. Dysdiadochokinesia (impaired rapid alternating movements)
    C. Dysarthria (impairment of motor aspects of speech)
    E. Nystagmus
    F. Incoordination
    G. Ataxia of gait (uncoordinated walking)
    Explanation
    Cerebellar Disease is characterized by several symptoms including incoordination, ataxia of gait (uncoordinated walking), intention tremor (tremor when making a movement), dysdiadochokinesia (impaired rapid alternating movements), dysarthria (impairment of motor aspects of speech), and nystagmus. These symptoms are all associated with dysfunction or damage to the cerebellum, which is responsible for coordinating movement and maintaining balance. Incoordination, ataxia of gait, and impaired rapid alternating movements are all indicative of motor control deficits, while intention tremor, dysarthria, and nystagmus are specific movement abnormalities that can occur with cerebellar disease.

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  • 23. 

    Mossy fibers provide ______ input to the deep nuclei cells. Climbing fibers provide _____ input to the deep nuclei cells. Purinkje fibers provide _____ input to the deep nuclei cells

    • A.

      Inhibitory; inhibitory; excitatory

    • B.

      Inhibitory; excitatory; excitatory

    • C.

      Excitatory; excitatory; inhibitory

    • D.

      All provide inhibitory input to account for the negative sensory feedback

    Correct Answer
    C. Excitatory; excitatory; inhibitory
    Explanation
    Mossy fibers provide excitatory input to the deep nuclei cells, which means they increase the likelihood of the cells firing action potentials. Climbing fibers also provide excitatory input to the deep nuclei cells, further increasing their firing activity. On the other hand, Purkinje fibers provide inhibitory input to the deep nuclei cells, decreasing their firing activity. This combination of excitatory and inhibitory inputs helps regulate the activity of the deep nuclei cells and maintain proper functioning of the sensory feedback system.

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  • 24. 

    What structure(s) make up the basal ganglia?

    • A.

      Caudate

    • B.

      Putamen

    • C.

      Amygdala

    • D.

      Globus pallidus

    • E.

      More than one of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. More than one of the above
    Explanation
    Mossy fibers provide excitatory input to the deep nuclei cells, which means they increase the likelihood of the cells firing action potentials. Climbing fibers also provide excitatory input to the deep nuclei cells, further increasing their firing activity. On the other hand, Purkinje fibers provide inhibitory input to the deep nuclei cells, decreasing their firing activity. This combination of excitatory and inhibitory inputs helps regulate the activity of the deep nuclei cells and maintain proper functioning of the sensory feedback system.

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  • 25. 

    The _____ and ____ receive inputs from the motor cortex.  The output is the from ______.

    • A.

      Caudate and globus pallidus; putamen

    • B.

      Caudate and putamen; globus pallidus

    • C.

      Putamen and globus pallidus; caudate

    Correct Answer
    B. Caudate and putamen; globus pallidus
    Explanation
    Mossy fibers provide excitatory input to the deep nuclei cells, which means they increase the likelihood of the cells firing action potentials. Climbing fibers also provide excitatory input to the deep nuclei cells, further increasing their firing activity. On the other hand, Purkinje fibers provide inhibitory input to the deep nuclei cells, decreasing their firing activity. This combination of excitatory and inhibitory inputs helps regulate the activity of the deep nuclei cells and maintain proper functioning of the sensory feedback system.

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  • 26. 

    The basal ganglia:

    • A.

      Controls background muscle tone for voluntary movements.

    • B.

      Stores whole patterns of movement in 'motor files'.

    • C.

      Necessary for normal involuntary movements.

    • D.

      All of the above.

    • E.

      2 of the above.

    Correct Answer
    E. 2 of the above.
    Explanation
    Mossy fibers provide excitatory input to the deep nuclei cells, which means they increase the likelihood of the cells firing action potentials. Climbing fibers also provide excitatory input to the deep nuclei cells, further increasing their firing activity. On the other hand, Purkinje fibers provide inhibitory input to the deep nuclei cells, decreasing their firing activity. This combination of excitatory and inhibitory inputs helps regulate the activity of the deep nuclei cells and maintain proper functioning of the sensory feedback system.

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  • 27. 

    Deep Nuclei of Cerebral Cortex is another name for Basal Ganglia.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the deep nuclei of the cerebral cortex are indeed another name for the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia are a group of structures located deep within the cerebral cortex. They play a crucial role in motor control, cognition, and emotions. The deep nuclei of the cerebral cortex include the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus, among others. These structures work together to regulate movement and are involved in various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease.

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  • 28. 

    The basal ganglia has primary connections with:

    • A.

      Substantia nigra

    • B.

      Thalamus

    • C.

      Cerebellum

    • D.

      Motor cortex

    Correct Answer
    D. Motor cortex
    Explanation
    Mossy fibers provide excitatory input to the deep nuclei cells, which means they increase the likelihood of the cells firing action potentials. Climbing fibers also provide excitatory input to the deep nuclei cells, further increasing their firing activity. On the other hand, Purkinje fibers provide inhibitory input to the deep nuclei cells, decreasing their firing activity. This combination of excitatory and inhibitory inputs helps regulate the activity of the deep nuclei cells and maintain proper functioning of the sensory feedback system.

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  • 29. 

    Output from the globus pallidus is sent to:

    • A.

      Ventroanterior Nuclei of Thalamus

    • B.

      Ventrolateral Nuclei of Thalamus

    • C.

      Ventrosuperior Nuclei of Thalamus

    • D.

      Ventroinferior Nuclei of Thalamus

    • E.

      All of the above

    • F.

      2 of the above

    Correct Answer
    F. 2 of the above
    Explanation
    The globus pallidus is a component of the basal ganglia involved in motor control. Its output influences the activity of the thalamus, a key relay center in the brain. Specifically, the globus pallidus sends inhibitory signals to the ventroanterior nuclei and ventrolateral nuclei of the thalamus, regulating their activity. This modulation of thalamic function ultimately impacts motor circuits and helps coordinate movement and motor responses.

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  • 30. 

    The subthalamus and substantia nigra provide ______ feedback to the _______.

    • A.

      Negative; putamen

    • B.

      Positive; globus pallidus

    • C.

      Negative; globus pallidus

    • D.

      Negative; caudate

    Correct Answer
    C. Negative; globus pallidus
    Explanation
    The subthalamus and substantia nigra, both components of the basal ganglia, provide negative feedback to the globus pallidus. This negative feedback inhibits the activity of the globus pallidus, allowing for the disinhibition of the thalamus and ultimately facilitating movement and motor control. This regulatory mechanism helps fine-tune motor output and maintain proper motor function.

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  • 31. 

    Degeneration of the caudate and putamen results in which disease?

    • A.

      Parkinson's

    • B.

      Tremor

    • C.

      Huntington's

    Correct Answer
    C. Huntington's
    Explanation
    Huntington's disease is a genetic neurological disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of brain cells, particularly in the caudate nucleus and putamen, which are structures within the basal ganglia. This degeneration leads to involuntary movements, cognitive decline, and psychiatric symptoms. As the disease progresses, individuals experience worsening motor and cognitive impairments, impacting their ability to perform daily activities and leading to significant disability.

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  • 32. 

    Degeneration of dopaminergic fibers from substantia nigra results in which disease?

    • A.

      Tremor

    • B.

      Parkinson's

    • C.

      Pallidotomy

    • D.

      Secondary Huntington's

    Correct Answer
    B. Parkinson's
    Explanation
    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra, a region of the brain involved in motor control. This degeneration leads to a reduction in dopamine levels, resulting in motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability. As the disease advances, individuals may also experience non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment, mood changes, and autonomic dysfunction. The loss of dopaminergic fibers disrupts the normal functioning of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit, leading to the characteristic motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

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  • 33. 

    The site of motor activation is:

    • A.

      Secondary motor cortex

    • B.

      Premotor cortex

    • C.

      Motor cortex

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Motor cortex
    Explanation
    The motor cortex, also known as the primary motor cortex or M1, is a region of the cerebral cortex responsible for generating voluntary muscle movements. It directly controls the execution of motor commands sent to the muscles. When motor activation occurs, it originates from the motor cortex, which sends signals to the spinal cord and ultimately to the muscles, resulting in movement.

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  • 34. 

    Check all that apply. The secondary (premotor) cortex:

    • A.

      Initiates complex voluntary acts.

    • B.

      Site of motor conception and organization.

    • C.

      Solicits info from basal ganglia and cerebellum.

    • D.

      Controls background muscle tone for voluntary movements.

    • E.

      Contains specialized areas for speech and eye movements.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Initiates complex voluntary acts.
    B. Site of motor conception and organization.
    C. Solicits info from basal ganglia and cerebellum.
    E. Contains specialized areas for speech and eye movements.
    Explanation
    The secondary (premotor) cortex is responsible for initiating complex voluntary acts, as well as being the site of motor conception and organization. It also receives information from the basal ganglia and cerebellum, which helps in the coordination and execution of movements. Additionally, the secondary cortex contains specialized areas for speech and eye movements, indicating its involvement in these specific functions.

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  • 35. 

    The major descending pathway for the motor cortex is the corticobulbar tract.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The major descending pathway for the motor cortex is actually the corticospinal tract, not the corticobulbar tract. The corticospinal tract is responsible for transmitting motor signals from the motor cortex to the spinal cord, where they ultimately control voluntary movements of the body. In contrast, the corticobulbar tract transmits motor signals from the motor cortex to the brainstem, where they influence motor functions of the cranial nerves, primarily involved in controlling movements of the face and head.

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  • 36. 

    The pyramidal/corticospinal tract carries commands from the primary motor cortex to motor neurons of the:

    • A.

      Brain stem

    • B.

      Spinal cord

    • C.

      Both of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Both of the above
    Explanation
    The pyramidal/corticospinal tract is responsible for carrying commands from the primary motor cortex to motor neurons. These commands are sent to both the brain stem and the spinal cord, allowing for coordinated movement and control of muscles throughout the body. This tract is a crucial pathway in the central nervous system for voluntary motor control.

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  • 37. 

    What common 'path' do sensory and motor neurons have in the brain?

    • A.

      Thalamus

    • B.

      Reflex arc

    • C.

      Cerebral peduncle

    • D.

      Medulla

    Correct Answer
    B. Reflex arc
    Explanation
    Sensory and motor neurons often share a common pathway or circuit in the brain known as a reflex arc. In a reflex arc, sensory neurons carry information from sensory receptors (such as those in the skin, muscles, or organs) to the central nervous system (typically the spinal cord or brainstem). Once in the central nervous system, the sensory information is processed, and motor neurons are activated to produce a response. The motor neurons then transmit signals from the central nervous system back to the muscles or glands, resulting in a motor response, such as muscle contraction or gland secretion. Reflex arcs allow for rapid, involuntary responses to stimuli, helping to protect the body and maintain homeostasis.

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  • 38. 

    The lateral corticospinal tract decussates where?

    • A.

      Right before entering the spinal cord.

    • B.

      Right after entering the midbrain.

    • C.

      Right before entering the medulla.

    Correct Answer
    A. Right before entering the spinal cord.
    Explanation
    The lateral corticospinal tract decussates (crosses over) at the level of the medulla oblongata, specifically in the pyramids of the medulla. This crossing is known as the medullary decussation or the pyramidal decussation. After crossing, the fibers of the lateral corticospinal tract continue down the opposite side of the spinal cord, controlling voluntary movements of the limbs and trunk.

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  • 39. 

    Where does the corticospinal tract synapse in the spinal cord?

    • A.

      Ventral horn

    • B.

      Dorsal horn

    • C.

      Red nucleus

    • D.

      Medullary pyramd

    Correct Answer
    A. Ventral horn
    Explanation
    The corticospinal tract synapses primarily in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Upon reaching the spinal cord, the fibers of the corticospinal tract form synapses with lower motor neurons located in the ventral horn. These lower motor neurons then extend their axons out of the spinal cord to innervate muscles, allowing for voluntary motor control of movement. Some fibers of the corticospinal tract may also synapse with interneurons in the intermediate zone of the spinal cord before reaching the lower motor neurons.

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  • 40. 

    The corticobulbar tract synapses with which nuclei (check all that apply)

    • A.

      Trigeminal Motor Nucleus in pons

    • B.

      Facial Motor Nucleus in pons

    • C.

      Hypoglossal Nucleus in medulla

    • D.

      Nucleus Ambiguous in medulla

    • E.

      Accessory Nucleus in spinal cord

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Trigeminal Motor Nucleus in pons
    B. Facial Motor Nucleus in pons
    C. Hypoglossal Nucleus in medulla
    D. Nucleus Ambiguous in medulla
    E. Accessory Nucleus in spinal cord
    Explanation
    The corticobulbar tract synapses with the Trigeminal Motor Nucleus in the pons, Facial Motor Nucleus in the pons, Hypoglossal Nucleus in the medulla, Nucleus Ambiguous in the medulla, and Accessory Nucleus in the spinal cord.

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  • 41. 

    What is unique about the corticobulbar tract?

    • A.

      It remains contralateral as soon as it enters the pons

    • B.

      It remains ipsilateral the entire tract

    • C.

      It is bilateral

    Correct Answer
    C. It is bilateral
    Explanation
    The corticobulbar tract is unique because it remains bilateral throughout its course. Unlike the corticospinal tract, which primarily crosses over to the contralateral side of the body at the level of the medulla, the corticobulbar tract sends fibers bilaterally to cranial nerve nuclei in the brainstem. This bilateral innervation allows for both hemispheres of the brain to influence motor control of the muscles of the face, head, and neck, providing redundancy and flexibility in motor function.

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  • 42. 

    An essential tremor affects movement of the head, outstretched hand and voice.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The corticobulbar tract synapses with the Trigeminal Motor Nucleus in the pons, Facial Motor Nucleus in the pons, Hypoglossal Nucleus in the medulla, Nucleus Ambiguous in the medulla, and Accessory Nucleus in the spinal cord.

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  • 43. 

    If a patient reports symptoms that are all motor related, which of the following areas can you RULE OUT for the location of the lesion? (check all the apply)

    • A.

      Cortex

    • B.

      Brainstem

    • C.

      Spinal cord

    • D.

      Cerebellum

    Correct Answer
    D. Cerebellum
    Explanation
    If a patient reports symptoms that are all motor-related, you can rule out the cerebellum as the location of the lesion. While the cerebellum is involved in motor coordination and refinement of movement, it primarily receives sensory input and contributes to motor planning rather than directly initiating motor output. Therefore, motor symptoms without associated sensory deficits would not be attributed to cerebellar dysfunction.

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  • 44. 

    In a Parkinson's patient, what will one notice about the substantia nigra?

    • A.

      Darkly pigmented

    • B.

      Atrophy

    • C.

      Lack of pigmentation

    • D.

      Enlargements

    Correct Answer
    C. Lack of pigmentation
    Explanation
    Substantia nigra normally has lots of melanin so in a normal patient we will see lots of melanin in cells (pigmented). However, in a Parkinson's patient we see very little melanin in substantia nigra and therefore less pigmentation.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following are treatments for Parkinson's?

    • A.

      Levodopa

    • B.

      Fetal tissue transplant

    • C.

      Pallidotomy

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Levodopa is a common medication used to alleviate the symptoms of Parkinson's disease by replenishing dopamine levels in the brain. Fetal tissue transplant involves implanting dopamine-producing cells into the brain to replace damaged cells. Pallidotomy is a surgical procedure that involves destroying a small part of the brain called the globus pallidus to improve motor symptoms in Parkinson's patients. These treatments aim to manage symptoms and improve quality of life for individuals with Parkinson's disease.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Feb 27, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 24, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Tseemore
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