Important Ecology Practice Test! Quiz

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Important Ecology Practice Test! Quiz - Quiz

Looking for a quick ecology practice test? This quiz will help you prepare. This quiz's pertinent information includes where most of the nutrients in a tropical rain forest are discovered, a change in the genetic characteristics of a population from one generation to the next, and a deciduous forest. This quiz will be good practice to get you ready to take the test.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Most of the nutrients in the tropical rainforests are found in the

    • A.

      Living organisms

    • B.

      Large rivers

    • C.

      Thick, rich soil

    • D.

      Thick atmosphere

    • E.

      Shallow soil

    Correct Answer
    A. Living organisms
    Explanation
    The correct answer is living organisms because in tropical rainforests, the majority of nutrients are stored within the living organisms such as plants, animals, and microorganisms. These organisms play a crucial role in the nutrient cycle by absorbing, storing, and releasing nutrients back into the ecosystem through decomposition and other processes. The high biodiversity and dense vegetation in tropical rainforests contribute to the abundance of nutrients within the living organisms, making them the primary source of nutrients in this ecosystem.

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  • 2. 

    On a visit to a Natural History museum you are shown a burrow-dwelling small animal with thick fur. You predict the animal came from the

    • A.

      Arctic Tundra

    • B.

      Taiga

    • C.

      Desert

    • D.

      Savanna

    • E.

      Grassland

    Correct Answer
    A. Arctic Tundra
    Explanation
    The animal with thick fur is likely adapted to cold temperatures, which suggests it comes from a cold climate. The Arctic Tundra is known for its extremely cold temperatures and is home to animals with thick fur, such as polar bears and arctic foxes. The other options, such as Taiga, Desert, Savanna, and Grassland, are not typically associated with cold climates and do not have the same characteristics as the Arctic Tundra. Therefore, the animal is most likely from the Arctic Tundra.

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  • 3. 

    A change in the genetic characteristics of a population from one generation to another is called

    • A.

      Emigration

    • B.

      Evolution

    • C.

      Natural Selection

    • D.

      Mutation

    • E.

      Genetic Drift

    Correct Answer
    B. Evolution
    Explanation
    Evolution refers to the change in genetic characteristics of a population over successive generations. It involves the processes of natural selection, mutation, genetic drift, and migration. Emigration refers to the movement of individuals out of a population, while natural selection is the process by which certain traits become more or less common in a population due to their impact on survival and reproduction. Mutation is a random change in DNA, and genetic drift is the random change in gene frequencies in a population. Therefore, the correct answer is evolution.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is true?

    • A.

      The higher the species richness, the lower productivity.

    • B.

      The higher the species richness, the lower the sustainability.

    • C.

      The lower the species richness, the more the productivity.

    • D.

      The higher the species richness, the more the sustainability.

    • E.

      The lower the species richness, the more the sustainability.

    Correct Answer
    D. The higher the species richness, the more the sustainability.
  • 5. 

    Which of the following about temperate deciduous forests is false?

    • A.

      Average temperatures change significantly with the seasons.

    • B.

      They are predominantly a few broadleaf deciduous tree species.

    • C.

      They have been disturbed by humans more than any other land biome.

    • D.

      They have nutrient-poor soil.

    • E.

      Precipitation often spreads relatively evenly throughout the year.

    Correct Answer
    D. They have nutrient-poor soil.
    Explanation
    Temperate deciduous forests are characterized by a diverse range of tree species, including both broadleaf deciduous and coniferous trees. The statement that they are predominantly a few broadleaf deciduous tree species is incorrect because these forests contain a variety of tree species. Additionally, temperate deciduous forests have not been disturbed by humans more than any other land biome, as human activities have impacted various biomes around the world. Finally, precipitation in temperate deciduous forests often spreads relatively evenly throughout the year, which is contrary to the statement provided.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is true of species richness on islands?

    • A.

      Larger islands closer to a mainland have the highest number of species.

    • B.

      Smaller islands closer to a mainland have the highest number of species

    • C.

      Smaller islands farthest from a mainland have the highest number of species

    • D.

      Larger islands farthest from a mainland have the highest number of species.

    • E.

      Larger islands closer to a mainland have the lowest number of species.

    Correct Answer
    A. Larger islands closer to a mainland have the highest number of species.
    Explanation
    Larger islands closer to a mainland have the highest number of species because they are more accessible to species from the mainland, allowing for more immigration and colonization. These islands have a larger area and more diverse habitats, providing more resources and niches for species to occupy. In contrast, smaller islands farther from a mainland have limited resources and are less likely to receive new species, resulting in lower species richness. The answer is supported by the theory of island biogeography, which explains how factors such as distance and island size influence species diversity on islands.

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  • 7. 

    A species with a broad niche is considered a(n)

    • A.

      Endemic species

    • B.

      Endangered species

    • C.

      Generalist species

    • D.

      Native species

    • E.

      Specialist species

    Correct Answer
    C. Generalist species
    Explanation
    A species with a broad niche refers to a species that can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions and can utilize a variety of resources. This adaptability allows them to thrive in different habitats and consume different types of food. Generalist species are typically not restricted to a specific location or habitat and can be found in various regions. They are able to survive in different environments and have a higher chance of adapting to changes in their surroundings.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following is an example of an indicator species?I. trout in water that require specific dissolved oxygen II. frogs that take in water and air through their skinIII. butterflies that use a specific plant as food

    • A.

      I only

    • B.

      II only

    • C.

      I and II only

    • D.

      II and III only

    • E.

      I, II and III

    Correct Answer
    E. I, II and III
    Explanation
    Trout, frogs, and butterflies are all examples of indicator species. Indicator species are organisms that can provide information about the health and condition of an ecosystem. In this case, trout in water that require specific dissolved oxygen, frogs that take in water and air through their skin, and butterflies that use a specific plant as food can all indicate the quality of their respective habitats. Therefore, all three options (I, II, and III) are correct.

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  • 9. 

    A species in an ecosystem that plays a central role in the health of that ecosystem, and whose removal may cause the collapse of the ecosystem, such as a sea otter, is called a(n)

    • A.

      Foundation species

    • B.

      Keystone species

    • C.

      Native species

    • D.

      Indicator species

    • E.

      Specialist species

    Correct Answer
    B. Keystone species
    Explanation
    A keystone species is a species that plays a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of an ecosystem. Its removal can have a disproportionate impact on the entire ecosystem, potentially leading to its collapse. This is because keystone species often have a strong influence on the abundance and distribution of other species in the ecosystem, and their presence helps to maintain biodiversity and ecological balance. Sea otters, for example, are considered a keystone species because they control the population of sea urchins, which in turn helps to maintain the health of kelp forests.

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  • 10. 

    Biological evolution by natural selection is when genes _____, individuals _____, and populations _____.

    • A.

      Evolve; mutate; are selected

    • B.

      Are selected; mutate; evolve

    • C.

      Mutate; evolve; are selected

    • D.

      Evolve; are selected; mutate

    • E.

      Mutate; are selected; evolve

    Correct Answer
    E. Mutate; are selected; evolve
    Explanation
    Biological evolution by natural selection is a process in which genes undergo mutations, individuals with advantageous traits are selected, and populations gradually change and evolve over time. This process involves the accumulation of genetic variations through mutations, the differential survival and reproduction of individuals with favorable traits, and the resulting changes in the overall characteristics of the population.

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  • 11. 

    The two most important factors in determining the climate in a given area are 

    • A.

      Temperature and precipitation

    • B.

      Temperature and wind

    • C.

      Precipitation and light

    • D.

      Light and temperature

    • E.

      Wind and light

    Correct Answer
    A. Temperature and precipitation
    Explanation
    Temperature and precipitation are the two most important factors in determining the climate in a given area. Temperature refers to the average atmospheric conditions, including hot or cold temperatures, while precipitation refers to the amount of rainfall or snowfall in an area. These two factors play a crucial role in shaping the climate patterns, as they influence the type of vegetation, availability of water, and overall weather conditions in a region. By understanding the temperature and precipitation patterns, scientists can classify climates into different categories such as tropical, arid, temperate, or polar.

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  • 12. 

    Dust storms in tropical deserts have increased tenfold since 1950, for all of the following reasonI. SUVs breaking the surface crustII. Human population growthIII. Climate change caused drought

    • A.

      I only

    • B.

      II only

    • C.

      I and II only

    • D.

      II and III only

    • E.

      I, II, and III

    Correct Answer
    E. I, II, and III
    Explanation
    Dust storms in tropical deserts have increased tenfold since 1950 due to a combination of factors. Firstly, SUVs breaking the surface crust contribute to the increase in dust storms. The heavy vehicles disrupt the fragile crust layer, making it easier for wind to lift and carry dust particles. Secondly, human population growth plays a role as it leads to increased land use and deforestation, which further exposes the desert surface to wind erosion. Lastly, climate change caused drought exacerbates the problem by reducing vegetation cover and increasing the dryness of the desert, making it more prone to dust storms. Therefore, all three reasons - I, II, and III - contribute to the increase in dust storms.

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  • 13. 

    “Treeless, bitterly cold most of the year, winters are long and dark, permafrost, low-growing plants” are characteristics of which biome?

    • A.

      Tall grass prairie

    • B.

      Temperate grassland

    • C.

      Tundra

    • D.

      Taiga

    • E.

      Savanna

    Correct Answer
    C. Tundra
    Explanation
    The characteristics described in the question, such as treeless, bitterly cold most of the year, long and dark winters, permafrost, and low-growing plants, are all indicative of the tundra biome. The tundra is a cold and harsh environment found in the Arctic and high mountain regions, where the ground remains frozen for most of the year. The lack of trees and the presence of low-growing plants are adaptations to the extreme conditions of the tundra.

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  • 14. 

    If you are walking through a forest dense with oak and hickory trees and thick with leaf litter underfoot, you would assume you are in a 

    • A.

      Tropical savanna

    • B.

      Tropical rainforest

    • C.

      Temperate deciduous forest

    • D.

      Coniferous forest

    • E.

      Chaparral

    Correct Answer
    C. Temperate deciduous forest
    Explanation
    Based on the description provided, it can be inferred that the forest is dense with oak and hickory trees and has a thick layer of leaf litter. These characteristics are typically found in temperate deciduous forests. Tropical savannas are characterized by grasslands and scattered trees, while tropical rainforests have a high diversity of plant species and a dense canopy. Coniferous forests are dominated by evergreen trees, and chaparrals are characterized by shrubs and dry conditions. Therefore, the best fit for the given description is a temperate deciduous forest.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following would not be true of a tropical rain forest?

    • A.

      Low net primary productivity

    • B.

      High humidity

    • C.

      Little ground level vegetation

    • D.

      Low levels of ground level sunlight

    • E.

      High biodiversity

    Correct Answer
    A. Low net primary productivity
    Explanation
    A tropical rainforest is characterized by high net primary productivity, which refers to the rate at which plants convert sunlight into energy through photosynthesis. This is because the rainforest has abundant sunlight, warmth, and moisture, allowing for the rapid growth of plants. Therefore, the statement "low net primary productivity" would not be true of a tropical rainforest.

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  • 16. 

    Which biome does evaporation exceed precipitation?

    • A.

      Savanna

    • B.

      Tropical rainforest

    • C.

      Taiga

    • D.

      Desert

    • E.

      Temperate deciduous forest

    Correct Answer
    D. Desert
    Explanation
    Deserts are known for their extremely dry climate, where evaporation exceeds precipitation. This means that the amount of water lost through evaporation is greater than the amount of water received through rainfall. Deserts typically have low annual rainfall and high temperatures, leading to rapid evaporation and limited water availability for plants and animals.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is not a part of the degradation of forests by human activities?

    • A.

      Clearing for agriculture

    • B.

      Overgrazing by livestock

    • C.

      Damage from off-road vehicles

    • D.

      Pollution of forest streams

    • E.

      Conversion of diverse forests to tree plantations

    Correct Answer
    B. Overgrazing by livestock
    Explanation
    Overgrazing by livestock is not a part of the degradation of forests by human activities. While clearing for agriculture, damage from off-road vehicles, pollution of forest streams, and conversion of diverse forests to tree plantations all contribute to the degradation of forests, overgrazing by livestock typically affects grasslands and rangelands rather than forests.

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  • 18. 

    Four of the following are key factors determining biodiversity in aquatic systems, one is not. Choose the one that is not.

    • A.

      Availability of food

    • B.

      Availability of light and nutrients for photosynthesis

    • C.

      Dissolved oxygen content

    • D.

      Thickness of the ozone layer

    • E.

      Temperature

    Correct Answer
    D. Thickness of the ozone layer
    Explanation
    The thickness of the ozone layer is not a key factor determining biodiversity in aquatic systems. The availability of food, light and nutrients for photosynthesis, dissolved oxygen content, and temperature are all important factors that can affect the diversity of aquatic life. However, the thickness of the ozone layer primarily affects the levels of ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface, which can have implications for terrestrial ecosystems but not directly for aquatic systems.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following has been MOST disturbed by human activities?

    • A.

      Tundra

    • B.

      Taiga

    • C.

      Tropical Rainforest

    • D.

      Desert

    • E.

      Temperate Deciduous Forest

    Correct Answer
    E. Temperate Deciduous Forest
    Explanation
    Temperate deciduous forests have been most disturbed by human activities. This is because these forests are located in areas with high human population density and have been heavily impacted by deforestation, urbanization, agriculture, and industrial activities. These activities have resulted in the loss and fragmentation of forest habitats, leading to a decline in biodiversity and disruption of ecological processes. Additionally, the extraction of natural resources and pollution from human activities have further degraded these forests. Thus, temperate deciduous forests have experienced the greatest disturbance due to human actions.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is the big disadvantage of living in a chaparral region?

    • A.

      Too much rain

    • B.

      Fire hazard

    • C.

      Too little rain

    • D.

      Bothersome rodent populations

    • E.

      Venomous snakes

    Correct Answer
    B. Fire hazard
    Explanation
    Living in a chaparral region has a big disadvantage of fire hazard. The chaparral biome is known for its dry and hot climate, which makes it prone to wildfires. The dense vegetation and dry conditions create the perfect environment for fires to spread quickly and become difficult to control. These fires not only pose a threat to human lives and property but also have a significant impact on the ecosystem, destroying habitats and disrupting the natural balance. Therefore, fire hazard is a major drawback of living in a chaparral region.

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  • 21. 

    Oysters, clams, and lobsters would be part of which of the following?

    • A.

      Nekton

    • B.

      Phytoplankton

    • C.

      Benthos

    • D.

      Decomposers

    • E.

      Zooplankton

    Correct Answer
    C. Benthos
    Explanation
    Oysters, clams, and lobsters would be part of the benthos. Benthos refers to organisms that live on or in the bottom of a body of water, such as the ocean floor. Oysters, clams, and lobsters are all bottom-dwelling organisms that are commonly found in marine environments. They are not nekton, which are free-swimming organisms, or phytoplankton and zooplankton, which are microscopic organisms that drift in the water. Additionally, they are not decomposers, which are organisms that break down dead organic matter.

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  • 22. 

    The ocean zone that makes up less than 10 % of the world’s ocean area, yet contains 90 % of all the marine species, is the

    • A.

      Littoral zone

    • B.

      Bathyal zone

    • C.

      Benthic zone

    • D.

      Coastal zone

    • E.

      Abyssal zone

    Correct Answer
    D. Coastal zone
    Explanation
    The coastal zone is the correct answer because it is the ocean zone that makes up less than 10% of the world's ocean area but contains 90% of all marine species. This is because the coastal zone is the area where the land meets the sea, and it is rich in nutrients and diverse habitats, such as mangroves, estuaries, and coral reefs. These habitats provide a wide range of food sources and shelter for marine species, leading to high biodiversity in this zone.

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  • 23. 

    Coral reefs are being damaged or destroyed by all of the following except

    • A.

      Underfishing

    • B.

      Pollution

    • C.

      Warmer ocean temperatures

    • D.

      Increasing ocean acidification

    • E.

      Coastal development

    Correct Answer
    A. Underfishing
    Explanation
    Coral reefs are being damaged or destroyed by pollution, warmer ocean temperatures, increasing ocean acidification, and coastal development. However, underfishing does not contribute to the damage or destruction of coral reefs.

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  • 24. 

    Four of the following are major threats to marine systems, one is not. Choose the one that is not.

    • A.

      Overfishing

    • B.

      Runoff of non point sources of pollution

    • C.

      Invasive species introduced by humans

    • D.

      Habitat destruction from coastal development

    • E.

      Sinking of ships to create artificial reefs

    Correct Answer
    E. Sinking of ships to create artificial reefs
    Explanation
    Sinking of ships to create artificial reefs is not a major threat to marine systems. While it may have some impact on the immediate area where the ship is sunk, it can also create new habitats for marine life and promote biodiversity. In contrast, overfishing, runoff of non-point sources of pollution, invasive species introduced by humans, and habitat destruction from coastal development are all well-known threats that can have significant negative effects on marine ecosystems.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following is the zone of a pond or lake in which rooted, emergent plants such as cattails and rushes are located? 

    • A.

      Benthic zone

    • B.

      Littoral zone

    • C.

      Limnetic zone

    • D.

      Abyssal zone

    • E.

      Profundal zone

    Correct Answer
    B. Littoral zone
    Explanation
    The littoral zone is the correct answer because it refers to the area of a pond or lake where rooted, emergent plants such as cattails and rushes are located. This zone is characterized by shallow water near the shore, allowing sunlight to penetrate and support the growth of these plants. The benthic zone refers to the bottom of the lake or pond, the limnetic zone refers to the open water away from the shore, the abyssal zone refers to the deep, dark parts of the lake or ocean, and the profundal zone refers to the deep, open water below the littoral zone.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following would be characteristic of an oligotrophic lake?

    • A.

      Excessive nutrients

    • B.

      Nutrient overload from human activities

    • C.

      Nutrient levels between the extremes of too much and too little

    • D.

      Small to little supply of plant nutrients

    • E.

      Well-supplied with nutrients for producers

    Correct Answer
    D. Small to little supply of plant nutrients
    Explanation
    An oligotrophic lake is characterized by a small to little supply of plant nutrients. This means that the lake has low levels of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, which are essential for plant growth. Oligotrophic lakes are often clear and deep, with low levels of algae and other aquatic plants. These lakes typically have low productivity and support a limited number of organisms. The lack of nutrients in oligotrophic lakes is often due to factors such as low levels of runoff, limited organic matter input, or high nutrient uptake by plants and algae.

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  • 27. 

    Four of the following are ecological and economic services provided by inland wetlands, one is not. Choose the one that is not.

    • A.

      Helping to maintain biodiversity by providing habitats

    • B.

      Filtering and degrading toxic wastes and pollutants

    • C.

      Stopping the recharge of groundwater aquifers

    • D.

      Reducing flooding and erosion caused by storms

    • E.

      Providing a resting grounds for migratory birds

    Correct Answer
    C. Stopping the recharge of groundwater aquifers
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "stopping the recharge of groundwater aquifers." Inland wetlands do not stop the recharge of groundwater aquifers; in fact, they often help to recharge them by acting as natural filters and storage areas for water. Wetlands provide habitats for various species, filter and degrade pollutants, reduce flooding and erosion, and serve as resting grounds for migratory birds.

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  • 28. 

    “Widely scattered trees, warm temperatures year round, distinct wet and dry seasons and herds of herbivores” characterize 

    • A.

      Savanna

    • B.

      Desert

    • C.

      Taiga

    • D.

      Temperate Grassland

    • E.

      Tundra

    Correct Answer
    A. Savanna
    Explanation
    The characteristics mentioned in the question, such as widely scattered trees, warm temperatures year round, distinct wet and dry seasons, and herds of herbivores, are all typical of a savanna biome. Savannas are characterized by a mix of grasslands and scattered trees, with a climate that is warm throughout the year and experiences distinct wet and dry seasons. These conditions support the presence of herbivores, which form herds in this type of biome. Therefore, the correct answer is Savanna.

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  • 29. 

    Four of the following are major human activities that disrupt and degrade freshwater systems, one is not. Choose the one that is not.

    • A.

      Dams and canals fragment habitats.

    • B.

      Flood control levees and dikes disconnect rivers from floodplains.

    • C.

      Cities and farms add excess nutrients and pollution.

    • D.

      Draining inland wetlands to grow crops

    • E.

      Elimination of entire river systems.

    Correct Answer
    E. Elimination of entire river systems.
    Explanation
    The given answer, "Elimination of entire river systems," is the correct choice because it does not disrupt or degrade freshwater systems. The other options mentioned in the question, such as dams and canals fragmenting habitats, flood control levees and dikes disconnecting rivers from floodplains, and cities and farms adding excess nutrients and pollution, all contribute to the disruption and degradation of freshwater systems. Draining inland wetlands to grow crops also has a negative impact on freshwater systems. However, eliminating entire river systems would completely remove the freshwater ecosystem, making it impossible for any disruption or degradation to occur.

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  • 30. 

    HIPPCO is an acronym that aids in remembering

    • A.

      The names of extinct species

    • B.

      Threats to the world’s biodiversity

    • C.

      African animals that are threatened with extinction

    • D.

      The names of international treaties dealing with endangered species

    • E.

      The organizations working toward saving threatened species

    Correct Answer
    B. Threats to the world’s biodiversity
    Explanation
    HIPPCO is an acronym that aids in remembering threats to the world's biodiversity. The acronym stands for Habitat destruction, Invasive species, Pollution, Population growth, Climate change, and Overexploitation. These are the major factors that contribute to the decline and extinction of various species and the overall loss of biodiversity. Remembering HIPPCO helps to raise awareness about these threats and emphasizes the importance of taking action to protect and conserve the world's biodiversity.

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  • 31. 

    Organisms in this area must be able to avoid being swept away, crushed by waves, or being left high and dry at low tides, and must survive daily or seasonal salinity and temperature changes.

    • A.

      Coral reef

    • B.

      Estuary

    • C.

      Coastal wetland

    • D.

      Bathyal zone

    • E.

      Intertidal zone

    Correct Answer
    E. Intertidal zone
    Explanation
    The intertidal zone is the correct answer because it is the area between the high and low tide marks, where organisms must be able to adapt to the constant changes in water levels. They must be able to withstand being submerged under water during high tide and exposed to air during low tide. They also need to be able to withstand the force of waves and survive the daily or seasonal changes in salinity and temperature. This makes the intertidal zone a challenging environment for organisms to live in.

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  • 32. 

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States and it is vulnerable to pollution for which of the following reasons?

    • A.

      It has a watershed of 64,000 square miles dumping into it.

    • B.

      It is a shallow body of water.

    • C.

      Much of the oyster population that historically filtered the water, has been decimated.

    • D.

      Nonpoint sources of pollution from both urban and agricultural areas.

    • E.

      All of the above impact the Bay.

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above impact the Bay.
    Explanation
    All of the given reasons impact the Chesapeake Bay. The large watershed of 64,000 square miles that dumps into the bay means that a significant amount of pollution can enter the water from various sources. The shallowness of the bay makes it more susceptible to pollution as there is less dilution and slower flushing of contaminants. The decline in the oyster population, which historically filtered the water, has further compromised the bay's ability to maintain water quality. Additionally, nonpoint sources of pollution from urban and agricultural areas contribute to the pollution problem in the bay.

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  • 33. 

    Name that biome based on the climatogram.

    • A.

      Tundra

    • B.

      Taiga

    • C.

      Tropical Rainforest

    • D.

      Savanna

    • E.

      Desert

    Correct Answer
    C. Tropical Rainforest
    Explanation
    Based on the climatogram provided, the biome can be identified as a tropical rainforest. This is because the graph shows a high amount of precipitation throughout the year, which is characteristic of tropical rainforests. Additionally, the temperature remains relatively constant and high throughout the year, further indicating a tropical climate. The combination of high rainfall and consistent warmth creates the ideal conditions for the growth of dense vegetation, which is a key feature of tropical rainforests.

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  • 34. 

    Organisms, such as phytoplankton, that require sunlight for photosynthesis are most likely to be found in which zone?

    • A.

      Abyssal zone

    • B.

      Euphotic zone

    • C.

      Estuarine zone

    • D.

      Benthic zone

    • E.

      Bathyal zone

    Correct Answer
    B. Euphotic zone
    Explanation
    Organisms, such as phytoplankton, require sunlight for photosynthesis. The euphotic zone is the uppermost layer of water in a body of water where sunlight can penetrate and provide the necessary light for photosynthesis. Therefore, organisms that require sunlight for photosynthesis are most likely to be found in the euphotic zone. The abyssal zone is the deepest part of the ocean and receives no sunlight, making it unlikely for photosynthetic organisms to thrive there. The estuarine zone, benthic zone, and bathyal zone may have some sunlight penetration, but not as much as the euphotic zone, making them less likely habitats for photosynthetic organisms.

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  • 35. 

    Which of these is most likely to occur from the destruction of a wetland surrounding a river?

    • A.

      A decreased sediment load in the river.

    • B.

      A decreased level of pollutant, such as nitrates, in the water.

    • C.

      An increased diversity of species in the water.

    • D.

      An increased level of oxygen in the water.

    • E.

      An increased frequency of flooding in the river valley.

    Correct Answer
    E. An increased frequency of flooding in the river valley.
    Explanation
    The destruction of a wetland surrounding a river can lead to an increased frequency of flooding in the river valley. Wetlands act as natural buffers and absorb excess water during heavy rainfall or flooding events. They also slow down the flow of water, allowing it to spread out and be absorbed into the ground. When wetlands are destroyed, this natural water storage and absorption capacity is lost, resulting in increased runoff and a higher likelihood of flooding downstream in the river valley.

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  • 36. 

    Fragmenting one large park or preserve into many smaller ones is most likely to lead to which of the following?

    • A.

      Stabilization of microclimates.

    • B.

      Reduction in biodiversity.

    • C.

      Decrease in the proportion of edge habitat

    • D.

      Increase in gene flow within a species.

    • E.

      Increase in population size of top carnivores.

    Correct Answer
    B. Reduction in biodiversity.
    Explanation
    Fragmenting one large park or preserve into many smaller ones is most likely to lead to a reduction in biodiversity. When a large area is divided into smaller fragments, it results in the loss of habitat connectivity and isolation of populations. This isolation can lead to decreased genetic diversity, increased inbreeding, and reduced ability for species to disperse and migrate. As a result, the overall biodiversity of the fragmented area decreases, as some species may not be able to survive in the smaller fragments or may become locally extinct.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following will result in eutrophic lakes?

    • A.

      Bacteria and viruses.

    • B.

      Pesticides

    • C.

      Phosphates.

    • D.

      Herbicides

    • E.

      Acid wastes and salts

    Correct Answer
    C. Phosphates.
    Explanation
    Phosphates are a major cause of eutrophication in lakes. When excess phosphates enter a body of water, they act as a fertilizer, promoting the growth of algae and aquatic plants. As these organisms multiply, they consume large amounts of oxygen, leading to oxygen depletion in the water. This can result in the death of fish and other aquatic organisms, as well as the formation of harmful algal blooms. Therefore, the presence of phosphates in lakes can lead to the eutrophication process, disrupting the balance of the ecosystem.

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  • 38. 

    Traveling southward from the Arctic regions of Canada to the tropics of Panama, one passes through several biomes—tundra, coniferous forest, temperate deciduous forest, and tropical rain forest. This pattern of change in vegetation is primarily the result of 

    • A.

      Primary and secondary succession

    • B.

      The invasion of exotic species

    • C.

      an increase in mean annual temperature and a decrease in mean annual precipitation

    • D.

      An increase in both mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation

    • E.

      An increase in the total annual hours of sunlight

    Correct Answer
    D. An increase in both mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation
    Explanation
    The pattern of change in vegetation from tundra to tropical rainforest while traveling southward is primarily due to an increase in both mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation. As one moves closer to the tropics, the climate becomes warmer and wetter, creating more favorable conditions for different types of vegetation to thrive. This change in climate allows for the growth of different plant species adapted to the new environmental conditions, resulting in the progression of biomes from tundra to tropical rainforest.

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  • 39. 

    Why do introduced species often become pests?

    • A.

      They displace native species.

    • B.

      They do not adapt well to local environments.

    • C.

      They contribute to habitat fragmentation.

    • D.

      They increase biodiversity.

    • E.

      They have low biotic potential.

    Correct Answer
    A. They displace native species.
    Explanation
    Introduced species often become pests because they displace native species. When a non-native species is introduced into a new environment, it may lack natural predators or competitors, allowing it to outcompete and overtake native species for resources such as food, habitat, and breeding sites. This displacement can disrupt the balance of the ecosystem and lead to the decline or extinction of native species.

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  • 40. 

    A one-hectare pond is sampled in early September. The sample yields 1 small catfish as well as 17 benthic invertebrates that represent 10 speciesWhich of the following can be estimated from the sample for the invertebrates in the pond? 

    • A.

      The species richness

    • B.

      The uniformity of species distribution in the pond

    • C.

      The pond’s productivity

    • D.

      The degree of disturbance

    • E.

      The stability of the ecosystem

    Correct Answer
    A. The species richness
    Explanation
    The species richness can be estimated from the sample for the invertebrates in the pond. Species richness refers to the number of different species present in a given area or sample. In this case, the sample yielded 17 benthic invertebrates representing 10 species. Therefore, it can be inferred that the species richness in the pond is at least 10.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 23, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Kldaniel
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