Ecology Part II

40 Questions

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Ecology Part II

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Most of the nutrients in the tropical rainforests are found in the
    • A. 

      Living organisms

    • B. 

      Large rivers

    • C. 

      Thick, rich soil

    • D. 

      Thick atmosphere

    • E. 

      Shallow soil

  • 2. 
    On a visit to a Natural History museum you are shown a burrow-dwelling small animal with thick fur. You predict the animal came from the
    • A. 

      Arctic Tundra

    • B. 

      Taiga

    • C. 

      Desert

    • D. 

      Savanna

    • E. 

      Grassland

  • 3. 
    A change in the genetic characteristics of a population from one generation to another is called
    • A. 

      Emigration

    • B. 

      Evolution

    • C. 

      Natural Selection

    • D. 

      Mutation

    • E. 

      Genetic Drift

  • 4. 
    Which of the following is true?
    • A. 

      The higher the species richness, the lower productivity.

    • B. 

      The higher the species richness, the lower the sustainability.

    • C. 

      The lower the species richness, the more the productivity.

    • D. 

      The higher the species richness, the more the sustainability.

    • E. 

      The lower the species richness, the more the sustainability.

  • 5. 
    Which of the following about temperate deciduous forests is false?
    • A. 

      Average temperatures change significantly with the seasons.

    • B. 

      They are predominantly a few broadleaf deciduous tree species.

    • C. 

      They have been disturbed by humans more than any other land biome.

    • D. 

      They have nutrient-poor soil.

    • E. 

      Precipitation often spreads relatively evenly throughout the year.

  • 6. 
    Which of the following is true of species richness on islands?
    • A. 

      Larger islands closer to a mainland have the highest number of species.

    • B. 

      Smaller islands closer to a mainland have the highest number of species

    • C. 

      Smaller islands farthest from a mainland have the highest number of species

    • D. 

      Larger islands farthest from a mainland have the highest number of species.

    • E. 

      Larger islands closer to a mainland have the lowest number of species.

  • 7. 
    A species with a broad niche is considered a(n)
    • A. 

      Endemic species

    • B. 

      Endangered species

    • C. 

      Generalist species

    • D. 

      Native species

    • E. 

      Specialist species

  • 8. 
    Which of the following is an example of an indicator species?I. trout in water that require specific dissolved oxygen II. frogs that take in water and air through their skinIII. butterflies that use a specific plant as food
    • A. 

      I only

    • B. 

      II only

    • C. 

      I and II only

    • D. 

      II and III only

    • E. 

      I, II and III

  • 9. 
    A species in an ecosystem that plays a central role in the health of that ecosystem, and whose removal may cause the collapse of the ecosystem, such as a sea otter, is called a(n)
    • A. 

      Foundation species

    • B. 

      Keystone species

    • C. 

      Native species

    • D. 

      Indicator species

    • E. 

      Specialist species

  • 10. 
    Biological evolution by natural selection is when genes _____, individuals _____, and populations _____.
    • A. 

      Evolve; mutate; are selected

    • B. 

      Are selected; mutate; evolve

    • C. 

      Mutate; evolve; are selected

    • D. 

      Evolve; are selected; mutate

    • E. 

      Mutate; are selected; evolve

  • 11. 
    The two most important factors in determining the climate in a given area are 
    • A. 

      Temperature and precipitation

    • B. 

      Temperature and wind

    • C. 

      Precipitation and light

    • D. 

      Light and temperature

    • E. 

      Wind and light

  • 12. 
    Dust storms in tropical deserts have increased tenfold since 1950, for all of the following reasonI. SUVs breaking the surface crustII. Human population growthIII. Climate change caused drought
    • A. 

      I only

    • B. 

      II only

    • C. 

      I and II only

    • D. 

      II and III only

    • E. 

      I, II, and III

  • 13. 
    “Treeless, bitterly cold most of the year, winters are long and dark, permafrost, low-growing plants” are characteristics of which biome?
    • A. 

      Tall grass prairie

    • B. 

      Temperate grassland

    • C. 

      Tundra

    • D. 

      Taiga

    • E. 

      Savanna

  • 14. 
    If you are walking through a forest dense with oak and hickory trees and thick with leaf litter underfoot, you would assume you are in a 
    • A. 

      Tropical savanna

    • B. 

      Tropical rainforest

    • C. 

      Temperate deciduous forest

    • D. 

      Coniferous forest

    • E. 

      Chaparral

  • 15. 
    Which of the following would not be true of a tropical rain forest?
    • A. 

      Low net primary productivity

    • B. 

      High humidity

    • C. 

      Little ground level vegetation

    • D. 

      Low levels of ground level sunlight

    • E. 

      High biodiversity

  • 16. 
    Which biome does evaporation exceed precipitation?
    • A. 

      Savanna

    • B. 

      Tropical rainforest

    • C. 

      Taiga

    • D. 

      Desert

    • E. 

      Temperate deciduous forest

  • 17. 
    Which of the following is not a part of the degradation of forests by human activities?
    • A. 

      Clearing for agriculture

    • B. 

      Overgrazing by livestock

    • C. 

      Damage from off-road vehicles

    • D. 

      Pollution of forest streams

    • E. 

      Conversion of diverse forests to tree plantations

  • 18. 
    Four of the following are key factors determining biodiversity in aquatic systems, one is not. Choose the one that is not.
    • A. 

      Availability of food

    • B. 

      Availability of light and nutrients for photosynthesis

    • C. 

      Dissolved oxygen content

    • D. 

      Thickness of the ozone layer

    • E. 

      Temperature

  • 19. 
    Which of the following has been MOST disturbed by human activities?
    • A. 

      Tundra

    • B. 

      Taiga

    • C. 

      Tropical Rainforest

    • D. 

      Desert

    • E. 

      Temperate Deciduous Forest

  • 20. 
    Which of the following is the big disadvantage of living in a chaparral region?
    • A. 

      Too much rain

    • B. 

      Fire hazard

    • C. 

      Too little rain

    • D. 

      Bothersome rodent populations

    • E. 

      Venomous snakes

  • 21. 
    Oysters, clams, and lobsters would be part of which of the following?
    • A. 

      Nekton

    • B. 

      Phytoplankton

    • C. 

      Benthos

    • D. 

      Decomposers

    • E. 

      Zooplankton

  • 22. 
    The ocean zone that makes up less than 10 % of the world’s ocean area, yet contains 90 % of all the marine species, is the
    • A. 

      Littoral zone

    • B. 

      Bathyal zone

    • C. 

      Benthic zone

    • D. 

      Coastal zone

    • E. 

      Abyssal zone

  • 23. 
    Coral reefs are being damaged or destroyed by all of the following except
    • A. 

      Underfishing

    • B. 

      Pollution

    • C. 

      Warmer ocean temperatures

    • D. 

      Increasing ocean acidification

    • E. 

      Coastal development

  • 24. 
    Four of the following are major threats to marine systems, one is not. Choose the one that is not.
    • A. 

      Overfishing

    • B. 

      Runoff of non point sources of pollution

    • C. 

      Invasive species introduced by humans

    • D. 

      Habitat destruction from coastal development

    • E. 

      Sinking of ships to create artificial reefs

  • 25. 
    Which of the following is the zone of a pond or lake in which rooted, emergent plants such as cattails and rushes are located? 
    • A. 

      Benthic zone

    • B. 

      Littoral zone

    • C. 

      Limnetic zone

    • D. 

      Abyssal zone

    • E. 

      Profundal zone

  • 26. 
    Which of the following would be characteristic of an oligotrophic lake?
    • A. 

      Excessive nutrients

    • B. 

      Nutrient overload from human activities

    • C. 

      Nutrient levels between the extremes of too much and too little

    • D. 

      Small to little supply of plant nutrients

    • E. 

      Well-supplied with nutrients for producers

  • 27. 
    Four of the following are ecological and economic services provided by inland wetlands, one is not. Choose the one that is not.
    • A. 

      Helping to maintain biodiversity by providing habitats

    • B. 

      Filtering and degrading toxic wastes and pollutants

    • C. 

      Stopping the recharge of groundwater aquifers

    • D. 

      Reducing flooding and erosion caused by storms

    • E. 

      Providing a resting grounds for migratory birds

  • 28. 
    “Widely scattered trees, warm temperatures year round, distinct wet and dry seasons and herds of herbivores” characterize 
    • A. 

      Savanna

    • B. 

      Desert

    • C. 

      Taiga

    • D. 

      Temperate Grassland

    • E. 

      Tundra

  • 29. 
    Four of the following are major human activities that disrupt and degrade freshwater systems, one is not. Choose the one that is not.
    • A. 

      Dams and canals fragment habitats.

    • B. 

      Flood control levees and dikes disconnect rivers from floodplains.

    • C. 

      Cities and farms add excess nutrients and pollution.

    • D. 

      Draining inland wetlands to grow crops

    • E. 

      Elimination of entire river systems.

  • 30. 
    HIPPCO is an acronym that aids in remembering
    • A. 

      The names of extinct species

    • B. 

      Threats to the world’s biodiversity

    • C. 

      African animals that are threatened with extinction

    • D. 

      The names of international treaties dealing with endangered species

    • E. 

      The organizations working toward saving threatened species

  • 31. 
    Organisms in this area must be able to avoid being swept away, crushed by waves, or being left high and dry at low tides, and must survive daily or seasonal salinity and temperature changes.
    • A. 

      Coral reef

    • B. 

      Estuary

    • C. 

      Coastal wetland

    • D. 

      Bathyal zone

    • E. 

      Intertidal zone

  • 32. 
    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States and it is vulnerable to pollution for which of the following reasons?
    • A. 

      It has a watershed of 64,000 square miles dumping into it.

    • B. 

      It is a shallow body of water.

    • C. 

      Much of the oyster population that historically filtered the water, has been decimated.

    • D. 

      Nonpoint sources of pollution from both urban and agricultural areas.

    • E. 

      All of the above impact the Bay.

  • 33. 
    Name that biome based on the climatogram.
    • A. 

      Tundra

    • B. 

      Taiga

    • C. 

      Tropical Rainforest

    • D. 

      Savanna

    • E. 

      Desert

  • 34. 
    Organisms, such as phytoplankton, that require sunlight for photosynthesis are most likely to be found in which zone?
    • A. 

      Abyssal zone

    • B. 

      Euphotic zone

    • C. 

      Estuarine zone

    • D. 

      Benthic zone

    • E. 

      Bathyal zone

  • 35. 
    Which of these is most likely to occur from the destruction of a wetland surrounding a river?
    • A. 

      A decreased sediment load in the river.

    • B. 

      A decreased level of pollutant, such as nitrates, in the water.

    • C. 

      An increased diversity of species in the water.

    • D. 

      An increased level of oxygen in the water.

    • E. 

      An increased frequency of flooding in the river valley.

  • 36. 
    Fragmenting one large park or preserve into many smaller ones is most likely to lead to which of the following?
    • A. 

      Stabilization of microclimates.

    • B. 

      Reduction in biodiversity.

    • C. 

      Decrease in the proportion of edge habitat

    • D. 

      Increase in gene flow within a species.

    • E. 

      Increase in population size of top carnivores.

  • 37. 
    Which of the following will result in eutrophic lakes?
    • A. 

      Bacteria and viruses.

    • B. 

      Pesticides

    • C. 

      Phosphates.

    • D. 

      Herbicides

    • E. 

      Acid wastes and salts

  • 38. 
    Traveling southward from the Arctic regions of Canada to the tropics of Panama, one passes through several biomes—tundra, coniferous forest, temperate deciduous forest, and tropical rain forest. This pattern of change in vegetation is primarily the result of 
    • A. 

      Primary and secondary succession

    • B. 

      The invasion of exotic species

    • C. 

      an increase in mean annual temperature and a decrease in mean annual precipitation

    • D. 

      An increase in both mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation

    • E. 

      An increase in the total annual hours of sunlight

  • 39. 
    • A. 

      They displace native species.

    • B. 

      They do not adapt well to local environments.

    • C. 

      They contribute to habitat fragmentation.

    • D. 

      They increase biodiversity.

    • E. 

      They have low biotic potential.

  • 40. 
    A one-hectare pond is sampled in early September. The sample yields 1 small catfish as well as 17 benthic invertebrates that represent 10 speciesWhich of the following can be estimated from the sample for the invertebrates in the pond? 
    • A. 

      The species richness

    • B. 

      The uniformity of species distribution in the pond

    • C. 

      The pond’s productivity

    • D. 

      The degree of disturbance

    • E. 

      The stability of the ecosystem