Earth Science: Tectonic Notes

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Earth Science: Tectonic Notes - Quiz

EARTH SCIENCE PLATE TECTONICS UNIT
8TH GRADE TO 10TH GRADE


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is the driving force behind crustal movement?

    • A.

      The movement in the inner core

    • B.

      The movement in the outer core

    • C.

      The movement of convection in the mantle

    Correct Answer
    C. The movement of convection in the mantle
    Explanation
    The movement of convection in the mantle is the driving force behind crustal movement. Convection occurs when heat from the Earth's core causes the mantle to become less dense and rise, while cooler, denser material sinks. This movement of material in the mantle creates a circular motion, known as convection currents. These currents exert pressure on the overlying crust, causing it to move and resulting in various geological phenomena such as plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanic activity.

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  • 2. 

    P-waves can travel through......

    • A.

      Solids

    • B.

      Liquids

    • C.

      Gases

    • D.

      All of the Above

    • E.

      None of the Above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the Above
    Explanation
    P-waves, also known as primary waves, are a type of seismic wave that can travel through solids, liquids, and gases. This is because P-waves are longitudinal waves, which means they propagate by compressing and expanding the material they pass through. This ability to travel through different states of matter makes P-waves the fastest seismic waves and allows them to be detected and studied in various geological and geophysical contexts.

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  • 3. 

    S-waves can travel through....

    • A.

      Solids

    • B.

      Liquids

    • C.

      Gases

    • D.

      All of the Above

    • E.

      None of the Above

    Correct Answer
    A. Solids
    Explanation
    S-waves, also known as shear waves, are a type of seismic wave that can only travel through solids. Unlike P-waves, which can travel through solids, liquids, and gases, S-waves can only propagate through rigid materials. This is because S-waves require a medium with shear strength to transmit their vibrations. Therefore, the correct answer is solids.

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  • 4. 

    Where are most earthquake epicenters and volcanoes be found?

    • A.

      In the middle of a plate boundary

    • B.

      On a plate boundary

    • C.

      The bottom of a plate boundary

    • D.

      The top of a plate boundary

    Correct Answer
    B. On a plate boundary
    Explanation
    Most earthquake epicenters and volcanoes are found on a plate boundary. This is because plate boundaries are areas where tectonic plates interact with each other. The movement and collision of these plates create intense geological activity, resulting in earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. These plate boundaries can be classified into three types: convergent boundaries, where plates collide; divergent boundaries, where plates move apart; and transform boundaries, where plates slide past each other. These interactions and the associated release of energy are responsible for the majority of seismic and volcanic activity on Earth.

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  • 5. 

    How do we know that Earth's inner core is solid?

    • A.

      Because Pwaves refract in the inner core due to that the outer core is liquid

    • B.

      Because Swaves refract in the inner core due to that the outer core is liquid

    Correct Answer
    A. Because Pwaves refract in the inner core due to that the outer core is liquid
    Explanation
    P-waves, also known as primary waves, are seismic waves that can travel through both solid and liquid materials. However, when P-waves pass through the Earth's inner core, they experience a change in direction known as refraction. This refraction of P-waves in the inner core can only occur if the outer core is a liquid, as liquids have different properties than solids. Therefore, the fact that P-waves refract in the inner core suggests that the outer core is liquid, providing evidence that the Earth's inner core is solid.

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  • 6. 

    What is the Richter Scale?

    • A.

      Based on observations

    • B.

      Tells the intensity of a volcano

    • C.

      Tells the intensity of an earthquake

    • D.

      Based on inferences

    Correct Answer
    C. Tells the intensity of an earthquake
    Explanation
    The Richter Scale is a measurement scale used to determine the intensity of an earthquake. It was developed by Charles F. Richter in 1935 and is based on the amplitude of seismic waves recorded by seismographs. The scale ranges from 0 to 10, with each whole number increase representing a tenfold increase in the amplitude of the seismic waves and approximately 31.6 times more energy released. The Richter Scale is widely used by scientists and engineers to assess the magnitude and potential damage caused by earthquakes.

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  • 7. 

    What type of plate boundary is this?

    • A.

      Transform

    • B.

      Divergent

    • C.

      Convergent

    Correct Answer
    C. Convergent
    Explanation
    This plate boundary is convergent, which means that two tectonic plates are colliding with each other. This collision can result in the formation of mountains, volcanic activity, and the subduction of one plate beneath the other.

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  • 8. 

    What type of plate boundary is this?

    • A.

      Transform

    • B.

      Divergent

    • C.

      Convergent

    Correct Answer
    B. Divergent
    Explanation
    This plate boundary is a divergent boundary. Divergent boundaries occur when two tectonic plates move away from each other, creating a gap in the Earth's crust. This movement allows magma to rise from the mantle and fill the gap, creating new crust. Divergent boundaries are characterized by the formation of mid-ocean ridges and rift valleys on land.

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  • 9. 

    What type of plate boundary is this?

    • A.

      Transform

    • B.

      Divergent

    • C.

      Convergent

    Correct Answer
    A. Transform
    Explanation
    This is a transform plate boundary. Transform plate boundaries occur when two tectonic plates slide past each other horizontally. This movement can cause earthquakes, as the plates are locked together and then suddenly slip past each other. This type of boundary does not involve the creation or destruction of crust, unlike divergent and convergent boundaries.

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  • 10. 

    What provides the energy for convection currents in the Earth's mantle?

    • A.

      Radioactive decay (heat)

    • B.

      Radiation

    • C.

      Ultraviolet waves

    • D.

      Gamma waves

    Correct Answer
    A. Radioactive decay (heat)
    Explanation
    Radioactive decay (heat) provides the energy for convection currents in the Earth's mantle. Radioactive elements present in the mantle, such as uranium, thorium, and potassium, undergo spontaneous decay, releasing heat in the process. This heat transfer causes the hotter, less dense material to rise towards the surface, while the cooler, denser material sinks back down. These convection currents play a crucial role in the movement of tectonic plates and the dynamic behavior of the Earth's interior.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jan 27, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Danniiieelllee

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