The Latin word for 'painted face' meaning to cover or improve the appearance of ones skin.
The Greek word for 'adornment', meaning to improve the beauty or health of the skin.
The Egyptian word for 'soft skin', from the tradition of soaking in milk baths to improve the complexion.
The Hebrew word for health and cleanliness, references made to this in the Old Testament.
Ingredients are listed in descending order, calculated either by mass or volume
A manufacturer may apply for permission to refer to a particular ingredient as "other ingredient" where it can prove the substane is a trade secret and will be kept secret.
A manufactuer may use the phrase "may contain..." on products manufactured on the same equipment as other cosmetic products.
Ingredients must be listed in English in a clear and legible manner.
Subcutaneous fat, epidermis, dermis
Subcutaneous fat, dermis, epidermis
Epidermis, subcutaneous fat, dermis
Epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous fat
Dermis, epidermis, subcutaneous fat
Capillaries, sweat duct, pore, hair follicle, sebacious gland & hair
Sebacious gland, sweat duct, hair follicle, pore, capillaries & hair
Capillaries, pore, hair follicle, sweat duct, sebacious gland & hair
Pore, capillaries, sweat duct, hair, sebacious gland & hair follicle
Arrector pilli muscle, papilla, sweat gland
Sweat gland, papilla, arrector pilli muscle
Arrector pill muscle, sweat gland, papilla
Papilla, sweat gland, arrector pilli muscle
Dirt on the skin becomes trapped, clogging up the pores, giving them a dark (black) appearance.
Overproduction of oil from the sebacious glands reacting with bacteria, which hards and blocks the follicles, oxidising to give a dark (black) appearance
Oil and grease from overexposure to oils in atmosphere becoming trapped in the sweat glands, oxidising to give a dark (black) appearance.
Hair follicle reacting with bacteria and becoming infected and forming a pustule, clogging the follicle.
Eat healthy foods with lots of fresh foods.
Exercise in moderation.
Clean face several times a day with a low pH astringent, removing bacteria and oils from face.
Wear SPF30+ sunscreen when outdoors
3.5 - 9
4.5 - 10
6.5 - 11.5
4 - 6.5
1 hour, 5 minutes
1 hour, 45 minutes
Found in the cornified layer and gives skin it's elasticity
Found in the granular layer and synthesises vitamin D
Found throughout the dermis and is responsible for pigmentation of the skin
Found in the germinative layer and produces new cells for the epidermal layer
Releases oily secretions on to the surface of the skin to prevent loss of moisture
Maintain moisture on the skin surface to provide a medium for the healthy growth of bacteria
Provide fluid necessary for evaporative loss from the body
Release excess water and salts from the tissue