1.
In science, a theory is
Correct Answer
D. A synthesis of a large body of well-tested knowledge
Explanation
A theory in science is not just an educated guess or less than a fact. It is also not unchangeable. Instead, a theory is a synthesis of a large body of well-tested knowledge. This means that it is based on extensive research, experimentation, and evidence, and has been repeatedly tested and confirmed by multiple scientists. Theories are the highest level of understanding in science and provide explanations for natural phenomena.
2.
A scientific hypothesis may turn out to be right or it may turn out to be wrong. If it is a valid hypothesis, there must be a test for proving it
Correct Answer
B. Wrong
Explanation
A scientific hypothesis may turn out to be wrong. The validity of a hypothesis is determined by the ability to test and potentially disprove it. If a hypothesis cannot be tested or proven wrong, it is not considered a valid scientific hypothesis. Therefore, the statement that a valid hypothesis must have a test for proving it right is incorrect.
3.
A sheet of paper can be withdrawn from under a container of mild without toppling if the paper is jerked quickly. This best demonstrates that
Correct Answer
C. The milk carton has inertia
Explanation
When the sheet of paper is jerked quickly, the milk carton remains in place without toppling. This is because of the concept of inertia, which states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest unless acted upon by an external force. In this case, the milk carton resists the change in motion caused by the jerk of the paper due to its inertia, allowing it to stay secure without toppling.
4.
When you stand at rest on a pair of bathroom scales, the readings on the scales will always
Correct Answer
C. Add up to be equal to your weight
Explanation
When you stand at rest on a pair of bathroom scales, the readings on the scales will add up to be equal to your weight. This is because each scale measures the force exerted on it by your body, and since your weight is evenly distributed between both scales, the sum of the readings on each scale will be equal to your total weight.
5.
If your automobile runs out of fuel while you are driving, the engine stops but you do not come to an abrupt stop. The concept that most explains why is
Correct Answer
A. Inertia
Explanation
Inertia is the concept that most explains why the engine does not come to an abrupt stop when an automobile runs out of fuel while driving. Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist changes in its state of motion. In this case, the moving car has inertia, and even though the engine stops, the car continues to move forward due to its inertia. This is why the car does not come to an abrupt stop when it runs out of fuel.
6.
If no external forces are acting on a moving object, it will
Correct Answer
B. Continue moving at the same velocity
Explanation
If no external forces are acting on a moving object, it will continue moving at the same velocity. This is because velocity is a vector quantity that includes both speed and direction. If there are no forces acting on the object, there will be no change in its speed or direction, and therefore it will continue moving at the same velocity.
7.
A horse gallops a distance of 10 kilometers in a time of 30 minutes. Its average speed is
Correct Answer
C. 20 km/h
Explanation
The average speed of an object is calculated by dividing the total distance traveled by the time taken. In this case, the horse gallops a distance of 10 kilometers in a time of 30 minutes. To convert the time to hours, we divide 30 minutes by 60, which equals 0.5 hours. Therefore, the average speed is calculated as 10 kilometers divided by 0.5 hours, which equals 20 km/h.
8.
If a freely falling object were somehow equipped witha speedometer, its speed reading would increase each second by about
Correct Answer
A. 10 m/s
Explanation
The correct answer is 10 m/s because in free fall, an object accelerates at a constant rate of 9.8 m/s^2 due to gravity. This means that its speed increases by 9.8 m/s every second. Therefore, the speedometer reading would increase by approximately 10 m/s each second.
9.
If ia car increases its velocity from zero to 60 km/h in 10 seconds, its acceleration is
Correct Answer
C. 6 km/h/s
Explanation
The acceleration of a car can be calculated by dividing the change in velocity by the time taken. In this case, the car goes from zero to 60 km/h in 10 seconds, resulting in a change in velocity of 60 km/h. Dividing this by 10 seconds gives an acceleration of 6 km/h/s.
10.
A ball is thrown upwards and caught when it comes back down. In the presence of air resistance, the speed with which it is caught is always
Correct Answer
B. Less than the speed it had when thrown upwards
Explanation
When a ball is thrown upwards and caught when it comes back down in the presence of air resistance, the speed with which it is caught is always less than the speed it had when thrown upwards. This is because air resistance acts against the motion of the ball, slowing it down as it travels upwards and then further slowing it down as it falls back down. Therefore, the ball loses some of its initial speed due to air resistance, resulting in a lower speed when caught compared to when it was thrown upwards.
11.
A rock weighs 30N on Earth. A second rock weighs 30N on the moon. Which rock has greater mass?
Correct Answer
B. The one on the moon
Explanation
The weight of an object depends on the gravitational force acting on it, which is determined by the mass of the object and the strength of the gravitational field. Since both rocks have the same weight (30N), it means that the gravitational force acting on them is the same. However, the strength of the gravitational field on the moon is about one-sixth of that on Earth. Therefore, for the rock to have the same weight on the moon as it does on Earth, it must have a greater mass. Hence, the rock on the moon has a greater mass than the one on Earth.
12.
An object is propelled along a straight line path by a force. If the net force were doubled, the object's acceleration would be
Correct Answer
D. Twice as much
Explanation
When the net force acting on an object is doubled, according to Newton's second law of motion (F = ma), the acceleration of the object will also double. This is because acceleration is directly proportional to the net force applied on an object. Therefore, if the force is doubled, the acceleration will also double. Hence, the correct answer is "twice as much".
13.
A car has a mass of 1000 kg and accelerates at 2 meters per second squared. What is the magnitude of the force exerted on the car?
Correct Answer
A. 2000N
Explanation
The magnitude of the force exerted on the car can be calculated using Newton's second law of motion, which states that force is equal to mass multiplied by acceleration. In this case, the mass of the car is given as 1000 kg and the acceleration is given as 2 meters per second squared. By multiplying these values together (1000 kg * 2 m/s^2), we get the magnitude of the force exerted on the car, which is 2000N.
14.
A player catches a ball. Consider the action force to be the impact of the ball against the player's glove. The reaction to this force is the
Correct Answer
A. Force the glove exerts on the ball
Explanation
When a player catches a ball, the action force is the impact of the ball against the player's glove. According to Newton's third law of motion, for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Therefore, the reaction to the impact force is the force that the glove exerts on the ball. As the player's glove stops the ball's motion, it exerts a force on the ball to bring it to rest.
15.
A Mack truck and a Volkswagen traveling at the same speed have a head-on collision. The vehicle that undergoes the greatest change in velocity will be the
Correct Answer
B. Volkswagen
Explanation
The Volkswagen will undergo the greatest change in velocity in a head-on collision with a Mack truck. This is because the Volkswagen is smaller and lighter compared to the Mack truck. In a collision, the force of impact is determined by the mass and speed of the objects involved. Since the Volkswagen has less mass, it will experience a greater change in velocity when colliding with the larger and heavier Mack truck.
16.
Two objects have the same size and shape, but one is much heavier than the other. When they are dropped simultaneously from a tower, they reach the ground at the same time, but the heavier one has a greater
Correct Answer
B. Momentum
Explanation
When two objects have the same size and shape but different weights, they experience the same acceleration due to gravity when dropped simultaneously. This means that they both fall towards the ground at the same rate. However, the heavier object has a greater mass, which means it has a greater momentum. Momentum is the product of an object's mass and its velocity. Since the heavier object has a greater mass, it also has a greater momentum, even though both objects reach the ground at the same time.
17.
A 4 kg ball has a momentum of 12 kg m/s. What is the ball's speed?
Correct Answer
A. 3 m/s
Explanation
The momentum of an object is calculated by multiplying its mass by its velocity. In this case, the momentum of the ball is given as 12 kg m/s. To find the speed of the ball, we need to divide the momentum by the mass. Since the mass of the ball is 4 kg, dividing 12 kg m/s by 4 kg gives us a speed of 3 m/s.
18.
If you push for a half hour or a whole hour against a stationary wall
Correct Answer
C. No work on the wall is done on either case
Explanation
When you push against a stationary wall, no work is done on the wall in either case. Work is defined as the product of force and displacement, and in this scenario, the displacement of the wall is zero as it does not move. Therefore, the work done on the wall is zero.
19.
If you push an object twice as far while applying the same force, you do
Correct Answer
C. Twice as much work
Explanation
When you push an object twice as far while applying the same force, you are doing twice as much work. Work is calculated by multiplying the force applied by the distance over which the force is applied. Since the force remains the same in this scenario, doubling the distance will result in double the amount of work done. Therefore, the correct answer is "twice as much work".
20.
If an object is raised twice as high, its potential energy will be
Correct Answer
C. Twice as much
Explanation
When an object is raised twice as high, its potential energy increases proportionally. Potential energy is directly proportional to the height of the object. Therefore, if the height is doubled, the potential energy will also double. Hence, the correct answer is "twice as much."
21.
An object that has kinetic energy must be
Correct Answer
D. Moving
Explanation
An object that has kinetic energy must be moving. Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by an object due to its motion. The amount of kinetic energy depends on the mass and velocity of the object. If an object is not moving, it does not possess any kinetic energy. Therefore, for an object to have kinetic energy, it must be in motion.
22.
An object may have potential energy because of its
Correct Answer
D. Location
Explanation
An object may have potential energy because of its location. Potential energy is the energy that an object possesses due to its position or condition. The higher an object is located in a gravitational field, the greater its potential energy. This potential energy can be converted into other forms of energy, such as kinetic energy, when the object moves or falls from a higher position to a lower one. Therefore, the location of an object plays a crucial role in determining its potential energy.
23.
Which of the following is not a transverse wave?
Correct Answer
B. Sound
Explanation
Sound is not a transverse wave because it propagates through a medium by compressing and rarefying the particles in the same direction as the wave travels. Transverse waves, on the other hand, have their oscillations perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. Light, radio waves, and x-rays are all examples of transverse waves as they exhibit oscillations perpendicular to their direction of travel.
24.
The vibrations of a transverse wave move in a direction
Correct Answer
C. At right angles to the direction of wave travel
Explanation
The correct answer is "at right angles to the direction of wave travel." In a transverse wave, the particles of the medium vibrate perpendicular to the direction in which the wave is moving. This means that as the wave travels forward, the particles move up and down or side to side, rather than along the direction of the wave. This characteristic is what distinguishes transverse waves from longitudinal waves, where the particles vibrate parallel to the direction of wave travel.
25.
If a frequency of a certain wave is 10 hertz, it period is
Correct Answer
C. 0.1 second
Explanation
The period of a wave is the time it takes for one complete cycle. The frequency of a wave is the number of cycles that occur in one second. The relationship between frequency and period is that period is the reciprocal of frequency. Therefore, if the frequency of a wave is 10 hertz, the period would be 1/10 or 0.1 second.
26.
Sound waves cannot travel in which medium?
Correct Answer
B. Vacuum
Explanation
Sound waves require a medium to travel through, as they propagate by vibrating particles of the medium. In steel, water, and air, sound waves can travel because these mediums have particles that can vibrate and transmit the sound energy. However, in a vacuum, there are no particles present to vibrate and transmit the sound waves. Therefore, sound waves cannot travel in a vacuum.
27.
The object with the highest natural frequency is a
Correct Answer
C. Small bell
Explanation
A small bell has the highest natural frequency because its size and shape allow it to vibrate more quickly and produce a higher pitch sound compared to larger bells. The smaller size means that the bell's material is stiffer, causing it to vibrate at a higher frequency when struck. This higher frequency results in a higher pitch sound. In contrast, larger bells have a lower natural frequency and produce a lower pitch sound due to their larger size and slower vibrations. Therefore, the small bell has the highest natural frequency among the given options.
28.
Compared with ultraviolet waves, the wavelength of infrared waves is
Correct Answer
A. Longer
Explanation
Infrared waves have a longer wavelength compared to ultraviolet waves. Wavelength is the distance between two consecutive points in a wave. Infrared waves have longer wavelengths, which means that the distance between two consecutive points in an infrared wave is greater than in an ultraviolet wave. This difference in wavelength determines the position of these waves in the electromagnetic spectrum, with infrared waves being located at the longer wavelength end and ultraviolet waves at the shorter wavelength end.
29.
If an electric charge is shaken up and down
Correct Answer
A. A magnetic field is created
Explanation
When an electric charge is shaken up and down, it creates a magnetic field. This phenomenon is known as electromagnetic induction. As the charge moves, it generates a changing electric field, which in turn produces a magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of the motion. This is described by Maxwell's equations and is the basis for various technologies such as generators and transformers. The creation of a magnetic field is a fundamental principle of electromagnetism.
30.
Materials generally become warmer when light is
Correct Answer
C. Absorbed by them
Explanation
When light is absorbed by materials, it means that the energy of the light is being transferred to the material. This transfer of energy causes the particles in the material to move faster, resulting in an increase in temperature. Therefore, materials generally become warmer when light is absorbed by them.
31.
As a light ray in air enters water an angle of 15 degrees with the normal, it
Correct Answer
C. Always bends toward the normal
Explanation
When a light ray in air enters water at an angle of 15 degrees with the normal, it always bends toward the normal. This is because light waves change direction when they pass from one medium to another due to the change in the speed of light. In this case, as light enters water, which has a higher refractive index than air, it slows down and bends towards the normal. This phenomenon is known as refraction and is governed by Snell's law.
32.
Light refracts when traveling from air into glass because light
Correct Answer
C. Travels slower in glass than in air
Explanation
Light refracts when traveling from air into glass because it travels slower in glass than in air. Refraction occurs when light passes from one medium to another and changes its speed. The change in speed causes the light to bend, resulting in the phenomenon of refraction. In this case, as light enters the denser medium of glass from the less dense medium of air, it slows down, causing the light to change direction.
33.
If the speed of light in a medium is 2 x 10^8 m/s, the medium's index of refraction is
Correct Answer
C. 0.67
Explanation
The index of refraction of a medium is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in that medium. In this case, the speed of light in the medium is given as 2 x 10^8 m/s. Comparing this to the speed of light in a vacuum (which is approximately 3 x 10^8 m/s), we can calculate the index of refraction as 3 x 10^8 / 2 x 10^8 = 1.5. Therefore, the correct answer is 1.5.
34.
A positive ion has more
Correct Answer
D. Protons than electrons
Explanation
A positive ion is formed when an atom loses one or more electrons. Since electrons are negatively charged and protons are positively charged, losing electrons results in a net excess of protons compared to electrons. Therefore, a positive ion has more protons than electrons.
35.
A main difference between gravitational and electric forces is that electrical forces
Correct Answer
A. Repeal or attract
Explanation
The main difference between gravitational and electric forces is that electrical forces can either repeal or attract objects, depending on the charges involved. This is in contrast to gravitational forces, which only attract objects. Additionally, electrical forces obey the inverse-square law, meaning that their strength decreases with the square of the distance between the charged objects. Furthermore, electric forces are generally weaker than gravitational forces and act over shorter distances.
36.
To say that electric charge is conserved means that no case has ever been found where the
Correct Answer
B. Net charge has been created or destroyed
Explanation
The statement "net charge has been created or destroyed" is the correct answer because the conservation of electric charge states that the total amount of charge in a closed system remains constant. This means that charge cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred or redistributed. Any change in the net charge of an object would violate this principle of conservation.
37.
If you use 10 J of work to push a coulomb of charge into an electric field, its voltage with respect to its starting position is
Correct Answer
C. Exactly 10 V
Explanation
When 10 J of work is used to push a coulomb of charge into an electric field, the voltage with respect to its starting position is exactly 10 V. Voltage is defined as the amount of work done per unit charge, so in this case, the work done is 10 J and the charge is 1 C. Therefore, the voltage is equal to the work done divided by the charge, which is 10 J/1 C = 10 V.
38.
The source of all magnetism is
Correct Answer
B. Moving electric charge
Explanation
The correct answer is moving electric charge. Magnetism is created by the movement of electric charges. When charged particles such as electrons move, they generate a magnetic field. This phenomenon is observed in various materials, not just ferromagnetic ones. The alignment of tiny domains of atoms and the presence of iron can contribute to the strength of the magnetic field, but the fundamental source of magnetism is the movement of electric charges.
39.
If a steady magnetic field exerts a force on a moving charge, that force is directed
Correct Answer
C. At right angles to the direction of the field
Explanation
When a steady magnetic field exerts a force on a moving charge, the force is directed at right angles to the direction of the field. This is known as the right-hand rule, where the force experienced by the charge is perpendicular to both the direction of the magnetic field and the velocity of the charge. This can be explained by the Lorentz force law, which states that the force on a charged particle moving in a magnetic field is given by the cross product of the velocity and the magnetic field vectors.
40.
Magnetic field lines about a current-carrying wire
Correct Answer
A. Circle the wire in closed loops
Explanation
The correct answer is "circle the wire in closed loops". This is because magnetic field lines form closed loops around a current-carrying wire. The direction of the magnetic field lines can be determined using the right-hand rule, where the thumb points in the direction of the current and the curled fingers represent the circular path of the magnetic field lines. This phenomenon is a result of the magnetic field generated by the moving charges in the wire.