Clic Cosmetology: Anatomy And Physiology (Part 4)

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Clic Cosmetology: Anatomy And Physiology (Part 4) - Quiz


An understanding of anatomy and physiology, including the medical terms you will probably never use, will help you become more proficient at performing professional salon services. You'll get a understanding of histology. This covers cells, tissues, organs, body systems, the skeletal system, the muscular system, the nervous system, the circulatory system, the endocrine system, the digestive system, the excretory system, the respiratory system and the integumentary system.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    An exceptionally well-organized system that is responsible for coordinating all the many activities that are performed both inside and outside of the body.

    • A.

      Nervous system

    • B.

      Circulatory system

    • C.

      Endocrine system

    • D.

      Excretory system

    • E.

      Integumentary system

    Correct Answer
    A. Nervous system
    Explanation
    Every square inch of the human body is supplied with fine fibers known as nerves; there are over 100 billion nerve cells, known as neurons in the body.

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  • 2. 

    The science of the structure, function, and pathology of the nervous system.

    • A.

      Osteology

    • B.

      Histology

    • C.

      Trichology

    • D.

      Neurology

    • E.

      Myology

    Correct Answer
    D. Neurology
    Explanation
    Neurology is the correct answer because it is the branch of science that deals with the structure, function, and diseases of the nervous system. It focuses on studying the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, as well as their role in controlling and coordinating bodily functions. Osteology is the study of bones, histology is the study of tissues, trichology is the study of hair, and myology is the study of muscles, none of which relate to the nervous system.

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  • 3. 

    The principal components of the nervous system are the brain, spinal cord, and the nerves themselves. The nervous system as a whole is divided into three main subdivisions.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that the principal components of the nervous system are indeed the brain, spinal cord, and the nerves themselves. These three components work together to transmit and process information throughout the body, allowing for communication and control of bodily functions. Therefore, it is true that the nervous system as a whole is divided into these three main subdivisions.

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  • 4. 

    Consists of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves. It controls consciousness and all mental activities, voluntary functions of the five senses (seeing, hearing, feeling, smelling, and tasting), and voluntary muscle actions including all body movements and facial expressions.

    • A.

      Peripheral nervous system

    • B.

      Central nervous system

    • C.

      Autonomic nervous system

    Correct Answer
    B. Central nervous system
    Explanation
    The central nervous system is also known as the cerebrospinal system.

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  • 5. 

    A system of nerves that connect the peripheral (outer) parts of the body to the central nervous system; it has both sensory and motor nerves. Its function is to carry impulses or messages to and from the central nervous system.

    • A.

      Peripheral nervous system

    • B.

      Central nervous system

    • C.

      Autonomic nervous system

    Correct Answer
    A. Peripheral nervous system
    Explanation
    The peripheral nervous system is a system of nerves that connect the peripheral parts of the body to the central nervous system. It includes both sensory and motor nerves and its main function is to carry impulses or messages to and from the central nervous system. Therefore, the peripheral nervous system is the correct answer.

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  • 6. 

    The part of the nervous system that controls the involuntary muscles; it regulates the action of the smooth muscles, glands, blood vessels, and heart.

    • A.

      Autonomic nervous system

    • B.

      Central nervous system

    • C.

      Peripheral nervous system

    Correct Answer
    A. Autonomic nervous system
    Explanation
    The autonomic nervous system is responsible for controlling the involuntary muscles and regulating the actions of smooth muscles, glands, blood vessels, and the heart. This system operates automatically and without conscious control, allowing the body to perform essential functions such as digestion, breathing, and circulation. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system includes the nerves that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body. However, only the autonomic nervous system specifically controls the involuntary muscles and regulates the mentioned bodily functions.

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  • 7. 

    (Two words) The portion of the central nervous system that originates in the brain, extends down to the lower extremity of the trunk, and is protected by the spinal column. Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves extending from the spinal cord are distributed to the muscles and skin of the trunk and limbs.

    Correct Answer
    Spinal cord
    Explanation
    The given passage describes a part of the central nervous system that starts in the brain, extends down to the lower trunk, and is safeguarded by the spinal column. It also mentions that there are thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves that come from the spinal cord and are distributed to the muscles and skin of the trunk and limbs. The correct answer to this question is "Spinal cord" because it perfectly matches the description provided in the passage.

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  • 8. 

    The largest and most complex nerve tissue in the body. The _____ is contained in the cranium and weighs an average of 44 to 48 ounces. It controls sensation, muscles, glandular activity, and the power to think and feel. It sends and receives telegraphic messages through 12 pairs of cranial nerves that originate in the _____ and reach various parts of the head, face, and neck.

    Correct Answer
    Brain
    Explanation
    The given passage describes the largest and most complex nerve tissue in the body, which is contained in the cranium and weighs an average of 44 to 48 ounces. It controls sensation, muscles, glandular activity, and the power to think and feel. It also sends and receives telegraphic messages through 12 pairs of cranial nerves that originate in the brain and reach various parts of the head, face, and neck. Therefore, the correct answer is "Brain".

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  • 9. 

    The primary structural unit of the nervous system.

    • A.

      Dendrites

    • B.

      Axon

    • C.

      Nerves

    • D.

      Reflex

    • E.

      Neuron

    Correct Answer
    E. Neuron
    Explanation
    It is composed of:
    Cell body and nucleus.
    Dendrites, a tree-like branching of nerve fibers extending from the nerve cell that receive impulses from other neurons.
    Axon, and axon terminal send impulses away from the cell body to other neurons, glands, or muscles.

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  • 10. 

    Nerves are whitish cords made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue, through which impulses are transmitted.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Nerves have their origin in the brain and spinal cord and send their branches to all parts of the body.

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  • 11. 

    Carry impulses or messages from the sense organs to the brain, where sensations of touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain and pressure are experienced.

    • A.

      Sensory nerves

    • B.

      Motor nerves

    • C.

      Mixed nerves

    Correct Answer
    A. Sensory nerves
    Explanation
    Sensory nerves, are also called afferent nerves. Sensory nerve endings called receptors are located close to the surface of the skin. As impulses pass from the sensory nerves to the brain and back through the motor nerves to the muscles, a complete circuit is established, resulting in movements of the muscles.

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  • 12. 

    Carry impulses from the brain to the muscles. The transmitted impulses produce movement.

    • A.

      Sensory nerves

    • B.

      Mixed nerves

    • C.

      Motor nerves

    Correct Answer
    C. Motor nerves
    Explanation
    Motor nerves are responsible for carrying impulses from the brain to the muscles, which in turn produce movement. Unlike sensory nerves, which carry impulses from the sensory organs to the brain, motor nerves specifically transmit signals that initiate muscle contractions and control voluntary movements. Mixed nerves, on the other hand, contain both sensory and motor fibers and are responsible for transmitting both types of impulses.

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  • 13. 

    ______ nerves contain both sensory and motor fibers and have the ability to send and receive messages.

    Correct Answer
    Mixed
    Explanation
    Mixed nerves contain both sensory and motor fibers, allowing them to transmit signals from the body to the brain and vice versa. This means that they can both receive sensory information, such as touch or pain, and send motor commands, such as muscle movement. Mixed nerves are essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system as they enable communication between different parts of the body and the brain.

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  • 14. 

    A ________ is an automatic nerve reaction to a stimulus that involves the movement of an impulse from a sensory receptor along the afferent nerve to the spinal cord, and a responsive impulse along an efferent neuron to a muscle, causing a reaction (for example, the quick removal of the hand from a hot object).

    Correct Answer
    reflex
    Explanation
    Reflexes do not have to be learned.

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  • 15. 

    The largest of the cranial nerves is the ____ cranial nerve, also known as the trifacial or trigeminal nerve. It is the chief sensory nerve of the face, and serves as the motor nerve of the muscles that control chewing.

    • A.

      Fifth cranial nerve

    • B.

      Seventh cranial nerve

    Correct Answer
    A. Fifth cranial nerve
    Explanation
    It consists of three branches: opthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary.

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  • 16. 

    What are the branches of the fifth cranial nerve that are affected by massage?

    • A.

      Auriculotemporal nerve, infraorbital nerve, infratrochelear nerve, mental nerve, nasal nerve, supraorbital nerve, supratrochelear nerve, zygomatic nerve

    • B.

      Posterior auricular nerve, temporal nerve, zygomatic nerve, buccal nerve, mandibular nerve, cervical nerves

    Correct Answer
    A. Auriculotemporal nerve, infraorbital nerve, infratrochelear nerve, mental nerve, nasal nerve, supraorbital nerve, supratrochelear nerve, zygomatic nerve
    Explanation
    Auriculotemporal nerve: Affects the external ear and skin above the temple, up to the top of the skull.
    Infraorbital nerve: Affects the skin of the lower eyelid, side of the nose, upper lip, and mouth.
    Infratrochlear nerve: Affects the membrane and skin of the nose.
    Mental nerve: Affects the skin of the lower lip and chin.
    Nasal nerve: Affects the point and lower side of the nose.
    Supraorbital nerve: Affects the skin of the forehead, scalp, eyebrow, and upper eyelid.
    Supratrochlear nerve: Affects the skin between the eyes and upper side of the nose.
    Zygomatic nerve: Affects the muscles of the upper part of the cheek.

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  • 17. 

    The _________ is the chief motor nerve of the face. It emerges near the lower part of the ear and extends to the muscles of the neck. Its divisions and their branches supply and control all the muscles of facial expression.

    • A.

      Fifth cranial nerve

    • B.

      Seventh cranial nerve

    Correct Answer
    B. Seventh cranial nerve
    Explanation
    The seventh cranial nerve is also known as the facial cranial nerve.

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  • 18. 

    What are the most important branches of the  facial nerve?

    • A.

      Posterior auricular nerve, temporal nerve, zygomatic nerve, buccal nerve, mandibular nerve, cervical nerves

    • B.

      Auriculotemporal nerve, infraorbital nerve, infratrochelear nerve, mental nerve, nasal nerve, supraorbital nerve, supratrochelear nerve, zygomatic nerve

    Correct Answer
    A. Posterior auricular nerve, temporal nerve, zygomatic nerve, buccal nerve, mandibular nerve, cervical nerves
    Explanation
    Posterior auricular nerve: Affects the muscles behind the ear at the base of the skull.
    Temporal nerve: Affects the muscles of the temple, side of the forehead, eyebrow, eye, and upper part of the cheek.
    Zygomatic nerve: (upper and lower) affects the muscles of the upper part of the cheek.
    Buccal nerve: Affects the muscles of the mouth.
    Mandibular nerve: Affects the muscles of the chin and lower lip.
    Cervical nerves: (Branches of the facial nerve) affect the side of the neck and the platysma muscle.

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  • 19. 

    Cervical nerves originate at the spinal cord, and their branches supply the muscles and scalp at the back of the head and neck....

    • A.

      Greater occipital nerve, smaller occipital nerve, greater auricular nerve, cervical cutaneous nerve

    • B.

      Digital nerve, radial nerve, median nerve, ulnar nerve

    Correct Answer
    A. Greater occipital nerve, smaller occipital nerve, greater auricular nerve, cervical cutaneous nerve
    Explanation
    Greater occipital nerve: Located in the back of the head, affects the scalp as far up as the top of the head.
    Smaller (lesser) occipital nerve: Located at the base of the skull, affects the scalp and muscles behind the ear.
    Greater auricular nerve: Located at the side of the neck, affects the face, ears, neck and parotid gland.
    Cervical cutaneous nerve: Located at the side of the neck, affects the front and sides of the neck as far down as the breastbone.

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  • 20. 

    The principal nerves supplying the superficial parts of the arm and hand are....

    • A.

      Greater occipital nerve, smaller occipital nerve, greater auricular nerve, cervical cutaneous nerve

    • B.

      Digital nerve, radial nerve, median nerve, ulnar nerve

    Correct Answer
    B. Digital nerve, radial nerve, median nerve, ulnar nerve
    Explanation
    Digital nerve: (Sensory-motor), with its branches, supplies the fingers.
    Radial nerve: (Sensory-motor), with its branches, supplies the thumb side of the arm and back of the hand.
    Median nerve: (Sensory-motor), smaller nerve than the ulnar and radial nerves that, with its branches, supplies the arm and hand.
    Ulnar nerve: (Sensory-motor), with its branches, affects the little finger side of the arm and palm of the hand.

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