Division of labor
Chain of command
Span of control
The impact of illumination on factory worker output
The impact of body mechanics on factory worker output
The impact of factory worker output on business profitability
The impact of workforce diversity on business profitability
The impact of business profitability on social responibility
A change in the health code
Revision made in waitstaff procedures
A meat supplier raising its prices
The development of a refrigerator that indicates when food has spoiled
A similar restaurant opening in town
An open system
A closed system
Communication only flows upwards
Communication only flows downwards
Communication only flows horizontally
Communication only flows upwards and downwards
Communications flow upwards, downwards, and horizontally
Attend industry-related conferences
Promote from within
Raise sales quotas
Revise company procedures
Which projects are currently underway
Funds that have been allocated to a project
Assignments for work teams
Assignments for individual employees
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Paris
II and III only
I, II, and III
Publicizing a recent manufacturing plant closure
Authorizing a global recall of a defective product
Minimizing costs spent to ensure quality control
Whistle-blowing regarding suspected misconduct
Devoting resources to corporate philanthropy
A single-use plan
A standing plan
A strategic plan
A short-term plan
A tactical plan
Reward individual accomplishments
Revise the team’s project mission
Disband the team
Reward team accomplishments
Have team members alternate responsibilities
The salesperson is the stereo manufacturer’s supplier.
The stereo manufacturer is salesperson’s customer.
The salesperson is the stereo manufacturer’s wholesaler.
The salesperson is the stereo manufacturer’s employee.
The salesperson is the stereo manufacturer’s customer.
Consists of familiar tasks
Is associated with a reward
Has a deadline
The leader makes all decisions.
The leader assigns roles to team members.
It works best with a motivated, experienced, and skilled team.
The leader is unavailable to his or her subordinates.
The leader acts as a mediator.
Some employees have developed computer-related disabilities.
Employees are able to be more productive in less time.
Technological training is required.
Technological resources have replaced some human resources.
Communication costs have increased.
Being in charge
Having influence over others
Having issues proceed through a number of channels before decisions are made regarding them
Adhering to rules and protocol
Radically restructuring processes to bring about fast change
Working toward steady, continuous, incremental improvement.
Focusing on long term goals and solutions
Armand V. Feigenbaum
W. Edwards Deming
Philip B. Crosby
There are risky and consequential decisions to make.
Low-level managers are relatively unskilled or inexperienced.
The organization has traditionally been centralized.
The external environment is dynamic.
The organization is strongly procedure and policy-based.
Quick to respond
An assistant informs his superior about a package arriving.
A manager compliments an employee’s quick response to a problem.
A manager trains a new employee for a job requirement.
An employee leaves her manager a message that she is running late for work.
A human resources manager places a recruiting ad with a newspaper.
It contains a grapevine.
It has a definable chain of command.
It forms naturally.
It is exclusive.
It emphasizes personal relationships.
The employee was not responsible for losing the job
The employee was fired from the job
The employee participated in profit sharing.
The employee was a manager.
The employee resigned from the job
Less reliant on formal authority
Quantitative management theory
Contingency management theory
Behavioral management theory
Quality management theory
Classical management theory
Having students fill out evaluation forms about their professors at the end of a course
Having students take a standardized admissions exam
Issuing final grades at the end of each semester
Having chairpersons monitor professor performance by sitting in on a lecture
Reviewing a department’s budget to see if actual spending matched projected expenses
Low uncertainty avoidance
High power distance
Low power distance
Group decision-making processes draw on a greater pool of ideas.
Individual decision-making processes are usually more time-consuming than group decision-making processes.
Group decisions can be compromises rather than the best possible decision.
Employees are more likely to be supportive of group decisions.
Group decision-making processes are susceptible to groupthink.
Low-level concern with people and low-level concern with production
Low-level concern with people and high-level concern with production
Equal concern with people and production
High-level concern with people and low-level concern with production
High-level concern with people and high-level concern with production
A department manager who can delegate work to her subordinates
A human resources manager who can give training-related assignments to members of various departments
A secretary who can grant approval for use of the conference room
A recently-promoted supervisor who can make up a work schedule
A new employee going through job orientation
A decision tree
The Delphi technique
The nominal group technique
Improvement to management information systems (MIS)
External sources of power
The group must consist of two or more individuals.
Group members must have regular interactions.
Group members must share a unified purpose.
Group members must agree on issues relevant to the project at hand.
Group members must coordinate work to accomplish team goals.
By the end of the forming phase, teams have built a cohesive community.
The norming stage is the most productive stage.
Teams enter the storming phase with clarity about what their team’s mission is.
The adjourning phase is characterized by a sharp focus on achieving team goals.
All teams will proceed through five stages of development.
Global strategic partnership
Acquiring a reputation for quality
Implementing programs quickly and inexpensively
Getting better returns on investments
Improving customer retention
Being able to charge higher prices for goods or services
Workload of in-house employees
Overall costs of benefits packages
Cost of office machinery
Cost of renting office space
Overall work output
II and III only
I and II only
I, II, and III
Management becomes more hierarchical.
The organization becomes more decentralized.
Employees are less strictly monitored.
Jobs are more flexibly designed.
The organization is better able to respond to a volatile environment.
An educational institution
A private employment agency
A private employer of a 12-person staff
A local government office
A labor union with 15 members
Social and cultural
Raising performance standards
“Doing it right the first time” (DIRFT)
Reaching a point where products have “zero defects”
Equating quality with the meeting of specifications
Increasing post-production inspections
An open system
A differentiation strategy
Formal procedures and rules
Entering the employee in a training program
Offering the employee a promotion
Increasing the employee’s salary
Terminating the employee
Canceling the employee worker’s compensation insurance
Cost leadership strategy
Rewards must satisfy employees’ basic needs.
Rewards must be fairly and equitably distributed.
Employees in comparable positions must have equal access to rewards.
Rewards and their methods of attainment should be uniform for all comparable recipients.
Rewards should be comparable to those of nearby competitors.
Investing a job with greater responsibility and authority
Rewarding a job with better compensation
Making a job more interesting
Reducing the hours to be worked on a job
Making the hours of a job more flexible
Reviewing the candidate’s application
Interviewing the candidate
Checking the candidate’s references
Administering a skills test to the candidate
Administering a performance assessment to the candidate