Classification & Evolution Test Bank

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Classification & Evolution Test Bank - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    When comparing 2 populations of animals, which statement most likely indicates that they are the same species?

    • A.

      They produce fertile offspring.

    • B.

      They inhabit the same general area.

    • C.

      Their outward appearance is similar.

    • D.

      They consume the same type of diet.

    Correct Answer
    A. They produce fertile offspring.
    Explanation
    The statement "They produce fertile offspring" most likely indicates that the two populations of animals are the same species. This is because the ability to produce fertile offspring is a key characteristic of members of the same species. If two populations can successfully mate and produce offspring that are capable of reproducing themselves, it suggests that they share enough genetic similarity to be considered the same species. The other statements, while potentially indicative of similarities between populations, do not necessarily confirm that they are the same species.

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  • 2. 

    What characteristic of early autotrophs gave them an advantage over early heterotrophs?

    • A.

      They ate heterotrophs.

    • B.

      They produced spores.

    • C.

      They made their own food.

    • D.

      They reproduced asexually.

    Correct Answer
    C. They made their own food.
    Explanation
    Early autotrophs had an advantage over early heterotrophs because they were capable of producing their own food through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. This ability allowed them to synthesize organic molecules, such as glucose, using energy from sunlight or inorganic compounds. In contrast, early heterotrophs relied on consuming other organisms or organic matter for their energy and nutrient requirements. By being able to produce their own food, autotrophs were not dependent on finding and consuming other organisms, which provided them with a competitive advantage in environments where resources were limited.

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  • 3. 

    Which example best illustrates the process of natural selection?

    • A.

      Giraffe necks varied in length, and all offspring had an equal chance of survival.

    • B.

      Giraffe necks varied in length, and the shorter-necked giraffes were at a disadvantage.

    • C.

      Giraffes with short necks migrated to locations best suited for their neck lengths.

    • D.

      Giraffes stretched their necks to reach for food, and resulting offspring had longer necks.

    Correct Answer
    B. Giraffe necks varied in length, and the shorter-necked giraffes were at a disadvantage.
    Explanation
    The example that best illustrates the process of natural selection is when giraffe necks varied in length, and the shorter-necked giraffes were at a disadvantage. This is because natural selection involves the survival and reproduction of individuals with traits that are better suited to their environment. In this case, the giraffes with shorter necks are less able to reach food and therefore have a lower chance of survival and reproduction compared to giraffes with longer necks. Over time, this leads to the prevalence of longer-necked giraffes in the population, as they have a higher chance of passing on their genes.

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  • 4. 

    Most male crickets produce a mating song by rubbing together their curved wings. In a certain geographic area, parasitic flies detected male crickets singing and deposited their larvae into them, which killed the crickets. Eighteen generations later, the number of males with flat wings has increased to 90%. The flat-winged crickets do not sing, but are still able to mate with females, and parasitic flies cannot detect them. Which type of selection is occurring in this cricket population?

    • A.

      Artificial

    • B.

      Directional

    • C.

      Disruptive

    • D.

      Stabilizing

    Correct Answer
    B. Directional
    Explanation
    Directional selection is occurring in this cricket population. Directional selection happens when individuals with a particular trait have a higher fitness and are favored by natural selection, leading to a shift in the population towards that trait. In this case, the presence of parasitic flies has caused a shift in the population towards flat-winged crickets that do not sing. These crickets have a higher fitness because they are not detected by the flies and are able to mate with females. As a result, the number of males with flat wings has increased to 90% over the course of 18 generations.

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  • 5. 

    Horse skeleton fossils indicate that the size of horses increased over time. Which statement best explains this fossil record?

    • A.

      Smaller horses bred with larger horses, creating hybrids.

    • B.

      Smaller horses were infected by a fatal virus early in their history.

    • C.

      Larger horses consumed the food supply of the smaller horses.

    • D.

      Larger horses produced a slightly greater number of surviving offspring.

    Correct Answer
    D. Larger horses produced a slightly greater number of surviving offspring.
    Explanation
    Larger horses producing a slightly greater number of surviving offspring is the best explanation for the increase in size of horse skeletons over time. This suggests that the larger horses had a better chance of survival and reproductive success, leading to a gradual increase in their population. Smaller horses breeding with larger horses, a fatal virus, or larger horses consuming the food supply of smaller horses do not directly explain the increase in size of horse skeletons.

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  • 6. 

    Cytochrome C is a protein used in the electron transport chain. This table shows short sections of Cytochrome C's amino acid sequences in 5 organisms, using single letter abbreviations. Use this data to determine which organism most likely shares the most recent common ancestor with humans.

    • A.

      Organism 1

    • B.

      Organism 2

    • C.

      Organism 3

    • D.

      Organism 4

    Correct Answer
    A. Organism 1
  • 7. 

    Maria wanted to rid her home of cockroaches. She applied pesticide and after 1 day she found many dead cockroaches. Days later, she observed a few live cockroaches. She reapplied the pesticide, but she continued to see some live cockroaches. What best explains the continuing presence of live cockroaches?

    • A.

      A few cockroaches exhibited pesticide resistance due to natural variability within the population.

    • B.

      A few cockroaches developed pesticide resistance through contact with other resistant insects.

    • C.

      A few cockroaches developed pesticide resistance after contact with it.

    • D.

      A few cockroaches detected the pesticide and avoided sprayed areas.

    Correct Answer
    A. A few cockroaches exhibited pesticide resistance due to natural variability within the population.
    Explanation
    A few cockroaches exhibited pesticide resistance due to natural variability within the population. This means that there is a genetic variation among the cockroaches, and some individuals have traits that make them resistant to the pesticide. These resistant cockroaches are able to survive the pesticide application and continue to reproduce, passing on their resistant traits to future generations. As a result, even after reapplying the pesticide, some live cockroaches are still present in the home.

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  • 8. 

    Dr. Romero is raising 3 types of damselfishes in separate aquariums: 2 from the Atlantic Ocean and 1 from the Pacific Ocean. This table summarizes the information she gathered through observations and breeding experiments. Based on the most commonly accepted definition of a species, how many different species of damselfishes is Dr. Romero raising, and which fish are they?

    • A.

      1 species: Fish A, B, and C are all members of a single species

    • B.

      2 species: Fish A and B are a single species; Fish C is a separate species

    • C.

      2 species: Fish A and C are a single species; Fish B is a separate species

    • D.

      3 species: Fish A, B, and C are all members of separate species

    Correct Answer
    C. 2 species: Fish A and C are a single species; Fish B is a separate species
    Explanation
    Dr. Romero is raising 2 different species of damselfishes. Fish A and C are considered to be a single species based on the most commonly accepted definition of a species, while Fish B is considered to be a separate species. This conclusion is drawn from the information provided in the table, which suggests that there are distinct differences or characteristics between Fish B and the other two fish (Fish A and C).

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  • 9. 

    The presence of what cellular structure distinguishes a plant cell from an animal cell?

    • A.

      Cell membrane

    • B.

      Chloroplast

    • C.

      Mitochondrion

    • D.

      Nucleus

    Correct Answer
    B. Chloroplast
    Explanation
    Chloroplast is the correct answer because it is a unique cellular structure found only in plant cells. It is responsible for the process of photosynthesis, which allows plants to convert sunlight into energy. Animal cells do not have chloroplasts, so the presence of this structure distinguishes plant cells from animal cells.

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  • 10. 

    What level of organization best describes a group of living organisms and their abiotic environment?

    • A.

      Community

    • B.

      Ecosystem

    • C.

      Niche

    • D.

      Population

    Correct Answer
    B. Ecosystem
    Explanation
    An ecosystem is a level of organization that best describes a group of living organisms and their abiotic environment. It encompasses all the living organisms (such as plants, animals, and microorganisms) in a particular area, as well as the non-living components (such as air, water, and soil). The interactions between these living and non-living elements within an ecosystem create a complex web of relationships and energy flow. Therefore, the concept of an ecosystem provides a comprehensive understanding of how organisms and their environment are interconnected and interdependent.

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  • 11. 

    Based on their taxonomic classification, which 2 organisms share the most recent common ancestor?

    • A.

      Squid and octopus (same class)

    • B.

      Lobster and eel (same kingdom)

    • C.

      Chimpanzee and gorilla (same family)

    • D.

      Iguana and mouse (same phylum)

    Correct Answer
    C. Chimpanzee and gorilla (same family)
    Explanation
    Chimpanzees and gorillas share the most recent common ancestor based on their taxonomic classification. In the hierarchy of classification, family is a higher level than class, kingdom, and phylum. Therefore, the fact that chimpanzees and gorillas belong to the same family indicates that they are more closely related to each other than the other pairs of organisms mentioned.

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  • 12. 

    An entomologist identified a new species of beetle in a South American rain forest. The beetle has all the features of the darkling beetle family Tenebrionidae and closely resembles other darkling beetles of the genus Tenebrio. What should the entomologist do next?

    • A.

      Give the beetle new genus and family names.

    • B.

      Give the beetle a new species name not used in the genus Tenebrio.

    • C.

      Name the beetle after the species it is most similar to.

    • D.

      Discard the beetle because it is not found in existing taxonomy.

    Correct Answer
    B. Give the beetle a new species name not used in the genus Tenebrio.
    Explanation
    The entomologist should give the beetle a new species name not used in the genus Tenebrio because although it closely resembles other darkling beetles of the genus Tenebrio, it is still a new species. By giving it a new species name, the entomologist can differentiate it from other species within the genus and accurately classify it in the taxonomy system.

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  • 13. 

    Alec studied an unknown microscopic organism and recorded this information: - It contains DNA. - It has a cell wall, but no nucleus. What is Alec most likely studying?

    • A.

      Bacterium

    • B.

      Fungus

    • C.

      Protist

    • D.

      Virus

    Correct Answer
    A. Bacterium
    Explanation
    Based on the information provided, Alec is most likely studying a bacterium. Bacteria are single-celled organisms that have DNA and a cell wall, but no nucleus. This distinguishes them from fungi, which have a nucleus, and viruses, which do not have a cell wall. While protists also have DNA, they typically have a nucleus as well, making them less likely to be the correct answer.

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  • 14. 

    In what kingdom would scientists classify a multicellular, nonmotile, autotrophic organism?

    • A.

      Animalia

    • B.

      Fungi

    • C.

      Plantae

    • D.

      Protista

    Correct Answer
    C. Plantae
    Explanation
    Scientists would classify a multicellular, nonmotile, autotrophic organism in the Plantae kingdom. This is because the characteristics mentioned - multicellular, nonmotile, and autotrophic - are all traits commonly found in plants. Plants are multicellular organisms that cannot move on their own and are capable of producing their own food through photosynthesis. Therefore, the correct answer is Plantae.

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  • 15. 

    These animals are all placed in the vertebrate class Amphibia and the order Anura. - wood frog, Rana sylvatica - bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana - western toad, Bufo boreas - spadefoot toad, Scaphiopus hammondi What is the most likely conclusion about the evolutionary relationship between or among these organisms?

    • A.

      The wood frog and bullfrog are better jumpers than the western toad and the spadefoot toad.

    • B.

      The wood frog and bullfrog share a more recent common ancestor than do the western toad and the spadefoot toad.

    • C.

      The western toad and the spadefoot toad share a more recent common ancestor than do the wood frog and the bullfrog.

    • D.

      The western toad and the spadefoot toad both evolved in western North America, while the wood frog and the bullfrog evolved in the tropics.

    Correct Answer
    B. The wood frog and bullfrog share a more recent common ancestor than do the western toad and the spadefoot toad.
    Explanation
    The most likely conclusion about the evolutionary relationship between these organisms is that the wood frog and bullfrog share a more recent common ancestor than the western toad and the spadefoot toad. This can be inferred from the fact that all of these animals are placed in the same vertebrate class (Amphibia) and order (Anura), indicating a closer evolutionary relationship between the wood frog and bullfrog compared to the other two species.

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  • 16. 

    All members of which biological group require a host cell to reproduce?

    • A.

      Fungi

    • B.

      Bacteria

    • C.

      Protists

    • D.

      Viruses

    Correct Answer
    D. Viruses
    Explanation
    Viruses require a host cell to reproduce. Unlike other biological groups, viruses cannot reproduce on their own as they lack the necessary cellular machinery. Instead, they invade host cells and hijack their cellular machinery to replicate and produce more viruses. This dependence on a host cell for reproduction is a defining characteristic of viruses.

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  • 17. 

    Which group(s) contain organisms that can be classified as primary producers?

    • A.

      Monerans only

    • B.

      Protists only

    • C.

      Monerans and protists

    • D.

      Viruses and monerans

    Correct Answer
    C. Monerans and protists
    Explanation
    Monerans and protists can be classified as primary producers because they are capable of producing their own food through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. Monerans are single-celled organisms, such as bacteria, that can perform photosynthesis or obtain energy from inorganic substances. Protists are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms, such as algae, that can also perform photosynthesis. Both groups play a crucial role in the food chain by converting energy from the sun or inorganic substances into organic matter, which serves as a food source for other organisms.

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  • 18. 

    An animal has these characteristics:
    • Many more than 8 jointed legs on a segmented body
    • 2 pairs of legs attached to each body segment
    • Lacks biting jaws

    • A.

      Dragonfly

    • B.

      Millipede

    • C.

      Sea Star

    • D.

      Slug

    Correct Answer
    B. Millipede
    Explanation
    A millipede is the correct answer because it matches all the given characteristics. Millipedes have many more than 8 jointed legs on a segmented body, with 2 pairs of legs attached to each body segment. Additionally, millipedes lack biting jaws. Dragonflies have 6 legs and do not have a segmented body. Sea stars have arms instead of legs and do not have a segmented body. Slugs have a soft body and do not have jointed legs. Therefore, millipede is the only animal that fits all the given characteristics.

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  • 19. 

    The organisms of what kingdom possess these traits?
    • Eukaryotic cells
    • Photosynthetic
    • Cellulose cell walls

    • A.

      Eubacteria

    • B.

      Fungi

    • C.

      Plantae

    • D.

      Monera

    Correct Answer
    C. Plantae
    Explanation
    The organisms of the Plantae kingdom possess these traits because they are eukaryotic, meaning their cells have a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. They are also photosynthetic, meaning they can produce their own food through the process of photosynthesis. Additionally, they have cellulose cell walls, which provide support and protection to the cells.

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  • 20. 

    Lions and tigers both belong to genus Panthera. Cheetahs belong to the genus Acinonyx. Scientists group these 3 types of cats together at the next taxonomic level. What is the most specific taxonomic level tat lions, cheetahs, and tigers share?

    • A.

      Class

    • B.

      Family

    • C.

      Kingdom

    • D.

      Order

    Correct Answer
    B. Family
    Explanation
    Lions, cheetahs, and tigers all belong to the same family, which is the most specific taxonomic level they share. The family level is a higher classification than genus and includes related species that share common characteristics. Therefore, the correct answer is Family.

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  • 21. 

    What level of biological taxa includes Chordata, Molluska, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Cnidaria?

    • A.

      Family

    • B.

      Genus

    • C.

      Kingdom

    • D.

      Phylum

    Correct Answer
    D. Phylum
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Phylum. Phylum is a taxonomic rank in the biological classification system that groups organisms based on certain shared characteristics. Chordata, Molluska, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Cnidaria are all examples of phyla. They represent major branches of the animal kingdom and share certain anatomical and physiological characteristics.

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  • 22. 

    Based on their scientific names, what is the most accurate conclusion about the relationship of the organisms Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalus?

    • A.

      They are genetically similar.

    • B.

      They are the same species.

    • C.

      They are in different genera.

    • D.

      They are in different kingdoms.

    Correct Answer
    A. They are genetically similar.
    Explanation
    Based on their scientific names, Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalus belong to the same genus, Homo. This indicates that they are closely related species within the same genus. The fact that they share a common genus suggests that they are genetically similar, as species within the same genus tend to have more genetic similarities than those in different genera or kingdoms. Therefore, the most accurate conclusion is that they are genetically similar.

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  • 23. 

    In coho salmon, hooknose males are large and jack males are small. Average-sized males exist, but are rare. What statement best explains disruptive selection in male coho salmon?

    • A.

      Average-sized males reach the spawning ground first.

    • B.

      The scent of average-sized males makes them most attractive to females.

    • C.

      Hooknose males produce stronger sperm than jack males or average-sized males.

    • D.

      The relative size of hooknose males and jack males is an advantage during mating.

    Correct Answer
    D. The relative size of hooknose males and jack males is an advantage during mating.
    Explanation
    The relative size of hooknose males and jack males being an advantage during mating explains disruptive selection in male coho salmon. Disruptive selection occurs when extreme traits are favored over intermediate traits, leading to the reduction of individuals with average traits. In this case, the larger size of hooknose males and the smaller size of jack males are both advantageous during mating, making individuals with average size less successful in reproducing.

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  • 24. 

    What accounts for genetic biodiversity existing in modern multicellular organisms?

    • A.

      Mutations in gametes are passed to offspring.

    • B.

      Protein mutations cause DNA changes, creating new species.

    • C.

      Genetic mutations form when similar species mate and reproduce.

    • D.

      Somatic cell DNA mutations create new phenotypes in the population.

    Correct Answer
    A. Mutations in gametes are passed to offspring.
    Explanation
    Genetic biodiversity in modern multicellular organisms is accounted for by mutations in gametes that are passed on to the offspring. Gametes, such as sperm and eggs, carry genetic information that can undergo mutations, resulting in genetic variations in the offspring. These mutations can lead to the creation of new traits, genetic diversity, and the formation of new species over time.

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  • 25. 

    Which type of change exemplifies biological evolution?

    • A.

      Size of individuals

    • B.

      Size of a population

    • C.

      Gene pool of a population

    • D.

      Outward appearance of individuals

    Correct Answer
    C. Gene pool of a population
    Explanation
    Biological evolution refers to the change in the genetic makeup of a population over time. This change occurs through the alteration of the gene pool, which is the total set of genes and their variations present in a population. The gene pool can change due to various factors such as genetic mutations, natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow. Therefore, the correct answer is the gene pool of a population.

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  • 26. 

    What characteristic of early autotrophs gave them an advantage over early heterotrophs?

    • A.

      They ate heterotrophs.

    • B.

      They produced spores.

    • C.

      They made their own food.

    • D.

      They reproduced asexually.

    Correct Answer
    C. They made their own food.
    Explanation
    Early autotrophs had an advantage over early heterotrophs because they were able to produce their own food. Autotrophs have the ability to convert sunlight or inorganic compounds into organic molecules through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis, respectively. This allowed them to sustain themselves without relying on other organisms for nutrition. In contrast, heterotrophs had to obtain their food by consuming other organisms. By being able to produce their own food, autotrophs had a more reliable and independent source of energy, giving them a competitive edge in survival and reproduction.

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  • 27. 

    Which criterion is NOT necessarily true of a trait that has evolved through natural selection?

    • A.

      It is heritable.

    • B.

      It varies among individuals.

    • C.

      It increases individuals' life spans.

    • D.

      It influences individuals' reproductive success.

    Correct Answer
    C. It increases individuals' life spans.
    Explanation
    The criterion that is NOT necessarily true of a trait that has evolved through natural selection is that it increases individuals' life spans. While natural selection can lead to traits that increase an individual's chances of survival and reproductive success, it does not always result in longer life spans. Some traits that enhance reproductive success may actually reduce life spans, such as those that involve high-risk behaviors or increased susceptibility to certain diseases. Therefore, the increase in individuals' life spans is not a necessary criterion for a trait that has evolved through natural selection.

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  • 28. 

    As part of a simulation of evolutionary process, a teacher drops 500 red and 500 green jelly beans on green grass. The read and green jelly beans represent individuals of the same species. Students represent predators and pick up as many jelly beans as possible in 30 seconds. Which prediction is most accurate?

    • A.

      Red individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce.

    • B.

      Green individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce.

    • C.

      Predators are more likely to capture green individuals.

    • D.

      Predators are equally likely to capture red and green individuals.

    Correct Answer
    B. Green individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce.
    Explanation
    In this simulation, the teacher drops an equal number of red and green jelly beans on green grass, representing individuals of the same species. The students act as predators and try to pick up as many jelly beans as possible in 30 seconds. The most accurate prediction is that green individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce. This suggests that the green individuals are better adapted to their environment, making them less likely to be captured by predators. As a result, they have a higher chance of surviving and passing on their genes to the next generation.

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  • 29. 

    When comparing 2 populations of animals, which statement most likely indicates that they are the same species?

    • A.

      They produce fertile offspring.

    • B.

      They inhabit the same general area.

    • C.

      Their outward appearance is similar.

    • D.

      They consume the same type of diet.

    Correct Answer
    A. They produce fertile offspring.
    Explanation
    The statement "They produce fertile offspring" most likely indicates that the two populations of animals are the same species. This is because the ability to produce fertile offspring is a key characteristic of a species. If two populations can successfully reproduce and produce offspring that can also reproduce, it suggests that they share enough genetic similarity to be considered the same species. The other statements, such as inhabiting the same area, having similar outward appearance, or consuming the same type of diet, may be indicative of similarities between populations but do not necessarily confirm that they are the same species.

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  • 30. 

    What process of natural selection favors the extreme phenotypes of a trait and eliminates intermediate phenotypes?

    • A.

      Directional selection

    • B.

      Disruptive selection

    • C.

      Random selection

    • D.

      Stabilizing selection

    Correct Answer
    B. Disruptive selection
    Explanation
    Disruptive selection is the process of natural selection that favors extreme phenotypes of a trait and eliminates intermediate phenotypes. In this type of selection, individuals with extreme traits have a higher fitness and are better adapted to their environment, leading to their increased survival and reproduction. As a result, the population becomes divided into two distinct groups with different phenotypes, as the intermediate phenotypes are selected against. This can lead to the formation of new species or the maintenance of existing ones with distinct characteristics.

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  • Jun 04, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
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    Awest
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