Child Development 2

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Child Development 2 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following statements is true about the newbord baby's appearance

    • A.

      Proportionally, if an adult head were as large as that of a newborn infant, it would be the size of an orange.

    • B.

      Their round faces, chubby cheeks, large foreheads, and big eyes make adults feel like picking them up and cuddling them.

    • C.

      They may not match their parents' idealized image because they have a combination of small head and long torso.

    • D.

      Their legs are long and bowed, and their heads are small compared to the rest of their body.

    Correct Answer
    B. Their round faces, chubby cheeks, large foreheads, and big eyes make adults feel like picking them up and cuddling them.
  • 2. 

    Devin is given a combinated apgar score of 7. The medical professionals should

    • A.

      Immediately provide medical attention because he is in serious danger

    • B.

      Tell Devin's parents that he is in good physical condition

    • C.

      Provide assistance in establishing breathing and other vital signs.

    • D.

      Immediately put him on a ventilator and monitor his situation closely

    Correct Answer
    B. Tell Devin's parents that he is in good physical condition
    Explanation
    The given correct answer suggests that the medical professionals should inform Devin's parents that he is in good physical condition. This implies that a combined Apgar score of 7 is considered to be within the normal range and does not indicate any immediate danger or need for medical attention. Therefore, the professionals can reassure the parents about Devin's well-being.

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  • 3. 

    Dorita is given an Apgar appearance rating of 1. This means her

    • A.

      Body is pink with blue arms and legs

    • B.

      Body, arms and legs are all blue

    • C.

      Body, arms, and legs are all pink

    • D.

      Body is blue with pink arms and legs

    Correct Answer
    A. Body is pink with blue arms and legs
    Explanation
    Dorita's Apgar appearance rating of 1 indicates that her body is pink with blue arms and legs. This means that while her body has a pink color, her arms and legs have a blue color.

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  • 4. 

    In South America, the Jarara mother

    • A.

      Leans against the body of the "head helper" to give birth

    • B.

      Gives birth in full view of the entire community

    • C.

      Gives birth in a hammock with a crowd of women close by

    • D.

      Gives birth in a freestanding birth center

    Correct Answer
    B. Gives birth in full view of the entire community
    Explanation
    The Jarara mother gives birth in full view of the entire community. This suggests that the act of giving birth is seen as a communal event, where the mother is supported and surrounded by the community. It highlights the cultural norms and practices of the Jarara people in South America, where childbirth is not a private affair but a shared experience. This practice may symbolize the importance of community support and involvement in the process of childbirth.

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  • 5. 

    Which mother is a good candidate for a home delivery?

    • A.

      Heather, a healthy 43 year old who previously had a cesarean delivery

    • B.

      Helena a first time mom who wants to deliver her own baby unassisted

    • C.

      Prudence a 30 year old second time mom assisted by a certified nurse-midwife

    • D.

      Donna, a fifth time mom whose baby is in a breech position

    Correct Answer
    C. Prudence a 30 year old second time mom assisted by a certified nurse-midwife
    Explanation
    Prudence, a 30-year-old second-time mom, is a good candidate for a home delivery because she is being assisted by a certified nurse-midwife. This indicates that she will have a trained healthcare professional present during the delivery to ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby. This level of expertise and assistance reduces the risks associated with a home delivery, making Prudence a suitable candidate.

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  • 6. 

    Henrietta is concerned about using epidural analgesia during labor. You can tell her that newborns exposed to epidural analgesia tend to

    • A.

      Have trouble falling asleep

    • B.

      Be hyperactive and animated

    • C.

      Have lower Apgar scores

    • D.

      Suck more agressively while feeding

    Correct Answer
    C. Have lower Apgar scores
    Explanation
    Newborns exposed to epidural analgesia tend to have lower Apgar scores. The Apgar score is a quick assessment of a newborn's overall health and well-being immediately after birth. It evaluates the baby's heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, reflexes, and skin color. Lower Apgar scores indicate potential health issues or difficulties adjusting to life outside the womb.

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  • 7. 

    Tonya is pregnant for a second time. She hopes to have a vaginal devliery, although her first delivery was cesarean. You should advice Tonya that

    • A.

      She will be required to have a second cesarean delivery

    • B.

      A natural labor after a cesarean is associated with slightly increased rates of maternal death

    • C.

      A natural labor after a cesarean is just as safe as a repeated cesarean delivery

    • D.

      A natural labor after a cesarean is associated with slightly increased rates of rupture of the uterus

    Correct Answer
    D. A natural labor after a cesarean is associated with slightly increased rates of rupture of the uterus
    Explanation
    A natural labor after a cesarean is associated with slightly increased rates of rupture of the uterus. This means that there is a risk of the scar from the previous cesarean tearing during labor, which can be dangerous for both the mother and the baby. Therefore, it is advisable for Tonya to have a second cesarean delivery to ensure the safety of both herself and her baby.

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  • 8. 

    Abbie was born seven weeks premature. Her tiny lungs were so poorly developed that the air sacs collapse. A mechanical respirator is being used to keep Abbie breathing. Abbie suffers from

    • A.

      Ceebral palsy

    • B.

      Toxemia

    • C.

      Hyaline membrane disease

    • D.

      Acidosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Hyaline membrane disease
    Explanation
    Abbie's premature birth led to underdeveloped lungs and collapsed air sacs, causing difficulty in breathing. To address this, a mechanical respirator is being used to assist Abbie in breathing. This condition is known as hyaline membrane disease, which is characterized by the presence of a proteinaceous membrane in the lungs. This membrane prevents the proper exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, leading to respiratory distress. Therefore, hyaline membrane disease is the correct answer in this case.

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  • 9. 

    Travis is born three days after his due date and weighs five pounds. Travis is an_______ infant.

    • A.

      Preterm

    • B.

      Small for date

    • C.

      Average weight

    • D.

      Anoxic

    Correct Answer
    B. Small for date
    Explanation
    Travis is considered a "small for date" infant because he was born three days after his due date and weighs only five pounds. This term is used to describe babies who are smaller in size and weight compared to other infants at the same gestational age. It indicates that Travis may have experienced restricted growth in the womb, which could potentially lead to certain health issues or complications.

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  • 10. 

    Dawn and Richard have the economic and personal resources to care for Amelia, their preterm infant. Research shows that

    • A.

      Interventions are not usually needed for economically advantaged parents like dawn and richard to promote healthy development.

    • B.

      Dawn and richard will need extensive coaching in recognizing and responding to amelia's needs

    • C.

      Just a few sessions of coaching in recognizing and responding to Amelia's needs could reduce Amelia's crying and improve her sleep

    • D.

      Dawn and Richard will need comprehensive long term intensive intervention to meet Amelia's needs

    Correct Answer
    C. Just a few sessions of coaching in recognizing and responding to Amelia's needs could reduce Amelia's crying and improve her sleep
    Explanation
    The research suggests that economically advantaged parents like Dawn and Richard usually do not require interventions to promote healthy development in their preterm infant, Amelia. However, they may benefit from extensive coaching in recognizing and responding to Amelia's needs. This coaching could help reduce Amelia's crying and improve her sleep. Therefore, just a few sessions of coaching could be sufficient to address Amelia's needs effectively.

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  • 11. 

    Carol lives in Wyoming and works for a small company with 12 employees. Carol hopes to take 12 weeks of maternity leave. What advice can you give Carol?

    • A.

      The US mandates 12 weeks of paid maternity leave for all new mothers

    • B.

      Federal law mandating unpaid maternity leave does not apply to her employer

    • C.

      The US mandates six weeks of paid maternity leave for all new mothers

    • D.

      The US mandates 12 weeks of unpaid maternity leave for all new mothers.

    Correct Answer
    B. Federal law mandating unpaid maternity leave does not apply to her employer
  • 12. 

    Unlike her two sisters, when Tersea gives birth, she does not choose rooming in. Teresa should know that

    • A.

      Her ability to bond with the body will be compromised as a result of this decision

    • B.

      Her baby will suffer emotionally as a result of this decision

    • C.

      Her competence as a caregiver will be compromised as a result of this decision

    • D.

      There is no evidence that her parenting ability or her baby's emotional well being will be affected

    Correct Answer
    D. There is no evidence that her parenting ability or her baby's emotional well being will be affected
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that there is no evidence that Teresa's parenting ability or her baby's emotional well-being will be affected. The passage states that Teresa does not choose rooming in when giving birth, but it does not provide any evidence or information about the potential impact on her parenting ability or her baby's emotional well-being. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that these aspects will be compromised as a result of her decision.

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  • 13. 

    Baby Sunni quickly closes her eyelids when her father claps his hands near her head. The function of this relex is to

    • A.

      Stimulate the eye muscle

    • B.

      Protect the infant from a blow to the head

    • C.

      Protect the infant from strong stimulation

    • D.

      Communicate irritation toward a caregiver

    Correct Answer
    C. Protect the infant from strong stimulation
    Explanation
    The function of this reflex is to protect the infant from strong stimulation. When the father claps his hands near her head, the sudden loud noise and movement may be overwhelming for the baby. Closing her eyelids helps to shield her eyes from the strong stimulation, allowing her to avoid any potential harm or discomfort.

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  • 14. 

    Although baby Irina's eyelids are closed., ocassional rapid eye movements can been seen beneath them. Her breathing is irregular. She stirs occasionally and grimaces while she sleeps. Irina is MOST likely in which of the following states of arousal?

    • A.

      Regular sleep

    • B.

      Drowsiness

    • C.

      Quiet alertness

    • D.

      REM sleep

    Correct Answer
    D. REM sleep
    Explanation
    The given information indicates that baby Irina's eyelids are closed, but occasional rapid eye movements can be seen beneath them. This is a characteristic of REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep, where the brain is highly active and dreaming often occurs. Additionally, the description mentions that Irina stirs occasionally and grimaces while sleeping, which are common behaviors during REM sleep. Therefore, the most likely state of arousal for Irina is REM sleep.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following individual's is the most likely to spend the greatest amount of time in REM sleep?

    • A.

      Trevor a preterm baby

    • B.

      Alice a five year old

    • C.

      Henry a full term infant

    • D.

      Erica a 13 year old

    Correct Answer
    A. Trevor a preterm baby
    Explanation
    Preterm babies are more likely to spend a greater amount of time in REM (rapid eye movement) sleep compared to full-term infants and older children. This is because REM sleep is crucial for brain development, and preterm babies often have underdeveloped brains that require more REM sleep for proper growth and maturation. Therefore, Trevor, being a preterm baby, is the most likely to spend the greatest amount of time in REM sleep.

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  • 16. 

    Arthur wakes frequently to check to see if his sleeping infant, Sam, is breathing. Arthur can reduce the risk of SIDS by

    • A.

      Wrapping Sam in a very warm clothing and blankets

    • B.

      Placing Sam to sleep on his stomach

    • C.

      Placing Sam to sleep on his back

    • D.

      Providing Sam with soft bedding and taking away his pacifier.

    Correct Answer
    C. Placing Sam to sleep on his back
    Explanation
    Placing Sam to sleep on his back is the correct answer because it is the recommended sleeping position to reduce the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The American Academy of Pediatrics advises parents to always place babies on their backs to sleep, as this position helps to keep the airway open and reduces the likelihood of suffocation. Sleeping on the back has been shown to significantly decrease the risk of SIDS, making it the safest sleeping position for infants.

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  • 17. 

    Maddy is babysitting an infant for the first time. What can you tell her is the most effective way to soothe the baby if she cries?

    • A.

      Sing to her softly

    • B.

      Lift her to the shoulder and rock or walk with her

    • C.

      Swaddle her

    • D.

      Take her for a ride in her stroller

    Correct Answer
    B. Lift her to the shoulder and rock or walk with her
    Explanation
    The most effective way to soothe a crying baby is to lift her to the shoulder and rock or walk with her. This gentle motion helps to comfort the baby and provides a sense of security. The rhythmic movement can help to calm the baby and lull her to sleep.

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  • 18. 

    Wanda is concerned that her son Max will be in pain during his circumcision. You can tell Wanda that

    • A.

      Newborn males do not experience much pain during circumcision

    • B.

      Offering a nipple that delivers sugar solution reduces the discomfort during circumcision

    • C.

      Local anesthetics cannot be used during newborn circumcisions because they elevate the heart rate

    • D.

      Local anesthetics can actually cause increased pain during minor procedures like circumcision

    Correct Answer
    B. Offering a nipple that delivers sugar solution reduces the discomfort during circumcision
    Explanation
    Offering a nipple that delivers a sugar solution reduces the discomfort during circumcision. This is because sucking on a nipple stimulates the release of endorphins, which are natural pain relievers. The sugar solution also provides a sweet taste that can distract and soothe the baby, helping to reduce any discomfort he may feel during the procedure.

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  • 19. 

    Dagwood and Marcia postponed parenthood until Dagwood as 31 and Marcia was 31. They have a happy marriage and both have fulfilling careers. Compared to younger parents, which of the following statements is most likely to be true?

    • A.

      Dagwood will be less enthusiastic about being a father

    • B.

      Marcia is less likely to encourage Dagwood to share child care

    • C.

      Dagwood will be more willing to participate in parenting

    • D.

      Marcia will be less likely to encourage Dagwood to share housework.

    Correct Answer
    C. Dagwood will be more willing to participate in parenting
    Explanation
    Dagwood and Marcia postponed parenthood until they were 31, indicating that they took the decision to become parents later in life. Since they have a happy marriage and fulfilling careers, it can be inferred that they have had sufficient time to establish stability and achieve personal goals before having children. Therefore, Dagwood is more likely to be willing to participate in parenting, as he has had the opportunity to focus on his own development and is likely to be more prepared and enthusiastic about taking on the responsibilities of fatherhood.

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  • 20. 

    Laura is the nany of Jackson, a six month old infant whose single mother is depressed. You can tell Laura that

    • A.

      Therapy is unlikely to alleviate parental depression

    • B.

      Antidepressant medication is unlikely going to help Jackson's mother

    • C.

      Jackson's mother will probably need long term treatment

    • D.

      A warm relationship with her can safeguard Jackson's development

    Correct Answer
    D. A warm relationship with her can safeguard Jackson's development
    Explanation
    A warm relationship with Laura can safeguard Jackson's development because infants thrive in a nurturing and supportive environment. By building a strong bond with Laura, Jackson will receive the emotional care and attention he needs for healthy development. This relationship can provide stability and a sense of security for Jackson, which is crucial during his early years.

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  • 21. 

    Damon is injected with a radioactive substance and then lies on an apparatus with a scanner that emits fine streams of xrays which detect increased blood flow and oxygen metabolism in areas of the brain as Damon processes particular stimuli Damon's brain functioning is being measured using

    • A.

      An electroencenphalogram

    • B.

      Event-related potentials

    • C.

      Functional magnetic resonance imaging

    • D.

      Position emission tomography

    Correct Answer
    D. Position emission tomography
    Explanation
    The correct answer is positron emission tomography (PET). This is because PET is a technique that uses a radioactive substance to track the flow of blood and oxygen metabolism in specific areas of the brain. It is commonly used to measure brain functioning and activity. Electroencephalogram (EEG) measures electrical activity in the brain, while event-related potentials (ERPs) measure brain responses to specific stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures changes in blood flow and oxygenation levels in the brain, but it does not use radioactive substances like PET.

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  • 22. 

    Alexia was born with cataracts in both eyes. What can you tell her parents about when she should have corrective surgery?

    • A.

      Alexia should wait to have corrective surgery until adulthood when her eyes are fully mature

    • B.

      Alexia should not have corrective surgery during the first six months of life because his vision would be severely and permanently impaired

    • C.

      The longer cataract surgery is postponed beyond infancy, the less complete Alexia's recovery in visual skills

    • D.

      Alexia should wait until later in childhood to have corrective surgery because there is no sensitive periods in visual development

    Correct Answer
    C. The longer cataract surgery is postponed beyond infancy, the less complete Alexia's recovery in visual skills
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that the longer the surgery is postponed beyond infancy, the less complete Alexia's recovery in visual skills will be. This implies that it is important for Alexia to have corrective surgery as early as possible in order to maximize her chances of recovering her visual skills.

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  • 23. 

    Nicole is considering sending her 8 month old son Austin to a new academic leaning center where infants are trained with letter and number flash cards. You can advise Nicole that

    • A.

      Austin will likely score 10-15 points higher in IQ then agemates who attend traditional early child-care programs

    • B.

      Although this programs will not likely raise Austin's IQ it will probably help him learn to read more quickly

    • C.

      This program is probably as effective as a traditional early childhood development program in promoting cognitive development

    • D.

      This program could overwhelm Austin and cause him to withdraw, thereby threatening his interest in learning

    Correct Answer
    D. This program could overwhelm Austin and cause him to withdraw, thereby threatening his interest in learning
    Explanation
    Introducing flash cards and academic learning at such a young age may overwhelm Austin and cause him to withdraw. This could potentially threaten his interest in learning and hinder his overall development.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following is an activity associated with experience-expectant brain growth?

    • A.

      Coloring a picture

    • B.

      Playing peekaboo

    • C.

      Learning to ride a bike

    • D.

      Playing the piano

    Correct Answer
    B. Playing peekaboo
    Explanation
    Playing peekaboo is an activity associated with experience-expectant brain growth. This is because peekaboo involves social interaction and helps in developing important cognitive skills such as object permanence, attention, and memory. The repetitive nature of the game also helps in strengthening neural connections in the brain, promoting overall brain development in young children.

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  • 25. 

    Garrett, 2 months is an enthusiastic eater who nurses vigorously and gains weight quickly. Garrett's mom Christine is concerned that Garrett might be at risk being permantently overweight. You can advise Christine that

    • A.

      Most chubby babies will continue to gain weight during toddlerhood and the preschool years

    • B.

      There is no evidence that rapid weight gain in infancy is related to later obesity

    • C.

      She should stat supplementing Garret's diet with cereal

    • D.

      Breastfeeding for the first six months is associated with a leaner body build through early childhood

    Correct Answer
    D. Breastfeeding for the first six months is associated with a leaner body build through early childhood
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that breastfeeding for the first six months is associated with a leaner body build through early childhood. This means that if Christine continues to breastfeed Garrett for the recommended six months, it may help prevent him from becoming permanently overweight. There is no evidence that rapid weight gain in infancy is related to later obesity, so Christine does not need to be overly concerned about Garrett's current weight gain. Additionally, there is no need to supplement Garrett's diet with cereal at this time.

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  • 26. 

    Zahara age 3 months is painfully thin. Her mother is too malnourished to produce enough breast milk and the supply of formula is inadequate for bottle-feeding. Zahara is probably in danger of dying from

    • A.

      Marasmus

    • B.

      Growth faltering

    • C.

      Kwashiorkor

    • D.

      Nonorganic failure to thrive

    Correct Answer
    A. Marasmus
    Explanation
    Zahara's condition of being painfully thin and her mother's inability to produce enough breast milk or provide adequate formula for bottle-feeding suggest a severe form of malnutrition. Marasmus is a type of malnutrition that occurs due to a deficiency in both calories and protein. It is characterized by extreme weight loss, muscle wasting, and overall growth failure. Given Zahara's age and the description of her condition, marasmus is the most likely diagnosis.

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  • 27. 

    Osita is a four year old Ethiopian boy. He survivied kwashiorkor and was recently adopted by a Canadian couple. Osita will probably

    • A.

      Continue to undereat even when food is plentiful

    • B.

      Gain very little weight as his diet improves

    • C.

      Have an average to high basal metabolism rate

    • D.

      Suffer from lasting damage to the brain, heart, and other organs

    Correct Answer
    D. Suffer from lasting damage to the brain, heart, and other organs
    Explanation
    Kwashiorkor is a severe form of malnutrition that occurs when there is a lack of protein in the diet. It can lead to long-term damage to various organs in the body, including the brain and heart. Even if Osita's diet improves and he has access to plentiful food, the lasting damage caused by kwashiorkor may still affect his organs. Therefore, he is likely to suffer from lasting damage to the brain, heart, and other organs.

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  • 28. 

    Six month olds Luka's weight, height, and head circumference are substantially below age related growth norms. LUka is withdrawn and apathetic. A distrubed parent-infant relationship contributed to Luka's failture to grow normally. Luka most likely suffers from

    • A.

      Growth faltering

    • B.

      Malnutrition

    • C.

      Marasmus

    • D.

      Food insecurity

    Correct Answer
    A. Growth faltering
    Explanation
    Luka's weight, height, and head circumference being substantially below age-related growth norms, along with being withdrawn and apathetic, suggests that Luka is experiencing growth faltering. Growth faltering refers to a condition where a child's growth is significantly below what is expected for their age. This can be caused by various factors, such as malnutrition or a disturbed parent-infant relationship. In Luka's case, the disturbed parent-infant relationship is mentioned as a contributing factor, indicating that growth faltering is the most likely explanation for Luka's condition.

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  • 29. 

    Baby Paul's mother strokes his hair just before he eats. Now when Paul's mother strokes his hair, Paul begins to suck. Paul's response to the stroking illustrates

    • A.

      Habituation

    • B.

      Recovery

    • C.

      Operant conditioning

    • D.

      Classical conditioning

    Correct Answer
    D. Classical conditioning
    Explanation
    In this scenario, Paul's response to his mother stroking his hair (sucking) is an example of classical conditioning. Classical conditioning involves learning through association, where a neutral stimulus (in this case, the hair stroking) becomes associated with a natural reflex or response (sucking). Over time, Paul has learned to associate the hair stroking with the act of eating, leading to the conditioned response of sucking. This illustrates how classical conditioning can shape behaviors and create learned associations between stimuli and responses.

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  • 30. 

    Prim has classically conditioned young Rue to suck when Prim touches Rue's stomach during feeding. If Prim repeatedly touches Rue's stomach without feeding her. Rue will

    • A.

      Gradually stop sucking in response to having her stomach touched

    • B.

      Learn to suck without having her stomach touched

    • C.

      Stop eating until Prim touches her stomach and feeds her again

    • D.

      Increase her level of sucking in response to having her stomach touched.

    Correct Answer
    A. Gradually stop sucking in response to having her stomach touched
    Explanation
    This is an example of classical conditioning, where Prim has associated the touch of Rue's stomach with feeding. By repeatedly touching Rue's stomach without feeding her, Prim is breaking the association between the touch and feeding. As a result, Rue will gradually stop sucking in response to having her stomach touched because she no longer expects to be fed when her stomach is touched.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following motor skils typically develops the latest?

    • A.

      Building a tower of two cubes

    • B.

      Scribbing vigorously

    • C.

      Walking on tiptoe

    • D.

      Jumping in place

    Correct Answer
    C. Walking on tiptoe
    Explanation
    Walking on tiptoe typically develops the latest compared to the other motor skills mentioned. This is because walking on tiptoe requires a higher level of balance, coordination, and muscle control. It involves using the muscles in the feet and lower legs in a different way than regular walking, which takes time for a child to develop. In contrast, building a tower of two cubes, scribbling vigorously, and jumping in place are motor skills that typically develop earlier as they require less complex coordination and muscle control.

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  • 32. 

    Baby Issac learned to combine control of his head and upper chest into sitting with support. This is an example of

    • A.

      Coordinated trends

    • B.

      Fine motor coordination

    • C.

      Gross motor coordination

    • D.

      Dynamic systems of action

    Correct Answer
    D. Dynamic systems of action
    Explanation
    Dynamic systems of action refers to the theory that development is a result of the interaction between multiple systems within an individual, such as the nervous system, muscles, and environment. In this case, Baby Issac's ability to combine control of his head and upper chest into sitting with support demonstrates the integration and coordination of different motor systems, which is a key concept in dynamic systems theory.

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  • 33. 

    In a dimly lit room, Baby Ursula actively works to bring her hands into her field of vision. She makes poorly coordinated swipes toward objects in front of her. Ursula is demonstrating

    • A.

      The ulnar grasp

    • B.

      Voluntary reaching

    • C.

      The pincer grasp

    • D.

      Prereaching

    Correct Answer
    D. Prereaching
    Explanation
    Pre-reaching refers to the early attempts of infants to reach for objects before they have developed the ability to coordinate their movements accurately. In this scenario, Baby Ursula's poorly coordinated swipes towards objects in front of her indicate that she is demonstrating prereaching, as she is making early attempts to reach for objects but lacks the coordination to do so effectively.

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  • 34. 

    Children whose parents postpone intensive toliet training until the beginning or middle of the third year are generally trained

    • A.

      Within 2 to 3 weeks

    • B.

      Within 4 months

    • C.

      Within 6 months

    • D.

      By age 4

    Correct Answer
    B. Within 4 months
    Explanation
    Children whose parents postpone intensive toilet training until the beginning or middle of the third year are generally trained within 4 months. This suggests that delaying the start of toilet training until this time allows children to develop the necessary physical and cognitive skills required for successful training within a relatively short period. It also implies that starting earlier or later than this timeframe may result in a longer training duration.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following infants is most likely to refuse to cross the deep side of the visual cliff?

    • A.

      Abbie, who has 3 days of crawling experience

    • B.

      Bart, who has 4 weeks of crawling experience

    • C.

      Crystal, who has 2 months of crawling experience

    • D.

      Din, who has 4 months of crawling experience

    Correct Answer
    D. Din, who has 4 months of crawling experience
    Explanation
    Infants develop depth perception and the ability to perceive the visual cliff as they gain more experience with crawling. As they become more experienced, they learn to perceive the drop-off and understand that it is a potential danger. Therefore, Din, who has the most crawling experience (4 months), is most likely to refuse to cross the deep side of the visual cliff.

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  • 36. 

    As infants become familiar with many types of objects, they rely more on __________ and less on ___________.

    • A.

      Motion; size

    • B.

      Motion; shape

    • C.

      Motion; surface pattern

    • D.

      Object features; motion

    Correct Answer
    D. Object features; motion
    Explanation
    As infants become familiar with many types of objects, they rely more on object features, such as color, texture, and shape, and less on motion. This means that as they develop and gain more experience, they start to pay more attention to the specific characteristics of objects rather than just their movement.

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  • 37. 

    Baby Wanda uses ________ to learn that dropping her heavy plastic dish on the hardwood flood will cause a loud, banging sound.

    • A.

      Depth perception

    • B.

      Intermodal perception

    • C.

      Differentiation theory

    • D.

      Affordances

    Correct Answer
    B. Intermodal perception
    Explanation
    Intermodal perception refers to the ability to integrate information from multiple sensory modalities, such as vision and hearing, to form a coherent perception of the environment. In this case, baby Wanda is using intermodal perception to learn that dropping her heavy plastic dish on the hardwood floor will cause a loud, banging sound. She is integrating the visual information of the dish falling with the auditory information of the loud sound to understand the cause and effect relationship between the two.

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  • 38. 

    Eleanor and James Gibson describe their theory as _______ because over time a baby detects finer and finer invarieant features among stimuli

    • A.

      Differentiation

    • B.

      Discontinuous

    • C.

      Dynamic

    • D.

      Bidirectional

    Correct Answer
    A. Differentiation
    Explanation
    The theory described by Eleanor and James Gibson is referred to as "differentiation" because it explains how a baby gradually becomes more adept at distinguishing and recognizing subtle differences in stimuli as they develop. This process allows the baby to perceive and understand the world in a more detailed and nuanced way over time.

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  • 39. 

    According to the Gibsons, perception is guided by the discovery of

    • A.

      Failure

    • B.

      Success

    • C.

      Dynamic relationships

    • D.

      Affordances

    Correct Answer
    D. Affordances
    Explanation
    The Gibsons propose that perception is guided by the discovery of affordances. Affordances refer to the potential actions or uses that an object or environment offers to an individual. It is the perception of these affordances that allows individuals to understand how they can interact with their surroundings and accomplish their goals. By perceiving the affordances of objects and environments, individuals are able to effectively navigate and interact with their surroundings in a meaningful way.

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  • 40. 

    Between 3 and 4 months, babies can

    • A.

      Discriminate positive from negative emotions in voices

    • B.

      Match faces with voices on basis of lip- voice synchrony

    • C.

      Discriminate positive from negative emotion in faces

    • D.

      Remember the unique face- voice pairings of unfamiliar adults

    Correct Answer
    B. Match faces with voices on basis of lip- voice synchrony
    Explanation
    Between 3 and 4 months, babies have the ability to match faces with voices based on lip-voice synchrony. This means that they can coordinate the movements of the lips and the sounds they hear, allowing them to associate specific faces with specific voices. This ability demonstrates their growing cognitive and perceptual skills, as they are able to make connections between visual and auditory stimuli.

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  • 41. 

    At 6 months, Annabelle dropped her rattle in a fairly right way, by 12 months she tossed objects down the basebment stairs, bounced them off walls and threw them in the air. Annabelle's modifications of her dropping scheme are an example of

    • A.

      Accommodation

    • B.

      Equilibrium

    • C.

      Organization

    • D.

      Assimilation

    Correct Answer
    A. Accommodation
    Explanation
    Annabelle's modifications of her dropping scheme from simply dropping objects to tossing them down the stairs, bouncing them off walls, and throwing them in the air indicate that she is adjusting and adapting her behavior to fit new situations and challenges. This process of modifying her existing knowledge and skills to accommodate new experiences is known as accommodation.

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  • 42. 

    Baby Franklin practiced his dropping and throwing schemes, and eventually developed an understanding of height. The achievement is an example of

    • A.

      Organization

    • B.

      Accommodation

    • C.

      Equilibrium

    • D.

      Assimilation

    Correct Answer
    A. Organization
    Explanation
    The given scenario describes how Baby Franklin practiced different actions and eventually developed an understanding of height. This process of practicing and gaining knowledge demonstrates organization, which refers to the process of arranging and categorizing information to create a structured understanding of the world. In this case, Baby Franklin organized his experiences of dropping and throwing objects to develop a concept of height.

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  • 43. 

    Baby Faith sucks, grasps, and looks in much the same way, no matter what experiences she encounters. Faith is probably in Substage ____ of Piaget's sensorimotor period

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    A. 1
    Explanation
    In Piaget's sensorimotor period, babies go through six sub-stages. Substage 1, known as the reflexive substage, occurs from birth to around one month old. During this stage, babies' actions are primarily reflexive, such as sucking, grasping, and looking. Therefore, based on the information provided, it can be inferred that Baby Faith is in Substage 1 of Piaget's sensorimotor period.

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  • 44. 

    Baby Sabrina opens her mouth differently for a nipple than for a spoon. In piaget's theory this is an example of a _________ circular reaction

    • A.

      Reflexive

    • B.

      Primary

    • C.

      Secondary

    • D.

      Tertiary

    Correct Answer
    B. Primary
    Explanation
    In Piaget's theory, primary circular reactions occur during the sensorimotor stage, which is the first stage of cognitive development. These reactions involve the repetition of actions that initially occurred by chance and are centered on the infant's own body. In this case, Baby Sabrina opening her mouth differently for a nipple than for a spoon demonstrates a primary circular reaction because she is repeating a behavior (opening her mouth) that is centered on her own body and is related to her own actions and experiences.

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  • 45. 

    When 12 month old Barrett's mom asks him "where is your teddy bear?" Barrett responds by pointing to the place on his bed where the teddy bear usuaslly rests. Barrett is displaying

    • A.

      Habituation and recovery

    • B.

      Inferred imitation

    • C.

      Displaced reference

    • D.

      Means-end problem solving

    Correct Answer
    C. Displaced reference
    Explanation
    Displaced reference refers to the ability to understand that an object can represent something that is not physically present. In this scenario, Barrett is displaying displaced reference because he is pointing to the place on his bed where his teddy bear usually rests, indicating that he understands that the teddy bear is not physically there but can be represented by its usual location.

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  • 46. 

    The core knowledge perspective emphasizes

    • A.

      Experimentation

    • B.

      Native endowment

    • C.

      Assimilation

    • D.

      Accommodation

    Correct Answer
    B. Native endowment
    Explanation
    The core knowledge perspective emphasizes the idea that humans are born with innate cognitive abilities and knowledge. This means that individuals have a natural predisposition to acquire certain types of knowledge and skills. The term "native endowment" refers to this inherent capacity for learning and understanding. It suggests that humans have an inborn ability to acquire knowledge in specific domains, such as language or mathematics, without relying solely on external factors like experience or cultural influences. This perspective highlights the importance of understanding the role of genetics and the brain in shaping cognitive development.

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  • 47. 

    According to the information-processing framework, ________ make(s) more complex forms of thinking possible with age

    • A.

      Increases in the size of short-term memory

    • B.

      Changes in the structure of the mental system

    • C.

      Increases in the capactiy of the mental system

    • D.

      The emergence of goal directed behavior

    Correct Answer
    C. Increases in the capactiy of the mental system
    Explanation
    According to the information-processing framework, as individuals age, their mental system becomes more capable or has a greater capacity. This means that they are able to process and handle more complex forms of thinking. This increase in capacity allows for the development and improvement of cognitive abilities, such as problem-solving, decision-making, and reasoning skills. As the mental system expands, individuals are able to engage in more advanced cognitive processes and achieve higher levels of thinking.

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  • 48. 

    After 2 to 6 month olds forget an operant response

    • A.

      It takes months for them to reinstate the memory

    • B.

      They need only a brief prompt to reinstate the memory

    • C.

      They reinstate the memory after a few days

    • D.

      They are unable to remember it without extensive training

    Correct Answer
    B. They need only a brief prompt to reinstate the memory
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "they need only a brief prompt to reinstate the memory." This means that after 2 to 6 months, when infants forget an operant response, they are able to remember it again with just a short reminder or cue. This suggests that their memory of the response is not completely lost, but rather temporarily inaccessible until triggered by a prompt.

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  • 49. 

    Korean toddlers develop object-sorting skills later than their English speaking counterparts because

    • A.

      They are less likely to be given opportunities to physically manipulate objects

    • B.

      English speaking children develop language skills sooner than Korean speaking children

    • C.

      The English language is less complex than the Korean language

    • D.

      The Korean language often omits object names from sentences

    Correct Answer
    D. The Korean language often omits object names from sentences
    Explanation
    The Korean language often omits object names from sentences. This means that Korean toddlers may have less exposure to object names and less practice in using them, which can affect their object-sorting skills. In contrast, English speaking children are more likely to have object names explicitly stated in sentences, providing them with more opportunities to learn and practice object names, which can contribute to the earlier development of their object-sorting skills.

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  • 50. 

    Which of the following tasks would be within Lucy's zone of proximal development?

    • A.

      A task that Lucy cannot accomplish alone or with the help of an adult

    • B.

      A task that Lucy has recently mastered independently following the assistance of an adult

    • C.

      A task that Lucy cannot yet handle on her own but can do with the help of an adult

    • D.

      A task that Lucy accomplishes through her independent activity

    Correct Answer
    C. A task that Lucy cannot yet handle on her own but can do with the help of an adult
    Explanation
    Lucy's zone of proximal development refers to the tasks or activities that she is not yet able to do independently, but can achieve with the guidance and support of an adult. This means that Lucy is in the process of developing the necessary skills and knowledge to complete the task, but still requires assistance. Therefore, the correct answer is a task that Lucy cannot yet handle on her own but can do with the help of an adult.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 24, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Hmchurch
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