Chapter 8 Of Test2 J&e

25 Questions | Total Attempts: 336

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Chapter 8 Of Test2 J&e

Quiz over chapter 8-------------------------------------------


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    For Bentham, ________ is the fundamental normative principle in which we should determine which choices to make and which actions to take.
    • A. 

      Altruism

    • B. 

      Utility

    • C. 

      Duty

    • D. 

      Obligation

  • 2. 
    Which is not a dimension of the felicity calculus?
    • A. 

      Intensity

    • B. 

      Variety

    • C. 

      Proximity

    • D. 

      Fecundity

  • 3. 
    The self-defeating nature of ethical egoism can best be exemplified by what is known as:
    • A. 

      The prisoner's dilemma

    • B. 

      Conflicts of interests

    • C. 

      Partiality

    • D. 

      Knowledge of interests

  • 4. 
    What philosopher made the argument in favor of ethical egoism that we only have one life to live?
    • A. 

      Jeremy Bentham

    • B. 

      John Stuart Mill

    • C. 

      Ayn Rand

    • D. 

      James Rachels

  • 5. 
    Who was the most notable detractor from Bentham's original formulation of utilitarianism?
    • A. 

      Carl Klockars

    • B. 

      Ayn Rand

    • C. 

      John Stuart Mill

    • D. 

      Thomas Hobbes

  • 6. 
    The ________ holds that whenever we have a choice between alternative actions or social policies, we must choose the one which has the best overall consequences for everyone concerned.
    • A. 

      Felicity calculus

    • B. 

      Greatest happiness principle

    • C. 

      Principle of utility

    • D. 

      B and C

  • 7. 
    ________ suggest that psychological persuasion and manipulation are the most salient and defining features of contemporary police interrogation.
    • A. 

      Klockars

    • B. 

      Hobbes

    • C. 

      Bentham and Mill

    • D. 

      Skolnick and Leo

  • 8. 
    Mill believed that establishing the quality of a pleasure requires: a. governmental or legal authority
    • A. 

      Governmental or legal authority

    • B. 

      The felicity calculus

    • C. 

      A judge or expert

    • D. 

      Self-introspection

  • 9. 
    The ________ is a hypothetical state of social existence where there is no government or law to direct or regulate people.
    • A. 

      Utopian state

    • B. 

      State of nature

    • C. 

      Status quo

    • D. 

      Social contract

  • 10. 
    Agent-centered consequentialism is more commonly known as:
    • A. 

      Altruism

    • B. 

      Paternalism

    • C. 

      Contractualism

    • D. 

      Ethical egoism

  • 11. 
    How many dimensions does the felicity calculus consist of?
    • A. 

      8

    • B. 

      7

    • C. 

      9

    • D. 

      5

  • 12. 
    ________ is the primary claim that the pursuit of pleasure is a fact of human nature.
    • A. 

      Utilitarianism

    • B. 

      Psychological hedonism

    • C. 

      Formalism

    • D. 

      Contractualism

  • 13. 
    Self-interest for the ethical egoist is not a psychological motivation but a:
    • A. 

      Legal value

    • B. 

      Moral principle

    • C. 

      Social norm

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 14. 
    ________ was an important proponent and developer of utilitarian ethics.
    • A. 

      Thomas Hobbes

    • B. 

      James Rachels

    • C. 

      John Stuart Mill

    • D. 

      B and C

  • 15. 
    Hobbes argued that altruism, trust, and cooperation were only possible when we have:
    • A. 

      Desired goods

    • B. 

      Security

    • C. 

      Utopia

    • D. 

      Authoritative government

  • 16. 
    ________ argued that the natural state of existence for human beings is one of selfish desire and competitiveness coupled with a condition of scarcity.
    • A. 

      James Rachels

    • B. 

      Ayn Rand

    • C. 

      John Stuart Mill

    • D. 

      Thomas Hobbes

  • 17. 
    ________ understands morality to consist of the set of rules governing how people are to treat one another and that rational people will agree to accept the rules for their mutual benefit on the condition that others follow the rules as well.
    • A. 

      Contractualism

    • B. 

      Kantian ethics

    • C. 

      Virtue ethics

    • D. 

      Formalism

  • 18. 
    ________ goods are those things that are good in and of themselves or for their own sake.
    • A. 

      Intrinsic

    • B. 

      Instrumental

    • C. 

      Hedonistic

    • D. 

      A and B

  • 19. 
    ________ ethics attempts to formulate norms, guidelines, standards, and/or principles of right and wrong.
    • A. 

      Virtue

    • B. 

      Sociological

    • C. 

      Normative

    • D. 

      Cultural

  • 20. 
    Under ________, what matters morally are consequences to ourselves, though our own interests are furthered by recognizing and agreeing to abide by certain rules of social living that are in the best interests of everyone.
    • A. 

      Contractualism

    • B. 

      Ethical egoism

    • C. 

      Utilitarianism

    • D. 

      Altruism

  • 21. 
    Ethical egoism is a theory of:
    • A. 

      Self-interest

    • B. 

      The welfare of others

    • C. 

      Personal welfare

    • D. 

      A and C

  • 22. 
    ________ argued that there are degrees of goodness associated with different types of pleasures.
    • A. 

      Carl Klockars

    • B. 

      John Stuart Mill

    • C. 

      Thomas Hobbes

    • D. 

      Jeremy Bentham

  • 23. 
    So long as we do what a ________ person would do in light of the expected consequences, we are fulfilling utilitarian requirements.
    • A. 

      Reasonable

    • B. 

      Virtuous

    • C. 

      Self-interested

    • D. 

      Altruistic

  • 24. 
    Using consequentialist ethics, we would be justified in
    • A. 

      Beating a suspect until he confessed to the crime if we knew for sure that he was guilty.

    • B. 

      Promising a suspect a lenient sentence in order to gain a confession even if we knew that was not our decision to make.

    • C. 

      Planting evidence at a crime sene to implicate a suspect who we knew was guilty.

    • D. 

      All of the above.

    • E. 

      None of the above.

  • 25. 
    Under consequentialism, actions that otherwise might be deemed immoral can be seen as moral as long as
    • A. 

      The person does not feel guilty about them.

    • B. 

      They serve to bring about good ends.

    • C. 

      The person does not get caught.

    • D. 

      They meet the needs of the agency the person works for.