Chapter 8 Of Test2 J&e

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Chapter 8 Of Test2 J&e - Quiz

Quiz over chapter 8-------------------------------------------


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    For Bentham, ________ is the fundamental normative principle in which we should determine which choices to make and which actions to take.

    • A.

      Altruism

    • B.

      Utility

    • C.

      Duty

    • D.

      Obligation

    Correct Answer
    B. Utility
    Explanation
    Bentham believed that the fundamental normative principle for determining choices and actions is utility. Utility refers to the overall happiness or pleasure that an action or choice brings to the greatest number of people. Bentham argued that the morally right action is the one that maximizes utility and produces the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people. This principle is known as utilitarianism, and it emphasizes the importance of considering the consequences and outcomes of our actions in order to maximize overall utility.

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  • 2. 

    Which is not a dimension of the felicity calculus?

    • A.

      Intensity

    • B.

      Variety

    • C.

      Proximity

    • D.

      Fecundity

    Correct Answer
    B. Variety
    Explanation
    Variety is not a dimension of the felicity calculus. The felicity calculus is a framework used to evaluate the moral worth of actions based on their consequences. The dimensions of the felicity calculus include intensity, proximity, and fecundity. Intensity refers to the strength or magnitude of the consequences, proximity refers to the closeness in time and space of the consequences, and fecundity refers to the ability of the consequences to produce further desirable consequences. Variety, however, is not considered as a dimension in this framework.

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  • 3. 

    The self-defeating nature of ethical egoism can best be exemplified by what is known as:

    • A.

      The prisoner's dilemma

    • B.

      Conflicts of interests

    • C.

      Partiality

    • D.

      Knowledge of interests

    Correct Answer
    A. The prisoner's dilemma
    Explanation
    The self-defeating nature of ethical egoism can best be exemplified by the prisoner's dilemma. In this scenario, two individuals are arrested and held in separate cells. They are given the option to either cooperate with each other and stay silent or betray each other and confess. If both individuals stay silent, they both receive a minimal sentence. However, if one stays silent and the other confesses, the one who confesses receives a reduced sentence while the other receives a harsher sentence. If both individuals confess, they both receive a moderate sentence. Ethical egoism would suggest that each individual should act in their own self-interest and confess. However, if both individuals act in their own self-interest, they both end up with a harsher sentence. Therefore, ethical egoism becomes self-defeating in this situation.

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  • 4. 

    What philosopher made the argument in favor of ethical egoism that we only have one life to live?

    • A.

      Jeremy Bentham

    • B.

      John Stuart Mill

    • C.

      Ayn Rand

    • D.

      James Rachels

    Correct Answer
    C. Ayn Rand
    Explanation
    Ayn Rand made the argument in favor of ethical egoism that we only have one life to live. Ethical egoism is the belief that individuals should act in their own self-interest and prioritize their own well-being. Rand argued that since we only have one life to live, it is rational and moral to pursue our own happiness and fulfill our own desires. She believed that individuals should not sacrifice their own interests for the sake of others, and that self-interest should be the guiding principle in ethics.

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  • 5. 

    Who was the most notable detractor from Bentham's original formulation of utilitarianism?

    • A.

      Carl Klockars

    • B.

      Ayn Rand

    • C.

      John Stuart Mill

    • D.

      Thomas Hobbes

    Correct Answer
    C. John Stuart Mill
    Explanation
    John Stuart Mill was a notable detractor from Bentham's original formulation of utilitarianism. While Bentham focused solely on maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain, Mill introduced the concept of qualitative differences in pleasure. He argued that not all pleasures are equal and that some higher pleasures, such as intellectual pursuits and moral virtues, are more valuable than lower pleasures. This departure from Bentham's purely quantitative approach to pleasure was a significant criticism and modification of utilitarianism.

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  • 6. 

    The ________ holds that whenever we have a choice between alternative actions or social policies, we must choose the one which has the best overall consequences for everyone concerned.

    • A.

      Felicity calculus

    • B.

      Greatest happiness principle

    • C.

      Principle of utility

    • D.

      B and C

    Correct Answer
    D. B and C
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "B and C" because both the "greatest happiness principle" and the "principle of utility" advocate for choosing actions or social policies that result in the best overall consequences for everyone involved. These principles prioritize the greatest happiness or utility for the majority of people, making them compatible with each other.

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  • 7. 

    ________ suggest that psychological persuasion and manipulation are the most salient and defining features of contemporary police interrogation.

    • A.

      Klockars

    • B.

      Hobbes

    • C.

      Bentham and Mill

    • D.

      Skolnick and Leo

    Correct Answer
    D. Skolnick and Leo
    Explanation
    Skolnick and Leo suggest that psychological persuasion and manipulation are the most salient and defining features of contemporary police interrogation.

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  • 8. 

    Mill believed that establishing the quality of a pleasure requires: a. governmental or legal authority

    • A.

      Governmental or legal authority

    • B.

      The felicity calculus

    • C.

      A judge or expert

    • D.

      Self-introspection

    Correct Answer
    C. A judge or expert
    Explanation
    Mill believed that the quality of a pleasure can be determined by a judge or expert. He argued that not all pleasures are equal and that some are of higher quality than others. According to Mill, a judge or expert can assess the different dimensions of a pleasure, such as its intensity, duration, certainty, and its effects on other people and oneself. This assessment is necessary in order to distinguish between higher and lower quality pleasures and make informed decisions about what is truly pleasurable and valuable.

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  • 9. 

    The ________ is a hypothetical state of social existence where there is no government or law to direct or regulate people.

    • A.

      Utopian state

    • B.

      State of nature

    • C.

      Status quo

    • D.

      Social contract

    Correct Answer
    B. State of nature
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "state of nature." This term refers to a hypothetical condition in which there is no government or law to govern and regulate people's behavior. In this state, individuals have complete freedom but also face the challenges of insecurity and potential conflicts. It is often used in political philosophy to discuss the origins and purpose of government and the social contract.

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  • 10. 

    Agent-centered consequentialism is more commonly known as:

    • A.

      Altruism

    • B.

      Paternalism

    • C.

      Contractualism

    • D.

      Ethical egoism

    Correct Answer
    D. Ethical egoism
    Explanation
    Ethical egoism is the correct answer because it refers to the belief that individuals should always act in their own self-interest. Agent-centered consequentialism is a moral theory that focuses on the consequences of an individual's actions and how they affect that individual. Ethical egoism aligns with this perspective by asserting that individuals should prioritize their own well-being and happiness over the well-being of others. This contrasts with altruism, which emphasizes selflessness and concern for the welfare of others. Paternalism and contractualism are not synonymous with agent-centered consequentialism and do not align with the idea of acting in one's own self-interest.

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  • 11. 

    How many dimensions does the felicity calculus consist of?

    • A.

      8

    • B.

      7

    • C.

      9

    • D.

      5

    Correct Answer
    B. 7
    Explanation
    The felicity calculus consists of 7 dimensions.

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  • 12. 

    ________ is the primary claim that the pursuit of pleasure is a fact of human nature.

    • A.

      Utilitarianism

    • B.

      Psychological hedonism

    • C.

      Formalism

    • D.

      Contractualism

    Correct Answer
    B. Psychological hedonism
  • 13. 

    Self-interest for the ethical egoist is not a psychological motivation but a:

    • A.

      Legal value

    • B.

      Moral principle

    • C.

      Social norm

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Moral principle
    Explanation
    Ethical egoism is a moral theory that states individuals ought to act in their own self-interest. In this context, self-interest is not seen as a psychological motivation, but rather as a moral principle. It suggests that individuals have a moral duty to prioritize their own well-being and happiness over the well-being of others. Therefore, the correct answer is "moral principle."

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  • 14. 

    ________ was an important proponent and developer of utilitarian ethics.

    • A.

      Thomas Hobbes

    • B.

      James Rachels

    • C.

      John Stuart Mill

    • D.

      B and C

    Correct Answer
    C. John Stuart Mill
    Explanation
    John Stuart Mill was an important proponent and developer of utilitarian ethics. Utilitarianism is a moral theory that states the best action is the one that maximizes overall happiness or well-being for the greatest number of people. Mill expanded upon the ideas of Jeremy Bentham and emphasized the importance of individual liberties and the pursuit of happiness. He believed that actions should be judged by their consequences and that the goal of ethics should be to create the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people. Mill's contributions to utilitarianism have had a significant impact on moral philosophy.

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  • 15. 

    Hobbes argued that altruism, trust, and cooperation were only possible when we have:

    • A.

      Desired goods

    • B.

      Security

    • C.

      Utopia

    • D.

      Authoritative government

    Correct Answer
    B. Security
    Explanation
    Hobbes argued that altruism, trust, and cooperation were only possible when we have security. This is because in a state of insecurity, individuals are driven by self-interest and fear, leading to a lack of cooperation and trust. When people feel secure, they are more willing to engage in altruistic acts and trust others, as they are not constantly worried about their own safety and well-being. Therefore, security is a necessary condition for the development of altruism, trust, and cooperation.

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  • 16. 

    ________ argued that the natural state of existence for human beings is one of selfish desire and competitiveness coupled with a condition of scarcity.

    • A.

      James Rachels

    • B.

      Ayn Rand

    • C.

      John Stuart Mill

    • D.

      Thomas Hobbes

    Correct Answer
    D. Thomas Hobbes
    Explanation
    Thomas Hobbes argued that the natural state of existence for human beings is one of selfish desire and competitiveness coupled with a condition of scarcity. Hobbes believed that in this state, humans would constantly be in conflict with each other, as they would compete for limited resources and pursue their own self-interests. This idea is famously described in his work "Leviathan," where he argues for the necessity of a strong central authority to prevent this state of nature from descending into chaos.

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  • 17. 

    ________ understands morality to consist of the set of rules governing how people are to treat one another and that rational people will agree to accept the rules for their mutual benefit on the condition that others follow the rules as well.

    • A.

      Contractualism

    • B.

      Kantian ethics

    • C.

      Virtue ethics

    • D.

      Formalism

    Correct Answer
    A. Contractualism
    Explanation
    Contractualism is the correct answer because it aligns with the given explanation. Contractualism is a moral theory that emphasizes the importance of social contracts or agreements between rational individuals. According to contractualism, morality is based on the set of rules that govern how people should treat one another. Rational individuals agree to accept these rules for their mutual benefit, with the condition that others also follow the rules. This explanation perfectly describes the central principles of contractualism.

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  • 18. 

    ________ goods are those things that are good in and of themselves or for their own sake.

    • A.

      Intrinsic

    • B.

      Instrumental

    • C.

      Hedonistic

    • D.

      A and B

    Correct Answer
    A. Intrinsic
    Explanation
    Intrinsic goods refer to things that are good in and of themselves or for their own sake. This means that they have inherent value or worth, regardless of any external factors or benefits they may provide. This is in contrast to instrumental goods, which are valued for the benefits or outcomes they can bring about. Therefore, the correct answer is "Intrinsic".

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  • 19. 

    ________ ethics attempts to formulate norms, guidelines, standards, and/or principles of right and wrong.

    • A.

      Virtue

    • B.

      Sociological

    • C.

      Normative

    • D.

      Cultural

    Correct Answer
    C. Normative
    Explanation
    Normative ethics is a branch of ethics that focuses on providing guidelines and principles for determining what is morally right and wrong. It aims to formulate norms and standards that can be universally applied to ethical decision-making. Unlike other branches of ethics, such as virtue ethics or cultural ethics, normative ethics does not focus on specific virtues or cultural practices but instead seeks to establish general principles for ethical behavior.

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  • 20. 

    Under ________, what matters morally are consequences to ourselves, though our own interests are furthered by recognizing and agreeing to abide by certain rules of social living that are in the best interests of everyone.

    • A.

      Contractualism

    • B.

      Ethical egoism

    • C.

      Utilitarianism

    • D.

      Altruism

    Correct Answer
    A. Contractualism
    Explanation
    Under contractualism, what matters morally are consequences to ourselves, though our own interests are furthered by recognizing and agreeing to abide by certain rules of social living that are in the best interests of everyone. Contractualism emphasizes the importance of social contracts and agreements in determining what is morally right or wrong. It suggests that individuals should act in a way that benefits themselves while also considering the well-being of others and adhering to mutually beneficial social rules.

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  • 21. 

    Ethical egoism is a theory of:

    • A.

      Self-interest

    • B.

      The welfare of others

    • C.

      Personal welfare

    • D.

      A and C

    Correct Answer
    D. A and C
    Explanation
    Ethical egoism is a theory that suggests individuals should prioritize their own self-interest and personal welfare. This means that people should act in a way that maximizes their own happiness and well-being. Therefore, the correct answer is A and C, as ethical egoism focuses on both self-interest and personal welfare.

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  • 22. 

    ________ argued that there are degrees of goodness associated with different types of pleasures.

    • A.

      Carl Klockars

    • B.

      John Stuart Mill

    • C.

      Thomas Hobbes

    • D.

      Jeremy Bentham

    Correct Answer
    B. John Stuart Mill
    Explanation
    John Stuart Mill argued that there are degrees of goodness associated with different types of pleasures. Mill believed that not all pleasures are equal and that some are of higher quality or more valuable than others. He proposed that intellectual and moral pleasures are superior to physical pleasures, as they engage higher faculties of the human mind. This idea is central to Mill's philosophy of utilitarianism, which suggests that actions should be judged based on their ability to maximize overall happiness or pleasure for the greatest number of people.

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  • 23. 

    So long as we do what a ________ person would do in light of the expected consequences, we are fulfilling utilitarian requirements.

    • A.

      Reasonable

    • B.

      Virtuous

    • C.

      Self-interested

    • D.

      Altruistic

    Correct Answer
    A. Reasonable
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "reasonable." This is because utilitarianism is an ethical theory that focuses on maximizing overall happiness and minimizing overall suffering. In this context, being a reasonable person means making decisions and taking actions that are logical, rational, and based on a careful consideration of the expected consequences. By doing what a reasonable person would do in light of the expected consequences, we are fulfilling utilitarian requirements as we are acting in a way that promotes the greatest overall happiness.

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  • 24. 

    Using consequentialist ethics, we would be justified in

    • A.

      Beating a suspect until he confessed to the crime if we knew for sure that he was guilty.

    • B.

      Promising a suspect a lenient sentence in order to gain a confession even if we knew that was not our decision to make.

    • C.

      Planting evidence at a crime sene to implicate a suspect who we knew was guilty.

    • D.

      All of the above.

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above.
    Explanation
    Using consequentialist ethics, all of the actions mentioned in the options could be justified if they ultimately lead to the desired outcome, which is getting a confession from a guilty suspect. Consequentialist ethics focus on the consequences or outcomes of an action rather than the inherent morality of the action itself. In this case, if beating a suspect, promising a lenient sentence, or planting evidence lead to the confession of a guilty suspect, a consequentialist would argue that the actions were justified.

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  • 25. 

    Under consequentialism, actions that otherwise might be deemed immoral can be seen as moral as long as

    • A.

      The person does not feel guilty about them.

    • B.

      They serve to bring about good ends.

    • C.

      The person does not get caught.

    • D.

      They meet the needs of the agency the person works for.

    Correct Answer
    B. They serve to bring about good ends.
    Explanation
    Under consequentialism, actions are deemed moral or immoral based on their consequences. This ethical theory focuses on the outcomes or results of an action rather than the intentions or intrinsic nature of the action itself. Therefore, actions that bring about good ends or positive consequences are considered moral under consequentialism. The other options, such as the person not feeling guilty, not getting caught, or meeting the needs of the agency, are not the determining factors for moral evaluation in consequentialism.

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