Justice And Ethics Ch 6 Quiz-----------

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Quizzes Created: 6 | Total Attempts: 6,041
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Justice And Ethics Ch 6 Quiz----------- - Quiz

Justice and Ethics Ch 6 Quiz------------------------------------------------------------------- --------


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Divine command theory comes in two notable variations that are:

    • A.

      Absolutist and moderate versions

    • B.

      Absolutist and deterministic versions

    • C.

      Deterministic and moderate versions

    • D.

      Religious and atheist versions

    Correct Answer
    A. Absolutist and moderate versions
    Explanation
    Divine command theory is a moral theory that suggests that what is morally right or wrong is determined by God's commands. The absolutist version of this theory argues that moral principles are fixed and unchanging, and that God's commands are the ultimate source of morality. In contrast, the moderate version suggests that while God's commands are important, there may be room for interpretation and flexibility in applying them to specific situations. Therefore, the correct answer is that divine command theory comes in absolutist and moderate versions.

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  • 2. 

    It is generally understood within ethics that for something to be a sufficient foundation for morality and/or a sufficient motivation for moral behavior, it should be:

    • A.

      Universal

    • B.

      Theoretical

    • C.

      General

    • D.

      A and C

    Correct Answer
    D. A and C
    Explanation
    A sufficient foundation for morality and a sufficient motivation for moral behavior should be universal and general. This means that ethical principles and motivations should apply to all individuals universally and should not be limited to specific situations or individuals. By being universal and general, ethical principles can provide a consistent and fair framework for moral decision-making and behavior.

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  • 3. 

    While Plato felt that the well-balanced soul was the virtuous soul, he also believed that each of the soul's parts had its own virtue. What is the virtue of spirit?

    • A.

      Moderation

    • B.

      Courage

    • C.

      Wisdom

    • D.

      Valor

    Correct Answer
    B. Courage
    Explanation
    Plato believed that the soul is composed of three parts: reason, spirit, and desire. Each part has its own virtue, and in the case of spirit, its virtue is courage. Courage is the quality of facing difficulties, danger, or fear without being overcome by them. It is the ability to act bravely and confidently in challenging situations. According to Plato, having a well-balanced soul means that each part, including the spirited part, is virtuous, and in the case of spirit, this virtue is courage.

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  • 4. 

      A main concern with divine command theory is the problem of:

    • A.

      Utility

    • B.

      Reinterpreting motives

    • C.

      Varying strengths of religiosity

    • D.

      Common ground

    Correct Answer
    D. Common ground
    Explanation
    The main concern with divine command theory is the problem of finding common ground. This theory states that moral obligations are determined by the commands of a divine being. However, different religions and individuals may have different beliefs about what these commands are, leading to conflicting moral principles. Therefore, the challenge lies in establishing a shared understanding or agreement on what constitutes moral behavior, which is essential for a cohesive and harmonious society.

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  • 5. 

    During the Middle Ages, the dominant social and legal force was the:

    • A.

      Knights code of conduct

    • B.

      Legislative body

    • C.

      Roman Catholic Church

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Roman Catholic Church
    Explanation
    During the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic Church held significant social and legal power. It not only served as the dominant religious institution but also had control over many aspects of daily life. The Church played a crucial role in shaping laws, enforcing moral codes, and exerting influence over political affairs. Its authority was widespread and its teachings and doctrines were followed by a large portion of the population. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Roman Catholic Church was the dominant social and legal force during this period.

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  • 6. 

      Following the logic of mutual aid, it is ________ rather than mutual advantage that does, or at least should, motivate us to be moral.

    • A.

      Religious connections

    • B.

      Shared support

    • C.

      Obligations of duty

    • D.

      Social norms

    Correct Answer
    B. Shared support
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "shared support" because mutual aid implies that individuals support and help each other without expecting any personal gain or advantage. This concept of shared support emphasizes the idea that being moral is driven by a sense of collective responsibility and the desire to assist others in need, rather than seeking individual benefits. It highlights the importance of fostering a supportive and caring community where individuals contribute to the well-being of others without any ulterior motives.

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  • 7. 

    Genuine morality must be:

    • A.

      Divine

    • B.

      Obligatory

    • C.

      Religious

    • D.

      Authentic

    Correct Answer
    D. Authentic
    Explanation
    Genuine morality refers to a moral code or principles that are true, sincere, and based on one's own beliefs and values. It is not necessarily tied to any specific religion or divine authority. Therefore, the word "authentic" is the most suitable choice as it implies that the morality is genuine and true to oneself.

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  • 8. 

    Following the ________ version of divine command theory, telling the truth is neither inherently good nor bad; it is only good because it is directed by God.

    • A.

      Absolute

    • B.

      Moderate

    • C.

      Atheist

    • D.

      Deterministic

    Correct Answer
    A. Absolute
    Explanation
    This explanation is based on the assumption that the missing word is "Absolute." According to the Absolute version of divine command theory, the morality of an action is determined solely by whether it is commanded by God or not. In this context, telling the truth is considered good because it is directed by God, rather than being inherently good or bad in itself.

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  • 9. 

    Social and political philosopher ________ argued that natural compassion prevents us from harming others while simultaneously inclining us to assist people in need.

    • A.

      Plato

    • B.

      John Kleinig

    • C.

      Thomas Hobbes

    • D.

      Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    Correct Answer
    D. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    Explanation
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau argued that natural compassion prevents us from harming others while simultaneously inclining us to assist people in need. He believed that humans are inherently good and compassionate, and that society corrupts this natural state. Rousseau emphasized the importance of empathy and compassion in human relationships, and believed that these qualities are essential for creating a just and harmonious society.

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  • 10. 

    The interests of the Roman Catholic Church in combating heresy gave rise to a several hundred-year law enforcement campaign known as the:

    • A.

      Holy Witch-hunt

    • B.

      Divine Inquest

    • C.

      Holy Wars

    • D.

      Holy Inquisition

    Correct Answer
    D. Holy Inquisition
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Holy Inquisition. The Roman Catholic Church was deeply concerned with combating heresy and maintaining its authority during the Middle Ages. The Holy Inquisition was a law enforcement campaign that lasted for several hundred years and aimed to identify, prosecute, and eliminate heresy within the Church. It involved the establishment of special courts and tribunals, the use of torture to extract confessions, and the execution of individuals found guilty of heresy. The Holy Inquisition was a significant and controversial aspect of Church history, leaving a lasting impact on religious and social dynamics in Europe.

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  • 11. 

    In the social history of criminal justice, ________ frequently emerges as an influence in nearly every sphere.

    • A.

      Religion

    • B.

      Ethics

    • C.

      Correctional policy

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Religion
    Explanation
    Religion is frequently seen as an influence in nearly every sphere of the social history of criminal justice. This is because religious beliefs and values often shape societal norms and attitudes towards crime and punishment. Many legal systems and correctional policies have been influenced by religious teachings and principles. Additionally, religion plays a role in shaping individuals' moral compass and can influence their decisions and behaviors related to crime. Therefore, the correct answer is Religion.

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  • 12. 

    According to Plato, the self or soul is comprised of three parts, which are:

    • A.

      A rational part, a spirited part, an authentic part

    • B.

      An appetitive part, a rational part, a religious part

    • C.

      An appetitive part, a rational part, a spirited part

    • D.

      A spirited part, a determined part, an ethical part

    Correct Answer
    B. An appetitive part, a rational part, a religious part
    Explanation
    Plato believed that the self or soul is composed of three parts: an appetitive part, a rational part, and a religious part. The appetitive part refers to our desires and basic instincts, the rational part represents our ability to reason and make logical decisions, and the religious part pertains to our spiritual beliefs and connection to the divine. This view suggests that our soul is a complex entity with different aspects that influence our thoughts, actions, and values.

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  • 13. 

    The crime of ________ encompassed nearly any act that was contrary to the church doctrine.

    • A.

      Heresy

    • B.

      Blasphemy

    • C.

      Witchcraft

    • D.

      Profanity

    Correct Answer
    A. Heresy
    Explanation
    The crime of heresy refers to any act that goes against the teachings and beliefs of the church. This could include questioning or denying religious doctrines, promoting different beliefs, or challenging the authority of the church. Heresy was considered a serious offense during the time when the church had significant influence and power, and those accused of heresy often faced severe consequences, such as excommunication or even execution. Therefore, heresy is the correct answer as it encompasses acts contrary to church doctrine.

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  • 14. 

    During the 1800s, ________ was commonly employed as a means of maximizing time for reflection and repentance in the interest of reform.

    • A.

      Long prison sentencing

    • B.

      Isolation

    • C.

      Extended torture

    • D.

      Confession

    Correct Answer
    B. Isolation
    Explanation
    During the 1800s, isolation was commonly employed as a means of maximizing time for reflection and repentance in the interest of reform. This suggests that individuals were isolated from society and kept in solitary confinement for extended periods of time in order to encourage introspection and remorse for their actions. Isolation was seen as a way to rehabilitate offenders and encourage them to change their behavior through self-reflection.

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  • 15. 

    One of the major limitations stemming from the absolutist variety of divine command theory is that:

    • A.

      It is far too absolute for true morality

    • B.

      It implies that there is no morality unless one believes in God

    • C.

      It suggests that the majority of people are immoral

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. It implies that there is no morality unless one believes in God
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the absolutist variety of divine command theory implies that there is no morality unless one believes in God. This is because divine command theory asserts that moral actions are determined by God's commands, and without belief in God, there would be no basis for moral standards or obligations.

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  • 16. 

    When did conceptions of crime and punishment begin to be divorced from their earlier religious foundations?

    • A.

      Beginning in 1231

    • B.

      The early to mid-1800s

    • C.

      The mid-1900s

    • D.

      The mid- to late 1800s

    Correct Answer
    B. The early to mid-1800s
    Explanation
    In the early to mid-1800s, conceptions of crime and punishment began to be divorced from their earlier religious foundations. This shift can be attributed to various factors such as the Enlightenment movement, which emphasized reason and individual rights, and the rise of secularism. During this period, there was a growing recognition of the need for more rational and humane approaches to criminal justice, leading to the development of new theories and practices in the field.

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  • 17. 

    In The Republic, ________ specifies that being moral is in our best interests, even though we do not always or often realize it.

    • A.

      Thomas Hobbes

    • B.

      Plato

    • C.

      Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    • D.

      Kurt Baier

    Correct Answer
    B. Plato
    Explanation
    Plato, in his work The Republic, argues that being moral is in our best interests, even if we may not always recognize or acknowledge it. He believes that living a virtuous life leads to a harmonious and just society, where individuals can achieve true happiness and fulfillment. Plato's philosophy emphasizes the importance of moral values and the pursuit of knowledge and wisdom, as they contribute to the well-being of both individuals and society as a whole.

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  • 18. 

    ________ divine command theory holds that actions that are morally right are deemed so because God commands them.

    • A.

      Atheist

    • B.

      Deterministic

    • C.

      Moderate

    • D.

      Absolute

    Correct Answer
    D. Absolute
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Absolute." The explanation for this answer is that the divine command theory asserts that actions are morally right solely because God commands them. This means that morality is absolute and depends on God's commands rather than subjective human opinions or cultural norms. Therefore, the actions deemed morally right under the divine command theory are considered absolute and universally applicable.

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  • 19. 

    The ________ argument suggests that we want others to be well not because it is in our best interest, but because it is in our nature to want others to be well.

    • A.

      Mutual aid

    • B.

      Mutual advantage

    • C.

      Mutual morality

    • D.

      Exclusive advantage

    Correct Answer
    A. Mutual aid
    Explanation
    The concept of mutual aid suggests that we have an inherent inclination to want others to be well, not solely because it benefits us personally, but because it is ingrained in our nature to care for the well-being of others. This idea emphasizes the importance of cooperation and support among individuals, highlighting the natural instinct to provide assistance and aid to others without expecting exclusive advantages in return.

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  • 20. 

    ________ argues that certain actions are good or bad, moral or immoral because they are approved or disapproved of by God.

    • A.

      Morality

    • B.

      Kantian ethics

    • C.

      Divine command theory

    • D.

      Utilitarianism

    Correct Answer
    C. Divine command theory
    Explanation
    Divine command theory argues that certain actions are considered good or bad, moral or immoral based on whether they are approved or disapproved by God. This theory suggests that moral principles are derived from God's commands and that actions are morally right if they align with God's will and morally wrong if they go against it. In this perspective, the source of morality is seen as external and based on religious beliefs and divine authority.

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  • 21. 

    ________ subjected those accused of certain crimes to extremely painful and sometimes deadly tests of faith.

    • A.

      Tortures

    • B.

      Ordeals

    • C.

      Mutilations

    • D.

      Trials

    Correct Answer
    B. Ordeals
    Explanation
    Ordeals were a form of judicial practice in which those accused of certain crimes were subjected to extremely painful and sometimes deadly tests of faith. This was done to determine their guilt or innocence. Ordeals were often based on the belief that divine intervention would protect the innocent and punish the guilty. Common forms of ordeals included trial by fire, trial by water, and trial by combat. These practices were widely used in medieval Europe and other parts of the world as a means of administering justice.

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  • 22. 

    ________ divine command theory allows for the possibility that morality is possible without religion.

    • A.

      Atheist

    • B.

      Moderate

    • C.

      Absolute

    • D.

      Deterministic

    Correct Answer
    B. Moderate
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Moderate." The divine command theory suggests that morality can exist independently of religion. This means that one can have a moral framework and make ethical decisions without relying on religious beliefs or doctrines. A moderate perspective acknowledges the possibility of morality without religion while also recognizing the potential influence of religious teachings on moral values and principles.

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  • 23. 

    Moderate versions of divine command theory have their origins in Plato's:

    • A.

      Euthyphro

    • B.

      The Republic

    • C.

      Virtues of Man

    • D.

      Leviathan

    Correct Answer
    A. Euthyphro
    Explanation
    Moderate versions of divine command theory have their origins in Plato's Euthyphro. This dialogue explores the question of whether something is good because the gods command it, or if the gods command it because it is good. This dilemma forms the basis for divine command theory, which argues that moral obligations are derived from God's commands. By examining the relationship between the gods and morality, Plato's Euthyphro laid the groundwork for the development of divine command theory.

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  • 24. 

    3 claims

  • 25. 

    Altruism (p 105)

  • 26. 

    Feinberg

  • 27. 

    Sources of Fear and External Sanctions (p113)

  • 28. 

    Types of Neutralization/Police deviance (p 117)

  • 29. 

    Police Corruption (p 122)

  • 30. 

    Mutual Advantage vs. Mutual Aid (pp137& 140)

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