Ethical Theories Quiz Questions And Answers

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Ethical Theories Quiz Questions And Answers - Quiz

This is an amazing ethical theories quiz with questions and answers. There are three theories that try to explain the moral principles that are expected from someone in a given situation and how human language can be judged to be right or wrong. The three ethical theories are either based on a consequence, duty, or community. How well do you understand the three theories? Take up the test below and get a good understanding of what is expected of you in some situations.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following are the strengths of teleological ethical theories? 

    • A.

      They fit with much of our ordinary moral reasoning.

    • B.

      They focus on the nature of actions and the rules from which they follow

    • C.

      They ignore the consequences of actions.

    • D.

      All of these.

    • E.

      None of these.

    Correct Answer
    A. They fit with much of our ordinary moral reasoning.
    Explanation
    Teleological ethical theories, such as consequentialism, focus on the consequences of actions rather than just the actions themselves. This aligns with our ordinary moral reasoning, as we often consider the outcomes and results when making moral judgments. By emphasizing the consequences, teleological theories provide a comprehensive framework for evaluating the morality of actions. Therefore, the statement "They fit with much of our ordinary moral reasoning" accurately describes one of the strengths of teleological ethical theories.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following are the strengths of deontological ethical theories? 

    • A.

      They fit with very little of our ordinary moral reasoning.

    • B.

      They focus on the nature of their actions and the rules from which they follow

    • C.

      They pay close attention to the consequences of actions.

    • D.

      All of these.

    • E.

      None of these.

    Correct Answer
    B. They focus on the nature of their actions and the rules from which they follow
    Explanation
    Deontological ethical theories emphasize the nature of actions and the rules that govern them. They prioritize the intention behind an action rather than its consequences. This approach aligns with the idea that certain actions are inherently right or wrong, regardless of the outcome. By focusing on the rules and duties that guide our behavior, deontological theories provide a clear framework for making moral decisions. This strength sets them apart from other ethical theories that may rely more heavily on consequentialist considerations or subjective moral reasoning.

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  • 3. 

    Utilitarianism is an example of which of the following ethical theories? 

    • A.

      Virtue

    • B.

      Intuitionism

    • C.

      Deontological

    • D.

      Teleological

    • E.

      Egoism

    Correct Answer
    D. Teleological
    Explanation
    Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that focuses on the consequences of actions. It suggests that the morality of an action is determined by its ability to produce the greatest amount of overall happiness or pleasure for the greatest number of people. This aligns with the teleological ethical theory, which emphasizes the end or outcome of an action as the basis for determining its moral value.

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  • 4. 

    Rights that are recognized and enforced as part of a legal system are, strictly speaking: 

    • A.

      Moral rights.

    • B.

      Legal rights.

    • C.

      Both moral and legal rights.

    • D.

      Neither moral nor legal rights.

    Correct Answer
    B. Legal rights.
    Explanation
    Legal rights are rights that are recognized and enforced by a legal system. These rights are based on laws and regulations that are established within a society. They provide individuals with certain entitlements and protections, and failure to respect these rights can result in legal consequences. Moral rights, on the other hand, are based on ethical principles and personal beliefs, and may not necessarily be recognized or enforced by a legal system. Therefore, the correct answer is legal rights.

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  • 5. 

    The classical form of utilitarianism is expressed by which of the following? 

    • A.

      An action is right if, and only if, it is done from the right intentions.

    • B.

      An action is right if, and only if, it produces the greatest balance of pleasure over pain for everyone.

    • C.

      An action is right if it brings about great benefit to some individual or another.

    • D.

      An action is right if, and only if, it is beneficial to society.

    • E.

      None of these.

    Correct Answer
    B. An action is right if, and only if, it produces the greatest balance of pleasure over pain for everyone.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "An action is right if, and only if, it produces the greatest balance of pleasure over pain for everyone." This answer aligns with the classical form of utilitarianism, which states that the morality of an action is determined by the amount of overall happiness or pleasure it produces for the greatest number of people. Utilitarianism focuses on maximizing happiness and minimizing pain, making this answer the most accurate representation of the classical form of utilitarianism.

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  • 6. 

    Act-utilitarianism is characterized by: 

    • A.

      Evaluation of the rightness of an act by the consequences of that act.

    • B.

      Determination of the rightness of an act by appeal to a relevant rule of morality.

    • C.

      Both A and B

    • D.

      Neither A nor B.

    Correct Answer
    A. Evaluation of the rightness of an act by the consequences of that act.
    Explanation
    Act-utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical theory that evaluates the rightness of an act based on the consequences it produces. The central idea is to maximize overall happiness or utility. An action is considered morally right if it leads to the greatest amount of happiness or pleasure and minimizes suffering among affected individuals. The consequences of an action are the primary criteria for evaluating its moral status.

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  • 7. 

    John Stuart Mill holds which of the following views about justice? 

    • A.

      Equal treatment is a presumptive right and no inequality of treatment is ever justified.

    • B.

      Equal treatment is not a presumptive right, and inequality of treatment is justified by the circumstances.

    • C.

      Equal treatment is not a presumptive right, but inequality of treatment is difficult to justify.

    • D.

      Equal treatment is a presumptive right that requires any inequality of treatment to be justified.

    Correct Answer
    D. Equal treatment is a presumptive right that requires any inequality of treatment to be justified.
    Explanation
    John Stuart Mill holds the view that equal treatment is a presumptive right, meaning that it is a basic entitlement that should be given to all individuals. However, he also believes that any inequality of treatment must be justified. In other words, while equal treatment is the default, there may be certain circumstances where treating individuals differently is acceptable as long as there is a valid reason for doing so.

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  • 8. 

    According to Bentham and Mill, happiness is: 

    • A.

      Pleasure.

    • B.

      The absence of pain.

    • C.

      Pleasure and the absence of pain.

    • D.

      Well-being.

    • E.

      None of these.

    Correct Answer
    C. Pleasure and the absence of pain.
    Explanation
    Bentham and Mill believed that happiness is derived from pleasure and the absence of pain. They argued that the ultimate goal of human actions should be to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. According to them, happiness is not just about experiencing pleasure, but also about the absence of any kind of suffering or discomfort. Therefore, the correct answer is "Pleasure and the absence of pain."

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  • 9. 

    Bentham’s idea of a precise quantitative method for decision making is most fully realized in which of the following? 

    • A.

      The cost-benefit analysis

    • B.

      The cost-effectiveness analysis

    • C.

      The maximization of pleasure

    • D.

      The maximization of profit

    • E.

      The minimization of cost

    Correct Answer
    A. The cost-benefit analysis
    Explanation
    Bentham's idea of a precise quantitative method for decision making is most fully realized in the cost-benefit analysis. This method involves comparing the costs of a particular decision or action with the benefits it will produce, in order to determine whether the benefits outweigh the costs. By assigning values to costs and benefits, the cost-benefit analysis allows for a systematic and objective assessment of different options, ultimately guiding decision makers towards the most beneficial choice.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following are problems with calculating utility? 

    • A.

      A vast amount of information is needed.

    • B.

      Interpersonal comparisons of utility raise the question of whether the utility calculus is even possible.

    • C.

      It is difficult to determine both the amount of utility for each affected individual and the amount of utility for the whole society.

    • D.

      All of these.

    • E.

      None of these.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these.
    Explanation
    Calculating utility can be problematic due to several reasons. First, a vast amount of information is required, which can be time-consuming and challenging to gather. Second, making interpersonal comparisons of utility raises doubts about the feasibility of the utility calculus. It is difficult to compare and quantify the subjective experiences of different individuals accurately. Lastly, determining the amount of utility for each affected individual and for the entire society is a complex task. All these factors contribute to the problems associated with calculating utility.

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  • 11. 

    Rights that involve claims on specific identifiable individuals are called: 

    • A.

      Moral rights.

    • B.

      General rights.

    • C.

      Specific rights

    • D.

      Negative rights.

    • E.

      Legal rights.

    Correct Answer
    C. Specific rights
    Explanation
    Specific rights are rights that involve claims on specific identifiable individuals. These rights are distinct and specific to certain individuals, granting them particular entitlements or protections. Unlike general rights, which may apply to a broad range of people, specific rights are more targeted and individualized. Moral rights, negative rights, and legal rights can all fall under the category of specific rights, as they pertain to particular individuals and their specific claims or entitlements.

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  • 12. 

    Rights that entail an obligation on the part of others to refrain from acting in certain ways are called: 

    • A.

      Moral rights.

    • B.

      General rights.

    • C.

      In personam rights.

    • D.

      Negative rights.

    • E.

      Legal rights.

    Correct Answer
    D. Negative rights.
    Explanation
    Negative rights are rights that impose an obligation on others to refrain from certain actions. These rights typically involve the freedom to be left alone and not be interfered with by others. They are often associated with individual liberties and include rights such as freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and freedom from torture or cruel treatment. Negative rights are different from positive rights, which require others to take specific actions to fulfill certain needs or entitlements.

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  • 13. 

    Rights that impose obligations on others to provide us with some good are called: 

    • A.

      In rem rights.

    • B.

      In personam rights.

    • C.

      Negative rights.

    • D.

      Positive rights.

    • E.

      Moral rights.

    Correct Answer
    D. Positive rights.
    Explanation
    Positive rights are rights that impose obligations on others to provide us with some good. Unlike negative rights, which only require others to refrain from interfering with our actions, positive rights require others to take action to fulfill our rights. This means that if we have a positive right to something, others are obligated to provide it for us. Examples of positive rights include the right to healthcare, education, and housing.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following deals with the distribution of benefits and burdens, mostly in the evaluation of social, political, and economic institutions? 

    • A.

      Retributive justice

    • B.

      Compensatory justice

    • C.

      Distributive justice

    • D.

      All of these

    • E.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    C. Distributive justice
    Explanation
    Distributive justice deals with the distribution of benefits and burdens, particularly in the evaluation of social, political, and economic institutions. It focuses on ensuring fairness and equity in the allocation of resources, opportunities, and rewards within a society. This concept aims to address inequalities and promote a more just and equal society by considering factors such as need, merit, and contribution when distributing resources and opportunities.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following is concerned with the compensation of persons for wrongs done to them in voluntary relations such as contract breaches?

    • A.

      Retributive justice

    • B.

      Compensatory justice

    • C.

      Distributive justice

    • D.

      All of these

    • E.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    B. Compensatory justice
    Explanation
    Compensatory justice is concerned with providing compensation to individuals who have experienced harm or wrongs in voluntary relationships, such as contract breaches. It aims to restore the injured party to their pre-injury state or provide them with fair compensation for their losses. This form of justice focuses on rectifying the harm caused and ensuring that the injured party is adequately compensated for their suffering or financial losses.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following involves the punishment of wrongdoers who have participated in involuntary relations such as criminal acts? 

    • A.

      Retributive justice

    • B.

      Compensatory justice

    • C.

      Distributive justice

    • D.

      All of these

    • E.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    A. Retributive justice
    Explanation
    Retributive justice involves the punishment of wrongdoers who have participated in involuntary relations such as criminal acts. It focuses on the idea that punishment should be proportionate to the harm caused by the offender, seeking to restore balance and ensure that the offender pays for their actions. This form of justice aims to hold individuals accountable for their wrongdoing and deter others from engaging in similar behavior. Compensatory justice, on the other hand, focuses on compensating victims for the harm they have suffered, while distributive justice deals with the fair distribution of resources and opportunities in society.

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  • 17. 

    According to Jeremy Bentham, which of the following is true? 

    • A.

      Utilitarianism places no value on equality and makes no allowance for justified unequal treatment.

    • B.

      Equal distributions generally produce more utility than unequal ones.

    • C.

      Both A and B.

    • D.

      Neither A nor B.

    Correct Answer
    B. Equal distributions generally produce more utility than unequal ones.
    Explanation
    According to Jeremy Bentham, equal distributions generally produce more utility than unequal ones. This suggests that Bentham believed in the importance of equality and that maximizing overall happiness or utility is achieved through equal distributions rather than unequal treatment.

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  • 18. 

    According to John Stuart Mill, which of the following is true? 

    • A.

      Utilitarianism places no value on equality and makes no allowance for justified unequal treatment.

    • B.

      Equal distributions generally produce more utility than unequal ones.

    • C.

      Equality alone is not enough to account for justice, so another criterion, utility, becomes necessary

    • D.

      Both A and B.

    • E.

      Neither A nor B.

    Correct Answer
    C. Equality alone is not enough to account for justice, so another criterion, utility, becomes necessary
    Explanation
    According to John Stuart Mill, equality alone is not enough to account for justice, so another criterion, utility, becomes necessary. This suggests that Mill believes that while equality is important, it is not the sole factor in determining what is just. Utility, or the overall happiness or well-being produced by an action or policy, must also be considered in order to achieve justice. This implies that Mill values both equality and utility as important components in the pursuit of justice.

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  • Jan 31, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jan 14, 2012
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    Mejidan
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