A Social & Political Philosophy Quiz

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Quizzes Created: 416 | Total Attempts: 700,873
Questions: 16 | Attempts: 333

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Philosophy Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    According to Rawls, the goal is to live in ignorance of our true position in society.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Rawls does not argue that the goal is to live in ignorance of our true position in society. In fact, he proposes the concept of the "veil of ignorance" as a thought experiment to encourage individuals to consider the principles of justice from a neutral standpoint, without knowledge of their own personal circumstances. However, he emphasizes the importance of acknowledging and addressing social inequalities in order to create a more just society.

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  • 2. 

    Rawls' theory consists of two parts:

    • A.

      An interpretation of the original position, and a set of principles that would be accepted there 

    • B.

      An analysis of justice and a theory of how we acquired the concept

    • C.

      A theory of moral language and a theory of moral properties

    • D.

      A description of our existing social institutions and a critique of them

    Correct Answer
    A. An interpretation of the original position, and a set of principles that would be accepted there 
    Explanation
    Rawls' theory consists of two parts: an interpretation of the original position and a set of principles that would be accepted there. The original position refers to a hypothetical scenario where individuals are behind a "veil of ignorance" and do not know their own social status, wealth, or abilities. In this position, individuals would agree on principles of justice that are fair and impartial. Rawls' theory aims to create a just society by ensuring that the principles agreed upon in the original position are implemented in real-life social institutions.

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  • 3. 

    According to Rawls, the priority of the Difference Principle over any other will ensure justice.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Rawls believed in the Difference Principle, which states that inequalities in society are only justified if they benefit the least advantaged members. However, he did not argue that the Difference Principle should have priority over any other principle of justice. Instead, Rawls proposed that principles of justice should be applied in a specific order, with the first principle being the most important. Therefore, the given statement is false.

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  • 4. 

    Rawls' second principle of justice is concerned with the distribution of economic goods.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Rawls' second principle of justice is not solely concerned with the distribution of economic goods. In fact, it includes two principles: the principle of fair equality of opportunity and the difference principle. The principle of fair equality of opportunity ensures that everyone has an equal chance to succeed regardless of their social or economic background. The difference principle, on the other hand, allows for inequalities in the distribution of goods as long as they benefit the least advantaged members of society. Therefore, the statement that Rawls' second principle of justice is concerned only with the distribution of economic goods is false.

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  • 5. 

    According to Rawls, the most reasonable principles of justice are those that everyone would accept and agree to from a fair position.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Rawls believed that the most reasonable principles of justice are those that individuals would agree to if they were in a fair position. This means that these principles would be chosen behind a "veil of ignorance," where individuals do not know their own social status, abilities, or personal preferences. By selecting principles that would be agreed upon by everyone in this hypothetical situation, Rawls aimed to create a just and fair society that takes into account the needs and interests of all individuals. Therefore, the given answer, "True," accurately reflects Rawls' perspective on the most reasonable principles of justice.

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  • 6. 

    Rawls' theory is one of distributive justice, which is the branch of moral theory that tries to develop just principles for the distribution of benefits.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Rawls' theory is indeed one of distributive justice. It focuses on developing fair principles for the distribution of benefits in society. This theory aims to ensure that the distribution of resources, opportunities, and privileges is done in a way that benefits all members of society, particularly those who are disadvantaged or marginalized. By emphasizing the importance of fairness and equal opportunities, Rawls' theory aligns with the concept of distributive justice. Therefore, the given answer, "True," is correct.

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  • 7. 

    Rawls' theory requires us to return to the original position.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Rawls' theory does not require us to return to the original position. The original position is a hypothetical thought experiment used by Rawls to determine the principles of justice. In this position, individuals are unaware of their own characteristics and circumstances. However, once the principles of justice are determined, they are meant to be applied in the real world, not continuously returned to the original position. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 8. 

    According to Rawls, the natural distribution of talents is:

    • A.

      Perfectly equal

    • B.

      Just

    • C.

      Arbitrary

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
    Explanation
    Rawls argues that the natural distribution of talents is arbitrary and beyond individual control. However, he believes that society should strive for a just distribution of resources and opportunities to compensate for these arbitrary differences. Therefore, the correct answer is "None of the above" because Rawls does not advocate for a perfectly equal distribution of talents, but rather a just distribution that takes into account societal inequalities.

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  • 9. 

    Rawls' main criticism of utilitarianism as a theory of distributive justice is:

    • A.

      It is difficult to qualitatively assess different pleasures.

    • B.

      Utilitarianism requires lesser life prospects for some groups of people.

    • C.

      Utilitarianism weighs the interests on some individuals over the interests of others.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Utilitarianism requires lesser life prospects for some groups of people.
    Explanation
    Rawls' main criticism of utilitarianism as a theory of distributive justice is that it requires lesser life prospects for some groups of people. This means that utilitarianism may prioritize the well-being and happiness of the majority over the rights and opportunities of certain minority groups. Rawls argues that this approach is unfair and unjust, as it fails to protect the basic rights and liberties of all individuals, regardless of their social status or position. He proposes a different theory of justice called "justice as fairness," which emphasizes equal rights and opportunities for all members of society.

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  • 10. 

    According to Rawls, although there are natural differences in human beings, there is nothing natural or inevitable about the weight attached to those differences.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that according to Rawls, while it is true that there are natural differences among human beings, such as physical abilities or talents, the weight or significance attached to those differences is not natural or inevitable. Rawls argues that society should not privilege or disadvantage individuals based on these natural differences, but instead should aim for a more equal distribution of resources and opportunities. Therefore, the statement is true as it aligns with Rawls' perspective on the subject.

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  • 11. 

    The goal of making decisions from behind the veil of ignorance is to maximize happiness for the maximum number of people.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The goal of making decisions from behind the veil of ignorance is not necessarily to maximize happiness for the maximum number of people. The concept of the veil of ignorance suggests that decision-makers should make choices without knowing their own personal circumstances or positions in society. This approach aims to ensure fairness and impartiality in decision-making, rather than solely focusing on maximizing happiness. Therefore, the given statement is false.

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  • 12. 

    Rawls claims that the veil of ignorance is fairness ensuring.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Rawls claims that the veil of ignorance is a principle that promotes fairness. The veil of ignorance is a thought experiment where individuals make decisions without knowing their own social position, wealth, or personal attributes. This ensures that individuals make fair decisions because they are not biased by their own self-interests. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 13. 

    According to Rawls, people in the original position would not agree to an inequality that would further widen the gap between the least and more advantaged members of society.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Rawls believed that in the original position, where individuals are behind a "veil of ignorance" and do not know their own social position, they would not agree to an inequality that would widen the gap between the least and more advantaged members of society. This is because they would not want to risk being in the disadvantaged position and would prioritize fairness and equality. Therefore, the statement is true according to Rawls' theory of justice.

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  • 14. 

    Rawl's original position is not a hypothetical thought experiment, rather, it is an explanation of an existing circumstance of fair decision-making.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement claims that Rawls' original position is not a hypothetical thought experiment but rather an explanation of an existing circumstance of fair decision-making. However, this is incorrect. Rawls' original position is indeed a hypothetical thought experiment that he proposed in his book "A Theory of Justice" to explore principles of justice in a fair and impartial manner. It is not meant to describe an existing circumstance but rather to imagine a hypothetical situation to derive principles of justice.

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  • 15. 

    The difference principle says that when the distribution of goods cannot be equal unless

    • A.

      Opportunities should be available to everyone, but inequalities should favor the middle-class.

    • B.

      Opportunities should be available to everyone, but favor the most well-off.

    • C.

      Opportunities should be available to everyone, but inequalities should favor the least well-off.

    • D.

      There should be no inequalities, with opportunities favoring the least well-off.

    Correct Answer
    C. Opportunities should be available to everyone, but inequalities should favor the least well-off.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Opportunities should be available to everyone, but inequalities should favor the least well-off." This aligns with the difference principle, which states that inequalities in the distribution of goods and opportunities are acceptable as long as they benefit the least advantaged members of society. This principle aims to address and reduce social and economic inequalities by prioritizing the well-being of the most disadvantaged individuals.

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  • 16. 

    Rawls claims that when his two principles come into conflict

    • A.

      Neither takes precedence over the other.

    • B.

      The first principle (liberty) takes precedence over the second (concerning inequality).

    • C.

      The second principle (concerning inequality) takes precedence over the first (concerning liberty).

    • D.

      A mistake has been made because they cannot conflict.

    Correct Answer
    B. The first principle (liberty) takes precedence over the second (concerning inequality).
    Explanation
    Rawls claims that when his two principles come into conflict, the first principle of liberty takes precedence over the second principle concerning inequality. This means that if there is a conflict between ensuring equal distribution of resources and protecting individual liberties, the priority should be given to upholding individual liberties. Rawls believes that individuals should have the freedom to pursue their own goals and interests, and this should not be compromised even in the pursuit of reducing inequality.

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