Chapter 8 Microbiology Quiz

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Microbiology Quizzes & Trivia

Microbiology gives the learner a chance to study the biology of bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi. If one has a good understanding on this topic they will be able to have answers to some scientific questions on diseases. Do you believe you got a proper understanding of Chapter 8 on Microbiology? Take up the quiz below.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following inhibits bacterial growth but does not kill bacteria  

    • A.

      Lysozyme

    • B.

      Bactericidal agent

    • C.

      Bacteriostatic agent

    • D.

      Antiseptic agent

    Correct Answer
    C. Bacteriostatic agent
    Explanation
    A bacteriostatic agent inhibits the growth and reproduction of bacteria without killing them. This means that it prevents the bacteria from multiplying and spreading, but does not completely eliminate them. Bacteriostatic agents work by interfering with the essential processes or structures of bacteria, such as protein synthesis or cell wall formation. This allows the body's immune system to eventually clear the bacteria from the body. Examples of bacteriostatic agents include antibiotics like tetracycline and erythromycin.

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  • 2. 

    When antiseptics and disinfectants are compared, antiseptics are generally  

    • A.

      Less toxic

    • B.

      More toxic

    • C.

      Equally as toxic

    • D.

      Unpredictable in toxicity

    Correct Answer
    A. Less toxic
    Explanation
    Antiseptics are generally less toxic compared to disinfectants. Antiseptics are used on living tissues, such as skin, to prevent infection. They are designed to be less harmful to the body while still effectively killing or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms. Disinfectants, on the other hand, are used on inanimate objects or surfaces and are typically stronger and more toxic. They are meant to kill a wider range of microorganisms but may not be safe for use on living tissues. Therefore, antiseptics are considered less toxic than disinfectants.

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  • 3. 

    An agent that specifically kills fungi but not other kinds of microorganisms is also known as a  

    • A.

      Fungistatic agent

    • B.

      Mycostatic agent

    • C.

      Fungicidal agent

    • D.

      Germicidal agent

    Correct Answer
    C. Fungicidal agent
    Explanation
    A fungicidal agent is a substance that specifically kills fungi, but does not kill other types of microorganisms. This means that it targets and eliminates fungal cells, preventing their growth and reproduction. It is different from a fungistatic agent, which only inhibits the growth of fungi without killing them. A mycostatic agent is not a commonly used term and does not accurately describe an agent that kills fungi. A germicidal agent, on the other hand, refers to a substance that kills a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi.

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  • 4. 

    Sterilization involves __________ all viable microorganisms.  

    • A.

      Killing

    • B.

      Removing

    • C.

      Killing OR removing

    • D.

      Metabolically inactivating

    Correct Answer
    C. Killing OR removing
    Explanation
    Sterilization involves the process of either killing or removing all viable microorganisms. This means that any microorganism that is capable of reproducing or causing infection is eliminated. The goal of sterilization is to ensure that the environment or object being sterilized is free from any potential sources of contamination. This can be achieved through various methods such as heat, chemicals, or filtration, depending on the specific situation. Overall, the aim is to completely eliminate any living microorganisms to prevent the spread of disease or infection.

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  • 5. 

    All germicides are capable of killing all pathogenic organisms and endospores.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement claims that all germicides are capable of killing all pathogenic organisms and endospores. This statement is false because not all germicides are effective against all types of pathogens and endospores. Different germicides have varying levels of effectiveness against different types of microorganisms. Some germicides may be effective against certain types of pathogens but not others. Therefore, it is incorrect to say that all germicides can kill all pathogenic organisms and endospores.

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  • 6. 

    An agent that kills bacteria is referred to as __________.  

    Correct Answer
    bactericidal
    Explanation
    An agent that kills bacteria is referred to as bactericidal. Bactericidal agents are substances or treatments that have the ability to directly kill bacteria, preventing their growth and reproduction. These agents can include antibiotics, disinfectants, and certain immune system responses. By targeting and destroying bacteria, bactericidal agents help to eliminate infections and promote healing.

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  • 7. 

    An agent that prevents the growth of bacteria without causing irreversible damage to the bacteria is referred to as __________.  

    Correct Answer
    bacteriostatic
    Explanation
    An agent that prevents the growth of bacteria without causing irreversible damage to the bacteria is referred to as bacteriostatic. Bacteriostatic agents inhibit the growth and reproduction of bacteria, but do not kill them. They work by interfering with the essential processes or structures of the bacteria, such as protein synthesis or cell wall formation, which ultimately stops their growth. These agents are useful in controlling bacterial infections and can be used alongside the body's immune system to help fight off the bacteria.

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  • 8. 

    The destruction or removal of all viable organisms is called  

    • A.

      Disinfection

    • B.

      Antisepsis

    • C.

      Sterilization

    • D.

      Sanitization

    Correct Answer
    C. Sterilization
    Explanation
    Sterilization refers to the process of completely destroying or removing all viable organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. This is achieved through various methods, such as heat, chemicals, or radiation, to ensure that no organisms are able to survive or reproduce. Disinfection, on the other hand, refers to the reduction of microbial populations to a safe level, while antisepsis refers to the prevention of microbial growth on living tissues. Sanitization is the process of reducing the number of microorganisms on surfaces to a safe level. Therefore, sterilization is the correct answer as it specifically refers to the complete elimination of all viable organisms.

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  • 9. 

    The reduction of the microbial population to levels that are considered safe by public health standards is called  

    • A.

      Disinfection

    • B.

      Antisepsis

    • C.

      Sterilization

    • D.

      Sanitization

    Correct Answer
    D. Sanitization
    Explanation
    Sanitization refers to the process of reducing the microbial population to levels that are considered safe according to public health standards. It involves cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, objects, or environments to remove or kill microorganisms that can cause infections or diseases. Sanitization is commonly used in food preparation areas, hospitals, and other settings where hygiene is crucial to prevent the spread of pathogens.

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  • 10. 

    The prevention of infection caused by microorganisms is called  

    • A.

      Disinfection

    • B.

      Antisepsis

    • C.

      Sterilization

    • D.

      Sanitization

    Correct Answer
    B. Antisepsis
    Explanation
    Antisepsis refers to the prevention of infection caused by microorganisms. It involves the use of antiseptic agents to inhibit the growth and development of microorganisms on living tissues. Unlike sterilization, which completely eliminates all forms of life, antisepsis aims to reduce the number of microorganisms to a level that does not cause infection. Disinfection, on the other hand, is the process of eliminating or reducing the number of microorganisms on inanimate objects or surfaces. Sanitization refers to the process of cleaning and reducing the number of microorganisms on surfaces to a safe level.

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  • 11. 

    The substantial reduction of the total population of microorganisms on inanimate objects and the destruction of potential pathogens is called  

    • A.

      Disinfection

    • B.

      Antisepsis

    • C.

      Sterilization

    • D.

      Sanitization

    Correct Answer
    A. Disinfection
    Explanation
    Disinfection refers to the process of significantly reducing the overall population of microorganisms on non-living surfaces and eliminating potential pathogens. This is achieved through the use of chemicals or physical agents to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Disinfection is commonly used in healthcare settings, as well as in household cleaning to prevent the spread of infections. It is important to note that disinfection does not necessarily result in the complete elimination of all microorganisms, unlike sterilization.

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  • 12. 

    A(n) __________ is a chemical that can be used to sterilize materials.  

    • A.

      Oxidant

    • B.

      Disinfectant

    • C.

      Antiseptic

    • D.

      Sterilant

    Correct Answer
    D. Sterilant
    Explanation
    A sterilant is a chemical that is capable of sterilizing materials by killing or eliminating all forms of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Unlike disinfectants and antiseptics, which only reduce the number of microorganisms, a sterilant completely eliminates them, making it a more effective method for achieving complete sterilization. Therefore, a sterilant is the correct answer as it specifically refers to a chemical used for sterilizing materials.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following represents the best definition for microbial death?  

    • A.

      The organism will not grow on minimal medium.

    • B.

      The organism will not grow on a medium that normally supports its growth.

    • C.

      The organism no longer retains its original shape and structures.

    • D.

      None of these adequately describe microbial death.

    Correct Answer
    B. The organism will not grow on a medium that normally supports its growth.
    Explanation
    Microbial death refers to the permanent loss of the ability of a microorganism to grow on a medium that typically supports its growth. This means that the organism is no longer able to reproduce and thrive in its usual environment. The other options do not accurately capture the concept of microbial death as they either focus on the inability to grow on minimal medium or the physical changes in the organism's shape and structures, which may not necessarily indicate its death.

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  • 14. 

    The time required to kill 90% of the microorganisms or spores in a sample at a specified temperature is the  

    • A.

      Thermal death time (TDT).

    • B.

      Thermal death point (TDP).

    • C.

      Decimal reduction time (D value).

    • D.

      Z value

    Correct Answer
    C. Decimal reduction time (D value).
    Explanation
    The decimal reduction time (D value) is the time required to kill 90% of the microorganisms or spores in a sample at a specified temperature. This means that if the D value is known, it can be used to calculate the time needed to achieve a desired level of microbial reduction. The other options, thermal death time (TDT) and thermal death point (TDP), refer to different concepts related to microbial death at specific temperatures. The z value is a measure of the temperature resistance of microorganisms and is not directly related to the time required for microbial death.

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  • 15. 

    The rate of killing by an antimicrobial agent may slow when the microbial population has been greatly reduced because the remaining population may have a high proportion of resistant organisms.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that when the microbial population has been greatly reduced, the remaining population may have a high proportion of resistant organisms. This means that the antimicrobial agent may not be as effective in killing these resistant organisms, leading to a slower rate of killing. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following influence(s) the efficiency of an antimicrobial agent?  

    • A.

      Concentration of the agent

    • B.

      Duration of exposure

    • C.

      Temperature

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The efficiency of an antimicrobial agent is influenced by the concentration of the agent, the duration of exposure, and the temperature. The concentration of the agent determines its potency and ability to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. The longer the duration of exposure, the more time the agent has to act on the microorganisms. Temperature plays a role in the effectiveness of the agent, as higher temperatures can enhance its activity. Therefore, all of these factors contribute to the efficiency of an antimicrobial agent.

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  • 17. 

    Larger populations generally are killed as rapidly as smaller populations.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because larger populations are not necessarily killed as rapidly as smaller populations. The rate at which a population is killed can depend on various factors such as the availability of resources, the presence of predators, and the impact of human activities. Larger populations may have a higher chance of survival due to their larger gene pool and ability to adapt to changing environments. Additionally, larger populations may have a greater ability to reproduce and replenish their numbers, making them less susceptible to rapid decline.

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  • 18. 

    Which will require a longer time to kill?  

    • A.

      A larger population of microorganisms

    • B.

      A smaller population of microorganisms

    • C.

      Killing will be equally as rapid in a large or a small microbial population.

    • D.

      There is no way to predict which will require a longer kill time.

    Correct Answer
    A. A larger population of microorganisms
    Explanation
    A larger population of microorganisms will require a longer time to kill because there are more individuals that need to be eliminated. This is because the killing process takes time and resources, and with a larger population, it will take longer to ensure that all the microorganisms are eradicated. Conversely, a smaller population of microorganisms can be killed more quickly as there are fewer individuals to target and eliminate.

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  • 19. 

    Microorganisms show differential sensitivity to antimicrobial agents.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Microorganisms showing differential sensitivity to antimicrobial agents means that different microorganisms may respond differently to the same antimicrobial treatment. This can be due to variations in their genetic makeup, resistance mechanisms, or different vulnerabilities to specific antimicrobial agents. It is important to understand this differential sensitivity in order to effectively treat and control microbial infections.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following environmental factors generally do(es) not have an impact on the efficiency of an antimicrobial agent?  

    • A.

      PH

    • B.

      Presence or absence of a biofilm

    • C.

      Concentration of organic matter

    • D.

      Refractive index

    Correct Answer
    D. Refractive index
    Explanation
    The refractive index generally does not have an impact on the efficiency of an antimicrobial agent. The refractive index is a measure of how light bends as it passes through a substance, and it is not directly related to the ability of an antimicrobial agent to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Factors such as pH, the presence or absence of a biofilm, and the concentration of organic matter can all affect the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is not a method of heat sterilization?    

    • A.

      Autoclaving

    • B.

      Boiling

    • C.

      Pasteurization

    • D.

      All of these are equally effective against resistant endospores.

    Correct Answer
    C. Pasteurization
    Explanation
    Pasteurization is not a method of heat sterilization because it involves heating a substance, such as milk or juice, to a specific temperature for a certain amount of time to kill or inactivate most harmful bacteria, but it does not eliminate all microorganisms or endospores. Autoclaving, boiling, and other methods of heat sterilization involve subjecting the substance to high temperatures and pressure for a sufficient amount of time to completely eliminate all microorganisms, including resistant endospores.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following is MOST effective against resistant endospores?  

    • A.

      Autoclaving

    • B.

      Boiling

    • C.

      Pasteurization

    • D.

      All of these are equally effective against resistant endospores

    Correct Answer
    A. Autoclaving
    Explanation
    Autoclaving is the most effective method against resistant endospores. Autoclaving involves subjecting the material to high pressure and temperature, typically 121 degrees Celsius for 15 minutes. This combination of heat and pressure is able to kill even the most resistant endospores, making autoclaving the preferred method for sterilization in many industries, such as healthcare and laboratory settings. Boiling and pasteurization, although effective against many types of microorganisms, may not be sufficient to kill resistant endospores.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following lacks sufficient penetrating power for bulk sterilization?  

    • A.

      Ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 260 nm

    • B.

      X rays

    • C.

      Gamma radiation

    • D.

      Alpha and beta particles

    Correct Answer
    A. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 260 nm
    Explanation
    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 260 nm lacks sufficient penetrating power for bulk sterilization. UV radiation has shorter wavelengths and lower energy compared to X rays and gamma radiation, which allows it to be absorbed by the outer layers of surfaces. This makes it less effective in penetrating through bulk materials and reaching all areas that need to be sterilized. Alpha and beta particles are also not suitable for bulk sterilization as they have even lower penetrating power compared to UV radiation.

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  • 24. 

    Moist heat sterilization at 100C kills all of the following except  

    • A.

      Bacterial endospores.

    • B.

      Fungal spores

    • C.

      Viruses

    • D.

      Bacterial endospores and fungal spores

    Correct Answer
    A. Bacterial endospores.
    Explanation
    Moist heat sterilization at 100C is a process that effectively kills most microorganisms, including fungal spores and viruses. However, bacterial endospores have a unique resistance to heat and can survive at this temperature. Therefore, the correct answer is bacterial endospores.

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  • 25. 

    Gamma radiation  

    • A.

      Is a type of nonionizing radiation.

    • B.

      Has poor penetrating power.

    • C.

      Is used to sterilize some food products.

    • D.

      Has a longer wavelength than UV radiation.

    Correct Answer
    C. Is used to sterilize some food products.
    Explanation
    Gamma radiation is a type of high-energy electromagnetic radiation that is commonly used for sterilizing food products. It has the ability to kill bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms, making it an effective method for ensuring food safety and extending shelf life. Gamma radiation is able to penetrate through food packaging and reach all areas of the product, making it a reliable method for sterilization. Unlike nonionizing radiation, gamma radiation has a shorter wavelength and higher energy, allowing it to effectively kill microorganisms and make food products safe for consumption.

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  • 26. 

    Moist heat sterilizes by  

    • A.

      Causing the formation of thymine dimers.

    • B.

      Denaturing proteins.

    • C.

      Causing production of singlet oxygen.

    • D.

      All of the choices

    Correct Answer
    B. Denaturing proteins.
    Explanation
    Moist heat sterilization is a process that uses high temperatures and water vapor to kill microorganisms. It works by denaturing proteins, which are essential for the survival and function of microorganisms. Denaturation involves the disruption and unfolding of protein structures, leading to their inactivation. This process effectively destroys the microorganisms and ensures sterilization. Thymine dimers and singlet oxygen are not directly involved in the mechanism of moist heat sterilization.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following is true about membrane filters?  

    • A.

      It can be used only to remove organisms from liquids.

    • B.

      It does not truly sterilize because it removes rather than kills microorganisms.

    • C.

      It can be used only to remove organisms from liquids and it does not truly sterilize because it removes rather than kills microorganisms.

    • D.

      It can't be depended on to remove all viruses from liquids.

    Correct Answer
    D. It can't be depended on to remove all viruses from liquids.
  • 28. 

    When comparing dry heat and moist heat sterilization, dry heat is  

    • A.

      Faster

    • B.

      Slower

    • C.

      Equally as fast

    • D.

      Sometimes faster but sometimes slower

    Correct Answer
    B. Slower
    Explanation
    Dry heat sterilization is slower than moist heat sterilization because it requires higher temperatures and longer exposure times to achieve sterilization. Dry heat sterilization typically involves heating objects at temperatures above 160°C for extended periods of time, while moist heat sterilization, such as autoclaving, can achieve sterilization at lower temperatures (around 121°C) in a shorter amount of time. The presence of moisture in moist heat sterilization helps to enhance the killing of microorganisms, making it a faster and more efficient method compared to dry heat sterilization.

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  • 29. 

    The first product to be commercially treated by pasteurization was  

    • A.

      Milk

    • B.

      Wine

    • C.

      Beer

    • D.

      Cheese

    Correct Answer
    B. Wine
    Explanation
    The first product to be commercially treated by pasteurization was wine. Pasteurization is a process of heating a liquid to a specific temperature to kill harmful bacteria and prolong its shelf life. Wine was likely chosen for pasteurization as it is a perishable product that can spoil easily. By pasteurizing wine, it became safer to consume and could be stored for longer periods of time without spoiling.

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  • 30. 

    Pasteurization is used to  

    • A.

      Kill any pathogens present

    • B.

      Retard spoilage

    • C.

      Sterilize beverages

    • D.

      Kill any pathogens present and retard spoilage

    Correct Answer
    D. Kill any pathogens present and retard spoilage
    Explanation
    Pasteurization is a process used to heat beverages to a specific temperature for a certain period of time in order to kill any pathogens that may be present. This helps to ensure the safety of the product by eliminating harmful bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that can cause illness. Additionally, pasteurization also helps to retard spoilage by reducing the number of spoilage-causing organisms, thus extending the shelf life of the beverage. Therefore, the correct answer is that pasteurization is used to kill any pathogens present and retard spoilage.

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  • 31. 

    Which kind of sterilization procedure takes advantage of the size of microorganisms?  

    • A.

      Autoclaving

    • B.

      Open flame

    • C.

      Use of chemicals

    • D.

      Filtration

    Correct Answer
    D. Filtration
    Explanation
    Filtration is a sterilization procedure that takes advantage of the size of microorganisms. It involves passing a liquid or gas through a filter with pores small enough to trap and remove microorganisms, effectively sterilizing the substance. This method is particularly useful for heat-sensitive materials or substances that cannot be autoclaved or treated with chemicals.

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  • 32. 

    Ultraviolet radiation is an effective means of sterilizing surfaces.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Ultraviolet radiation has been proven to be an effective method for sterilizing surfaces. This type of radiation has a short wavelength and high energy, which allows it to penetrate the cell walls of microorganisms and disrupt their DNA, rendering them unable to reproduce or cause infections. UV radiation is commonly used in hospitals, laboratories, and water treatment facilities to disinfect surfaces and equipment. Therefore, the statement that ultraviolet radiation is an effective means of sterilizing surfaces is true.

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  • 33. 

    If one left a "Pasteurized" flask of broth for a long time at room temperature, it would stay sterile forever, at least in principle.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    If one left a "Pasteurized" flask of broth for a long time at room temperature, it would not stay sterile forever. Pasteurization is a process that involves heating the liquid to kill or inactivate any potential pathogens present. However, it does not provide indefinite sterilization. Over time, there is still a possibility for new microorganisms to enter the flask, either through the air or other means, and contaminate the broth. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 34. 

    The type of filter used in a laminar flow biological safety cabinet is called a(n) __________ filter.  

    Correct Answer
    HEPA (high efficiency particulate air)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is HEPA (high efficiency particulate air). HEPA filters are commonly used in laminar flow biological safety cabinets to remove airborne particles and contaminants. These filters are highly efficient in trapping particles as small as 0.3 microns in size, ensuring a clean and sterile environment within the cabinet. HEPA filters are essential in maintaining the safety and integrity of biological experiments and procedures.

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  • 35. 

    Dry heat methods usually require lower temperatures and shorter exposure times than moist heat methods to achieve the same degree of killing because of the drying effects of this form of heat.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Dry heat methods usually require higher temperatures and longer exposure times than moist heat methods to achieve the same degree of killing because dry heat does not penetrate food as effectively as moist heat.

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  • 36. 

    Because filtration removes rather than destroys microorganisms, it does not truly sterilize the materials passing through the filter.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Filtration does not remove microorganisms completely, but it does reduce their concentration. Therefore, it does not sterilize the materials passing through the filter.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following is a function of pasteurization?  

    • A.

      Killing pathogenic microorganisms

    • B.

      Reducing the total microbial population

    • C.

      Increasing the shelf life of the product

    • D.

      All of the choices

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the choices
    Explanation
    Pasteurization is a process that involves heating a product, typically food or beverages, to a specific temperature for a certain period of time to kill pathogenic microorganisms. This helps in ensuring the safety of the product by eliminating harmful bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Additionally, pasteurization also helps in reducing the total microbial population, which can further enhance the safety and quality of the product. By killing and reducing the microbial population, pasteurization increases the shelf life of the product, allowing it to be stored and consumed for a longer period of time without spoilage. Therefore, all of the choices mentioned in the question are functions of pasteurization.

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  • 38. 

    Which of these is an agent that is used to sterilize the plastic tubing of heart-lung machines?  

    • A.

      Phenol

    • B.

      Mercaptoethanol

    • C.

      Etbylene oxide

    • D.

      70% ethanol

    Correct Answer
    C. Etbylene oxide
    Explanation
    Ethylene oxide is an agent commonly used to sterilize medical equipment, including the plastic tubing of heart-lung machines. It is a gas that has strong sterilizing properties and can effectively kill bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms. Ethylene oxide is often used in healthcare settings because it can penetrate various materials and reach areas that may be difficult to clean by other methods. This makes it an ideal choice for sterilizing complex medical devices like heart-lung machine tubing.

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  • 39. 

    Joseph Lister  

    • A.

      Pioneered the use of gamma rays for sterilizing food.

    • B.

      Demonstrated that microorganisms are carried on dust particles in the air.

    • C.

      Revolutionized surgery by introducing phenol as a disinfectant.

    • D.

      Designed and built the first autoclave.

    Correct Answer
    C. Revolutionized surgery by introducing phenol as a disinfectant.
    Explanation
    Joseph Lister revolutionized surgery by introducing phenol as a disinfectant. This innovation greatly reduced the risk of infection during surgical procedures. Prior to Lister's discovery, surgical instruments and wounds were often contaminated with harmful microorganisms, leading to high rates of infection and mortality. By using phenol as a disinfectant, Lister was able to effectively kill bacteria and prevent infection, significantly improving the success and safety of surgical operations. This breakthrough paved the way for modern antiseptic techniques and revolutionized the field of surgery.

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  • 40. 

    Heavy metals may inactivate proteins by reacting with their sulfhydryl groups.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Heavy metals have the ability to react with sulfhydryl (SH) groups in proteins, which can lead to the inactivation of these proteins. This reaction can disrupt the structure and function of the proteins, rendering them unable to perform their normal biological roles. Therefore, it is true that heavy metals may inactivate proteins by reacting with their sulfhydryl groups.

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  • 41. 

    Alcohols are widely used as antiseptics and disinfectants because they are effective against endospores as well as vegetative cells.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Alcohols are not effective against endospores. Endospores are highly resistant structures produced by certain bacteria that can withstand harsh conditions, including the presence of alcohol. While alcohols are effective against vegetative cells, they are not able to kill endospores. Therefore, the statement that alcohols are effective against endospores as well as vegetative cells is false.

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  • 42. 

    Betapropiolactone is not as useful as ethylene oxide as a sterilizing agent because it does not penetrate materials as readily as ethylene oxide.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Betapropiolactone is not as useful as ethylene oxide as a sterilizing agent because it does not penetrate materials as readily as ethylene oxide. This means that betapropiolactone may not be able to effectively reach and sterilize all areas of the material being treated. Ethylene oxide, on the other hand, is known for its excellent penetration ability, allowing it to reach and sterilize even hard-to-reach areas. Therefore, the statement that betapropiolactone is not as useful as ethylene oxide as a sterilizing agent is true.

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  • 43. 

    Heavy metals are effective antimicrobial agents but are not widely used because of their high toxicity to humans.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Heavy metals have been found to have antimicrobial properties, meaning they can effectively kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. However, their use is limited due to their high toxicity to humans. This means that although heavy metals can be effective in fighting against microbes, their potential harm to human health outweighs their benefits, leading to their limited use as antimicrobial agents. Therefore, the statement "Heavy metals are effective antimicrobial agents but are not widely used because of their high toxicity to humans" is true.

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  • 44. 

    The disinfectant action of phenol and phenolic derivatives mainly is due to  

    • A.

      Its inherent detergent action.

    • B.

      Membrane damage and protein denaturation.

    • C.

      Oxidation of disulfide bonds in proteins.

    • D.

      Extraction of lipids from membranes.

    • E.

      Damage to nucleic acids and proteins caused by free radicals.

    Correct Answer
    B. Membrane damage and protein denaturation.
    Explanation
    The disinfectant action of phenol and phenolic derivatives is mainly due to their ability to cause membrane damage and protein denaturation. This means that these compounds can disrupt the structure and function of cell membranes, leading to the leakage of cellular contents and ultimately cell death. Additionally, they can also cause the denaturation or unfolding of proteins, rendering them non-functional. These actions contribute to the antimicrobial properties of phenol and phenolic derivatives.

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  • 45. 

    The disinfecting properties of Lysol, a common household disinfectant, depend upon the presence of __________.  

    Correct Answer
    phenolics
    Explanation
    The correct answer is phenolics. Phenolics are a type of chemical compound found in Lysol that have strong disinfecting properties. These compounds are effective in killing a wide range of bacteria, viruses, and fungi, making them an important ingredient in household disinfectants like Lysol.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is (are) a sterilizing gas(es) that can be used on heat-sensitive materials?  

    • A.

      Ethylene oxide

    • B.

      Gultaraldehyde

    • C.

      Chlorine gas

    • D.

      Isopropanol

    Correct Answer
    A. Ethylene oxide
    Explanation
    Ethylene oxide is a sterilizing gas that can be used on heat-sensitive materials. It is commonly used in healthcare facilities to sterilize medical equipment and supplies that cannot withstand high temperatures. Ethylene oxide is effective in killing a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It penetrates materials easily and is able to reach all surfaces, ensuring thorough sterilization. Due to its gas form, it can reach areas that may be difficult to access with other sterilization methods.

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  • 47. 

    Amphipathic organic molecules that serve as disinfectants by disrupting membranes and denaturing proteins are called  

    • A.

      Sterilants

    • B.

      Oxidants

    • C.

      Detergents

    • D.

      Soaps

    Correct Answer
    C. Detergents
    Explanation
    Detergents are amphipathic organic molecules that can disrupt membranes and denature proteins. They have a hydrophilic head that is attracted to water and a hydrophobic tail that is repelled by water. This dual nature allows detergents to interact with both water and lipid molecules in cell membranes, causing the membranes to break apart. Detergents can also bind to proteins and disrupt their structure, leading to their denaturation. Therefore, detergents can effectively serve as disinfectants by disrupting the integrity of microbial membranes and denaturing proteins.

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  • 48. 

    The disinfectant of choice for municipal water supplies is __________.  

    • A.

      Fluorine

    • B.

      Chlorine

    • C.

      Either fluorine or chlorine

    • D.

      Ultraviolet light

    Correct Answer
    B. Chlorine
    Explanation
    Chlorine is the disinfectant of choice for municipal water supplies because it effectively kills harmful bacteria and viruses, and it also helps to control the growth of algae and other microorganisms. It is a widely used and cost-effective method for ensuring the safety and cleanliness of drinking water. Fluorine is not commonly used as a disinfectant for water supplies, and ultraviolet light is mainly used as a supplemental treatment method rather than the primary disinfectant.

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  • 49. 

    Iodine can be complexed with an organic carrier to form water-soluble, stable complexes called __________, which release iodine slowly and eliminate skin burns and irritation associated with iodine use.  

    • A.

      Iodides

    • B.

      Tinctures

    • C.

      Iodophors

    • D.

      Iodochromes

    Correct Answer
    C. Iodophors
    Explanation
    Iodophors are water-soluble, stable complexes formed when iodine is complexed with an organic carrier. These complexes slowly release iodine, which helps eliminate skin burns and irritation that can occur when using pure iodine. Iodophors are commonly used in medical settings as antiseptics and disinfectants.

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  • 50. 

    Although heavy metals are no longer widely used as germicides, __________ is an effective algicide in lakes and swimming pools.  

    • A.

      Lead acetate

    • B.

      Copper sulfate

    • C.

      Silver nitrate

    • D.

      Mercuric chloride

    Correct Answer
    B. Copper sulfate
    Explanation
    Copper sulfate is an effective algicide in lakes and swimming pools. This is because copper ions released from copper sulfate disrupt the cellular processes of algae, leading to their death. Unlike heavy metals such as lead acetate, silver nitrate, and mercuric chloride which are not widely used as germicides anymore, copper sulfate remains effective in controlling algae growth in aquatic environments.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jun 02, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Andreazza
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