Chapter 8 Bio Quiz

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Chapter 8 Bio Quiz - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

     There are a number of differences between fission of a bacterium and human cell division. Which of the following is not one of them?

    • A.

      A bacterium has only one chromosome

    • B.

      Human cells undergo mitosis and cytokinesis

    • C.

      Bacteria are smaller and simpler than human cells

    • D.

      Bacteria have to duplicate their DNA before dividing; human cells do not

    • E.

      Human chromosomes are larger and more complex

    Correct Answer
    D. Bacteria have to duplicate their DNA before dividing; human cells do not
    Explanation
    The statement "Bacteria have to duplicate their DNA before dividing; human cells do not" is not a difference between fission of a bacterium and human cell division. Both bacteria and human cells need to duplicate their DNA before dividing. This is a crucial step in the process of cell division to ensure that each daughter cell receives a complete set of genetic information.

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  • 2. 

    You would be unlikely to see which of the following human cells dividing?

    • A.

      Muscle cell

    • B.

      Skin cell

    • C.

      Cancer cell

    • D.

      Cell from an embryo

    • E.

      Intestinal lining cell

    Correct Answer
    A. Muscle cell
    Explanation
    Muscle cells, also known as muscle fibers, are specialized cells that make up muscle tissue. Unlike other types of cells, such as skin cells, cancer cells, cells from an embryo, and intestinal lining cells, muscle cells have a unique characteristic of being multinucleated. This means that they have multiple nuclei within a single cell, which is a result of the fusion of multiple myoblasts during development. Due to this multinucleated nature, muscle cells do not undergo typical cell division, known as mitosis, making it unlikely to see them dividing.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following correctly matches a phase of the cell cycle with its description?

    • A.

      M-replication of DNA

    • B.

      S-immeadiately precedes cell

    • C.

      G2-cell division

    • D.

      G1- immeadiately follows cell division

    • E.

      All of the above are correctly matched

    Correct Answer
    D. G1- immeadiately follows cell division
    Explanation
    The correct answer is G1- immediately follows cell division. The cell cycle consists of several phases, including G1, S, G2, and M. G1 is the first gap phase, which occurs immediately after cell division. During this phase, the cell grows in size and prepares for DNA replication in the S phase. Therefore, G1 immediately follows cell division.

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  • 4. 

    In telophase of mitosis, the miotic spindle breaks down and nuclear membranes form. This is essentially the opposite of what happens in

    • A.

      Prophase

    • B.

      Interphase

    • C.

      Metaphase

    • D.

      S phase

    • E.

      Anaphase

    Correct Answer
    A. Prophase
    Explanation
    In prophase of mitosis, the nuclear membrane breaks down and the miotic spindle begins to form. This is the opposite of what happens in telophase, where the miotic spindle breaks down and nuclear membranes form.

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  • 5. 

    Sister Chromatids

    • A.

      Cross over during prophase 1 of meiosis

    • B.

      Seperate during the first meiotic division

    • C.

      Are produced during s phase between cell division

    • D.

      Cross over during prophase 2 of meiosis

    • E.

      Are also called homologous chromosoes

    Correct Answer
    C. Are produced during s phase between cell division
    Explanation
    During the S phase of the cell cycle, DNA replication occurs. Sister chromatids are produced during this phase, where each replicated chromosome consists of two identical chromatids held together by a centromere. These sister chromatids are then separated during the first meiotic division, ensuring that each resulting daughter cell receives one copy of each chromosome. Therefore, the correct answer is that sister chromatids are produced during the S phase between cell divisions.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is not a function of miotic cell division in animals?

    • A.

      Asexual reproduction growth

    • B.

      Growth

    • C.

      Repair of damaged organs

    • D.

      Production of gametes

    • E.

      Cell replacement

    Correct Answer
    D. Production of gametes
    Explanation
    Miotic cell division in animals is responsible for asexual reproduction, growth, repair of damaged organs, and cell replacement. However, the production of gametes is not a function of miotic cell division. Gametes, which are reproductive cells, are produced through a different process called meiosis. Meiosis involves two rounds of cell division and results in the formation of haploid cells with half the number of chromosomes. Therefore, the production of gametes is not a function of miotic cell division.

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  • 7. 

    Meiosis .

    • A.

      Is responsible for body growth and repair

    • B.

      Halves the number of chromosomes in cells

    • C.

      Is the process by which the body produces diploid cells

    • D.

      Ollows mitosis and splits the cytoplasm into two

    • E.

      Is important in asexual reproduction

    Correct Answer
    B. Halves the number of chromosomes in cells
    Explanation
    Meiosis is the process in which cells undergo two divisions to produce gametes (sperm and eggs). During meiosis, the number of chromosomes in the cells is halved, resulting in haploid cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This reduction in chromosome number is important for sexual reproduction, as it ensures that when the gametes combine during fertilization, the resulting offspring will have the correct number of chromosomes. Therefore, the answer "halves the number of chromosomes in cells" accurately describes the process of meiosis.

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  • 8. 

    Crossing over is . a)important in genetic recombination b)what makes a cell become cancerous c) a key process that occurs during mitosis d)an important mechanism of chromosome repair e) what prevents cells from multiplying indefinently in cell culture

    • A.

      Important in genetic recombination

    • B.

      What makes a cell become cancerous

    • C.

      A key process that occurs during mitosis

    • D.

      An important mechanism of chromosome repair

    • E.

      What prevents cells from multiplying indefinently in cell culture

    Correct Answer
    A. Important in genetic recombination
    Explanation
    Crossing over is an important process in genetic recombination. It involves the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis. This exchange results in the creation of new combinations of genes, increasing genetic diversity. Therefore, crossing over plays a crucial role in the generation of genetic variation and is essential for the evolution of species.

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  • 9. 

    Human __ are diploid, and human __ are haploid .

    • A.

      Sex chromosomes...autosomes

    • B.

      Autosomes...sex chromosomes

    • C.

      Somatic cells...gametes

    • D.

      Gametes...somatic cells

    • E.

      Chromosomes...chromatids

    Correct Answer
    C. Somatic cells...gametes
    Explanation
    Somatic cells in humans are diploid, meaning they have two sets of chromosomes (one set from each parent). On the other hand, gametes (such as sperm and egg cells) are haploid, meaning they have only one set of chromosomes. Therefore, the correct answer is "somatic cells...gametes".

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following does not lead to genetic variability? a)random fertilization . b)crossing over during meiosis c) division of chromosomes during anaphase of mitosis d) orientation of chromosomes during metaphase 1 of meiosis e) mutation

    • A.

      Random fertilization

    • B.

      Crossing over during meiosis

    • C.

      Division of chromosomes during anaphase of mitosis

    • D.

      Orientation of chromosomes during metaphase 1 of meiosis

    • E.

      Mutation

    Correct Answer
    C. Division of chromosomes during anaphase of mitosis
    Explanation
    During anaphase of mitosis, the chromosomes are already replicated and are being separated into two daughter cells. This process does not involve any exchange or rearrangement of genetic material, therefore it does not lead to genetic variability.

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  • 11. 

    Most cells will divide if they receive the proper signal at a checkpoint in the ___ phase of the cell cycle

    • A.

      M

    • B.

      G1

    • C.

      S

    • D.

      G2

    • E.

      Cytokinesis

    Correct Answer
    B. G1
    Explanation
    During the G1 phase of the cell cycle, cells undergo growth and prepare for DNA replication. At this checkpoint, cells receive signals from the environment to determine if they are ready to proceed with division. If the proper signal is received, the cells will continue into the S phase to replicate their DNA. Therefore, the correct answer is G1.

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  • 12. 

    Geneticists suspect that the extra chromosome seen in Down syndrome usually comes from the egg, rather than the sperm, because

    • A.

      Eggs are produced so rapidly that there is more chance or error

    • B.

      Down syndrome is due to a dominant gene in women, a recessive gene in men

    • C.

      Most women inherit down syndrome from their mothers

    • D.

      Eggs are produced in much larger numbers than sperm

    • E.

      Meiosis takes longer in the ovary, increasing the likelihood of error

    Correct Answer
    E. Meiosis takes longer in the ovary, increasing the likelihood of error
    Explanation
    Meiosis is the process by which cells divide and produce eggs or sperm. It is known that meiosis takes longer in the ovary compared to the testes. This increased duration provides more opportunities for errors to occur during the division process, such as the incorrect separation of chromosomes. As a result, geneticists suspect that the extra chromosome seen in Down syndrome usually comes from the egg rather than the sperm.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following chromosomal alterations would you expect to have the most drastic consequences?

    • A.

      Inversion

    • B.

      Duplication

    • C.

      Translocation

    • D.

      Deletion

    • E.

      A and b are equally the most serious

    Correct Answer
    D. Deletion
    Explanation
    Deletion is the most drastic chromosomal alteration because it involves the loss of a segment of the chromosome. This loss can result in the deletion of important genes or regulatory elements, leading to significant changes in the genetic information. In contrast, inversion, duplication, and translocation may cause disruptions or rearrangements of genetic material, but they do not involve the loss of genetic information like deletion does. Therefore, deletion has the most severe consequences among the given options.

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  • 14. 

    In certain fungae and algae, cells undergo mitosis repeatedly without subsequently undergoing cytokinesis. What would result from this? a)a decrease in chromosome number b)inability to duplicate DNA c) division of the organism into many cells, most lacking nuclei d)large cells containing many nuclei e)a rapid rate of sexual reproduction .

    • A.

      A decrease in chromosome number

    • B.

      Inability to duplicate DNA

    • C.

      Division of the organism into many cells, most lacking nuclei

    • D.

      Arge cells containing many nuclei

    • E.

      A rapid rate of sexual reproduction

    Correct Answer
    D. Arge cells containing many nuclei
    Explanation
    When cells undergo mitosis repeatedly without undergoing cytokinesis, it results in the formation of large cells containing many nuclei. This is because mitosis is the process of cell division that results in the formation of two daughter cells, while cytokinesis is the process of dividing the cytoplasm and forming separate cell membranes. Without cytokinesis, the cells continue to replicate their DNA and divide their nuclei through mitosis, but the cytoplasm remains undivided, leading to the formation of cells with multiple nuclei.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following is the most significant difference between mitosis and meiosis? a)chromosomes are duplicated before mitosis b)Meiosis is not followed by cytokinesis c) Homologous pairs of chromosomes are split up in meiosis . d) a spindle formed of microtubules moves the chromosomes in mitosis e)crossing over occurs in mitosis

    • A.

      Chromosomes are duplicated before mitosis

    • B.

      Meiosis is not followed by cytokinesis

    • C.

      Homologous pairs of chromosomes are split up in meiosis

    • D.

      A spindle formed of microtubules moves the chromosomes in mitosis

    • E.

      Crossing over occurs in mitosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Homologous pairs of chromosomes are split up in meiosis
    Explanation
    The most significant difference between mitosis and meiosis is that in meiosis, homologous pairs of chromosomes are split up. This is a crucial step in meiosis that ensures genetic diversity in offspring. In mitosis, chromosomes are duplicated, but they do not undergo the same splitting process as in meiosis. This difference is important because it allows for the formation of gametes with unique combinations of genetic material during meiosis.

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  • 16. 

    If there are 22 chromosomes in the nucleus of a toad skin cell, a toad egg would contain __ chromosomes.

    • A.

      22

    • B.

      44

    • C.

      11

    • D.

      33

    • E.

      88

    Correct Answer
    C. 11
    Explanation
    The number of chromosomes in an organism's cells is typically halved during the process of meiosis, which occurs during the formation of eggs and sperm. Therefore, if a toad skin cell has 22 chromosomes, a toad egg would contain half of that number, which is 11 chromosomes.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following carry the same genetic information? . a)sister chromatids b)x and y chromosomes c)all autosomes d)homologous chromosomes e)all haploid cells

    • A.

      Sister chromatids

    • B.

      X and y chromosomes

    • C.

      All autosomes

    • D.

      Homologous chromosomes

    • E.

      All haploid cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Sister chromatids
    Explanation
    Sister chromatids carry the same genetic information because they are two identical copies of a single chromosome that are produced during DNA replication. They are held together by a structure called the centromere and are separated during cell division.

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  • 18. 

    A cell biologist carefully measured the quantity of DNA in grasshopper cells growing in cell culture. Cells examined during the G2 phase of the cell cycle contained 200 units of DNA. What would be the amount of DNA in one of the grasshopper daughter cells seen in telophase of mitosis? .

    • A.

      50 units

    • B.

      100 units

    • C.

      Between 50 and 100 units

    • D.

      200 units

    • E.

      400 units

    Correct Answer
    B. 100 units
    Explanation
    During the G2 phase of the cell cycle, the cell undergoes DNA replication, resulting in the doubling of the amount of DNA. Therefore, if the grasshopper cells contained 200 units of DNA during the G2 phase, each daughter cell formed during telophase of mitosis would contain half of that amount, which is 100 units.

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  • 19. 

    What would be the quantity of DNA in one of the grasshopper cells (question 6) produced by telophase 2 of meiosis? . a)50 units b)100 units c)between 50 and 100 units d)200 units e)400 units

    • A.

      50 units

    • B.

      100 units

    • C.

      Between 50 and 100 units

    • D.

      200 units

    • E.

      400 units

    Correct Answer
    A. 50 units
    Explanation
    During telophase 2 of meiosis, the chromosomes have already separated and are now in separate cells. Each of these cells will have half the amount of DNA as the original cell. Therefore, the quantity of DNA in one of the grasshopper cells produced by telophase 2 of meiosis would be 50 units.

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  • 20. 

    The two chromosomes of a homologous pair a) carry identical genetic information at corresponding locations b) carry information for the same characteristics at different locations c) carry identical genetic information at different locations d) carry information for the same characteristics at corresponding locations e)any of the above is possible.

    • A.

      Carry identical genetic information at corresponding locations

    • B.

      carry information for the same characteristics at different locations

    • C.

      Carry identical genetic information at different locations

    • D.

      Carry information for the same characteristics at corresponding locations

    • E.

      Any of the above is possible.

    Correct Answer
    D. Carry information for the same characteristics at corresponding locations
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "carry information for the same characteristics at corresponding locations." This is because homologous chromosomes contain genes that code for the same traits or characteristics, and these genes are located at corresponding positions on each chromosome. Therefore, the chromosomes carry information for the same characteristics at corresponding locations.

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  • 21. 

    A picture of a dividing pigeon cell taken through a microscope shows that the cell contains 7 chromosomes, each consisting of 2 chromatids. This picture might have been taken during . a)metaphase of mitosis b)prophase i of meiosis c)telophase 2 of meiosis d)prophase 2 of meiosis e)telophase of mitosis

    • A.

      Metaphase of mitosis

    • B.

      Prophase i of meiosis

    • C.

      Telophase 2 of meiosis

    • D.

      Prophase 2 of meiosis

    • E.

      Telophase of mitosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Prophase 2 of meiosis
    Explanation
    The picture shows 7 chromosomes, each consisting of 2 chromatids. This indicates that the cell is in the prophase 2 of meiosis. In prophase 2 of meiosis, the chromosomes have already replicated and consist of two sister chromatids. The chromosomes are also condensed and visible under a microscope.

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  • 22. 

    A culture of mouse cells is treated with a chemical that interferes with the activity if microfilaments. Which of the following will probably be affected the most? a) mitosis b)chromosome duplication c)pairing of homologous chromosomes d) cytokinesis e) joining of sister chromatids at the centromere .

    • A.

      Mitosis

    • B.

      Chromosome duplication

    • C.

      Pairing of homologous chromosomes

    • D.

      Cytokinesis

    • E.

      Joining of sister chromatids at the centromere

    Correct Answer
    D. Cytokinesis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is cytokinesis. Cytokinesis is the process in which the cytoplasm of a cell is divided into two daughter cells during cell division. Microfilaments play a crucial role in the formation of the contractile ring, which constricts and separates the two daughter cells. Therefore, if the chemical interferes with the activity of microfilaments, it will likely disrupt cytokinesis the most.

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  • 23. 

    A zoologist examined an intestine cell from a crayfish and counted 200 chromosomes, each consisting of 2 chromatids, at prophase 1 of mitosis. What would he expect to see in each of the four cells at telophase 2 of meiosis if he looked in the crayfish ovary?

    • A.

      50 chromosomes, each consisting of 2 chromatids

    • B.

      50 chromosomes, each consisting of 1 chromatid

    • C.

      100 chromosomes, each consisting of 2 chromatids

    • D.

      100 chromosomes, each consisting of 1 chromatid

    • E.

      200 chromosomes, each consisting of 1 chromatid

    Correct Answer
    D. 100 chromosomes, each consisting of 1 chromatid
    Explanation
    During prophase 1 of meiosis, the chromosomes replicate to form sister chromatids, resulting in 200 chromosomes, each consisting of 2 chromatids. However, during meiosis, there are two rounds of cell division. At telophase 2 of meiosis, the sister chromatids separate, resulting in four cells with half the number of chromosomes as the original cell. Therefore, each of the four cells would have 100 chromosomes, each consisting of 1 chromatid.

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  • 24. 

    A karyotype would be least likely to show which of the following?

    • A.

      An extra chromosome

    • B.

      Part of a chromosome duplicated

    • C.

      A missing chromosome

    • D.

      Part of a chromosome turned around

    • E.

      A translocation

    Correct Answer
    D. Part of a chromosome turned around
    Explanation
    A karyotype is a visual representation of an individual's chromosomes, arranged in pairs according to size and shape. It is used to identify abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes. In a karyotype, part of a chromosome turned around would not be easily identifiable as it would not change the overall number or size of chromosomes. Therefore, it is least likely to be shown in a karyotype.

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  • 25. 

    If an intestinal cell in a grasshopper contains 24 chromosomes, a grasshopper sperm cell contains __ chromosome

    • A.

      3

    • B.

      6

    • C.

      12

    • D.

      24

    • E.

      48

    Correct Answer
    C. 12
    Explanation
    During sexual reproduction, the sperm and egg cells combine to form a new individual. In most organisms, including grasshoppers, the sperm and egg cells each contain half the number of chromosomes as the other cells in the body. Since the intestinal cell in the grasshopper contains 24 chromosomes, the sperm cell would contain half that number, which is 12 chromosomes.

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  • 26. 

    A biochemist meausred the amount of DNA in cells growing in the labratory and found that the quantity of DNA in a cell doubled

    • A.

      Between prophase and anaphase in mitosis

    • B.

      Between the g1 and g2 phases of the cell cycle

    • C.

      During the m phase of the cell cycle

    • D.

      Between prophase 1 and prophase 2 of meiosis

    • E.

      Between anaphase and telophase of mitosis

    Correct Answer
    C. During the m phase of the cell cycle
    Explanation
    During the M phase of the cell cycle, the cell undergoes mitosis, which is the process of cell division. In mitosis, the DNA replicates and then separates into two identical sets, one for each new cell. Therefore, the quantity of DNA in a cell doubles during the M phase of the cell cycle.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following is not a function of mitosis in humans?

    • A.

      Repair of wounds

    • B.

      growth

    • C.

      Production of gametes from diploid cells

    • D.

      Replacement of lost or damaged cells

    • E.

      Multiplication of somatic cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Production of gametes from diploid cells
    Explanation
    Mitosis is the process of cell division that results in the formation of two identical daughter cells. It is responsible for various functions in humans, such as repair of wounds, growth, replacement of lost or damaged cells, and multiplication of somatic cells. However, the production of gametes from diploid cells is not a function of mitosis. Gametes, which are sperm and egg cells, are produced through a different process called meiosis, which involves two rounds of cell division to reduce the number of chromosomes in the resulting cells.

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  • 28. 

    A micrograph of a dividing cell from a mouse showed 19 chromosomes, each consisting of two sister chromatids. During which of the following stages of cell division could this picture have been taken?

    • A.

      Prophase of mitosis

    • B.

      Telophase 2 of meiosis

    • C.

      Prophase 1 of meiosis

    • D.

      Anaphase of mitosis

    • E.

      Prophase 2 of meiosis

    Correct Answer
    E. Prophase 2 of meiosis
    Explanation
    During prophase 2 of meiosis, the sister chromatids separate and move towards opposite poles of the cell. This results in the formation of haploid cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. Since the picture showed 19 chromosomes, each consisting of two sister chromatids, it suggests that the cell is undergoing meiosis and has not yet completed the second round of division. Therefore, the picture could have been taken during prophase 2 of meiosis.

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  • 29. 

    Cytochalisin B is a chemical that disrupts microfilaent formation. This chemical would interfere with

    • A.

      DNA replication

    • B.

      Formation of the miotic spindle

    • C.

      Cleavage

    • D.

      Formation of the cell plate

    • E.

      Crossing over occurs in mitosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Cleavage
    Explanation
    Cytochalisin B disrupts microfilament formation, which is essential for the process of cleavage. Cleavage is the division of a cell into two daughter cells during cell division. Microfilaments play a crucial role in the formation of the contractile ring, which constricts the cell membrane during cleavage. Therefore, if Cytochalisin B interferes with microfilament formation, it would hinder the process of cleavage.

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  • 30. 

    It is difficult to observe individual chromosomes during interphase because

    • A.

      The DNA has not been replicated yet

    • B.

      Hey are in the form of long thin strands

    • C.

      They leave the nucleus and are dispersed to other parts of the cell

    • D.

      Homologous chromosomes do not pair up until division starts

    • E.

      The spindle must move them to the metaphase plate before they become visible.

    Correct Answer
    B. Hey are in the form of long thin strands
    Explanation
    During interphase, chromosomes are in the form of long thin strands called chromatin. This is because the DNA has not yet condensed and replicated to form distinct chromosomes. Therefore, it is difficult to observe individual chromosomes during this phase.

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  • 31. 

    A fruit fly somatic cell contains 8 chromosomes. This means that _ different combinations of chromosomes are possible in its gametes .

    • A.

      4

    • B.

      8

    • C.

      16

    • D.

      32

    • E.

      64

    Correct Answer
    C. 16
    Explanation
    A fruit fly somatic cell contains 8 chromosomes. During meiosis, the chromosomes undergo recombination and independent assortment, resulting in different combinations of chromosomes in the gametes. Each chromosome can independently assort, so the total number of possible combinations is 2^8, which equals 256. However, since the question asks for the number of different combinations, we divide this number by 2 to account for the fact that each combination can be produced in two different ways (e.g., AB and BA). Therefore, the correct answer is 256/2 = 128.

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  • 32. 

    If a fragment of a chromosome breaks off and then reattaches to the original chromosome but in the reverse direction, the resulting chromosomal abnormality is called .

    • A.

      A deletion

    • B.

      An inversion

    • C.

      A translocation

    • D.

      A nondisjuncton

    • E.

      A reciprocal translocation

    Correct Answer
    B. An inversion
    Explanation
    An inversion is a chromosomal abnormality that occurs when a fragment of a chromosome breaks off and reattaches to the original chromosome, but in the reverse direction. This results in a rearrangement of genetic material within the chromosome.

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  • 33. 

    Why are individuals with an extra chromosome 21, which causes down syndrome, more numerous than individuals with an extra chromosome 3 or chromosome 16? a) there are probably more genes on chromosome 21 than on the others b) chromosome 21 is a sex chromosome and chromosomes 3 and 16 are not c) down syndrome is not more common, just more serious d) extra copies of the chromosomes are probably fatal e) nondisjunction of chroosoe 21 probably occurs more frequently .

    • A.

      There are probably more genes on chromosome 21 than on the others

    • B.

      Chromosome 21 is a sex chromosome and chromosomes 3 and 16 are not

    • C.

      Down syndrome is not more common, just more serious

    • D.

      Extra copies of the chromosomes are probably fatal

    • E.

      Nondisjunction of chromosome 21 probably occurs more frequently

    Correct Answer
    D. Extra copies of the chromosomes are probably fatal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that extra copies of the chromosomes are probably fatal. This means that individuals with an extra chromosome 3 or chromosome 16 are less likely to survive, resulting in fewer individuals with these extra chromosomes compared to individuals with an extra chromosome 21. This could be due to the fact that having extra copies of certain genes on chromosome 21 may be less detrimental to survival compared to having extra copies of genes on chromosomes 3 or 16.

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  • Feb 10, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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