Chapter 6: Memory (Grivas)

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Memory Quizzes & Trivia

Unit 3 exam prep.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Memory is best described as

    • A.

      A unitary system through which information flows back and forth.

    • B.

      The storage and retrieval of information acquired through learning.

    • C.

      A multi-store system in which all information is active.

    • D.

      Three independent systems called sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory.

    Correct Answer
    B. The storage and retrieval of information acquired through learning.
    Explanation
    Memory is best described as the storage and retrieval of information acquired through learning. This means that memory involves the process of encoding, storing, and retrieving information that has been acquired through experiences, education, and other forms of learning. It does not refer to a unitary system or a multi-store system, but rather focuses on the ability to retain and recall learned information.

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  • 2. 

    Which type of long-term memory storage is likely to be involved when a person recalls how to play a computer game after not having played it for some time?

    • A.

      Procedural

    • B.

      Episodic

    • C.

      Declarative

    • D.

      Semantic

    Correct Answer
    A. Procedural
    Explanation
    Procedural memory is likely to be involved when a person recalls how to play a computer game after not having played it for some time. Procedural memory is responsible for storing information about how to perform specific tasks or skills, such as playing a game. This type of memory is often automatic and does not require conscious effort to recall. In the given scenario, the person's ability to remember and perform the actions required to play the computer game suggests the involvement of procedural memory.

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  • 3. 

    Dementia is

    • A.

      An illness or disease that is a normal part of ageing.

    • B.

      Iconic memory.

    • C.

      The phonological loop.

    • D.

      Irreversible when neurodegenerative.

    Correct Answer
    D. Irreversible when neurodegenerative.
    Explanation
    Dementia is a condition that refers to a group of symptoms affecting memory, thinking, and social abilities severely enough to interfere with daily functioning. It is not a normal part of aging but rather a neurodegenerative disease. Neurodegenerative means that it involves the progressive degeneration and death of brain cells, leading to a decline in cognitive function. Dementia is irreversible because the damage to the brain cells cannot be reversed or repaired.

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  • 4. 

    On recovering consciousness, a cyclist who was knocked unconscious in an accident is unable to recall events that occurred in the half hour or so before he was knocked out. How would his amnesia be explained by consolidation theory?

    • A.

      Lack of sufficient time for consolidation of sensory information in short-term memory

    • B.

      Lack of attention during the half hour before the brain trauma

    • C.

      Lack of processing by the hippocampus in the parietal lobe

    • D.

      Lack of time for completion of changes in neurons involved in the formation of long-term memory

    Correct Answer
    D. Lack of time for completion of changes in neurons involved in the formation of long-term memory
    Explanation
    According to consolidation theory, memories are formed through changes in neurons that take time to complete. In the case of the cyclist, the trauma caused by the accident interrupted the process of forming long-term memories, resulting in amnesia for the events that occurred before being knocked out. This explanation suggests that the lack of time for the completion of neuronal changes necessary for long-term memory formation is the reason behind the cyclist's inability to recall those events.

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  • 5. 

    A feature of short-term memory or working memory that distinguishes it from both sensory memory and long term memory is that

    • A.

      Short-term memory is like a mental ‘working area’ for processing information in conscious awareness.

    • B.

      Information in both sensory memory and long-term memory can be rehearsed, whereas information in short-term memory cannot be rehearsed.

    • C.

      Short-term memory can store information for only a limited period of time, whereas both sensory memory and long-term memory can potentially store information for an unlimited period of time.

    • D.

      Information in sensory memory and long-term memory has been encoded, whereas information in short-term memory has not been encoded.

    Correct Answer
    A. Short-term memory is like a mental ‘working area’ for processing information in conscious awareness.
    Explanation
    Short-term memory is described as a mental 'working area' because it is where information is actively processed and manipulated in conscious awareness. Unlike sensory memory, which is the initial stage of memory that holds sensory information for a brief period, and long-term memory, which stores information for an unlimited period, short-term memory has a limited capacity and duration. It is responsible for temporarily holding and manipulating information, such as solving problems or making decisions, before either being forgotten or transferred to long-term memory through encoding.

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  • 6. 

    Long-term potentiation is best described as

    • A.

      The long-lasting strengthening of synaptic connections resulting in enhanced functioning of neurons.

    • B.

      Habituation in Aplysia.

    • C.

      The formation of a long-term memory.

    • D.

      The potential to form a long-term memory.

    Correct Answer
    A. The long-lasting strengthening of synaptic connections resulting in enhanced functioning of neurons.
    Explanation
    Long-term potentiation refers to the process of strengthening synaptic connections between neurons, leading to improved functioning. This phenomenon is crucial for learning and memory formation. It involves the long-lasting enhancement of communication between neurons, which can occur through changes in the structure and function of synapses. This answer accurately describes the concept of long-term potentiation and its impact on neuronal functioning.

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  • 7. 

    Most theories of long-term memory storage propose that information in long-term memory is stored primarily in a form that is

    • A.

      An exact sensory replica of the original information.

    • B.

      Echoic and iconic.

    • C.

      Semantical.

    • D.

      Disorganised.

    Correct Answer
    C. Semantical.
    Explanation
    Most theories of long-term memory storage propose that information is stored in a semantical form, meaning that it is organized and encoded based on its meaning and relationship to other information. This is in contrast to storing information as an exact sensory replica, as proposed by the other options.

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  • 8. 

    A neurodegenerative disease is best described as

    • A.

      A brain trauma.

    • B.

      An inflicted or acquired brain injury.

    • C.

      A brain-related disorder associated with people of the older generation.

    • D.

      A progressive decline in the structure and/or function of neurons in the central nervous system.

    Correct Answer
    D. A progressive decline in the structure and/or function of neurons in the central nervous system.
    Explanation
    A neurodegenerative disease refers to a condition where there is a gradual deterioration in the structure and/or function of neurons in the central nervous system. This means that over time, the neurons in the brain and spinal cord start to degenerate, leading to a progressive decline in their ability to transmit signals and perform their normal functions. This can result in a range of symptoms depending on the specific disease, such as memory loss, movement problems, and cognitive decline. Neurodegenerative diseases are not limited to the older generation and can affect individuals of all ages.

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  • 9. 

    One way of prolonging the duration of information well beyond its normal limit in short-term or working memory is through

    • A.

      Encoding.

    • B.

      Rehearsal.

    • C.

      Recall.

    • D.

      Consolidation.

    Correct Answer
    B. Rehearsal.
    Explanation
    Rehearsal refers to the process of repeating or practicing information in order to keep it in short-term memory for a longer duration. By continuously rehearsing information, it is transferred from short-term memory to long-term memory, thus prolonging its duration beyond the normal limit of short-term memory. Encoding refers to the process of converting information into a form that can be stored in memory, recall refers to retrieving previously stored information, and consolidation refers to the process of strengthening and stabilizing memories.

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  • 10. 

    Kandel’s research on the role of the neuron in memory indicates that

    • A.

      There is an increase in the amount of synapses produced by neurons, thereby enabling them to flow more freely within a memory circuit.

    • B.

      When a memory is forming, new neurotransmitters grow and interconnect the neurons to form a pathway for the information.

    • C.

      Neurons change in structure and function when a memory is forming.

    • D.

      Neurons assemble in a formation that creates a neural pathway for the memory.

    Correct Answer
    C. Neurons change in structure and function when a memory is forming.
    Explanation
    Kandel's research suggests that when a memory is forming, neurons undergo changes in both their structure and function. This means that the neurons involved in the memory formation process experience alterations in their physical and functional properties. These changes may include modifications in the strength of connections between neurons, the formation of new synapses, and the growth of new neurotransmitters. Overall, Kandel's research highlights the dynamic nature of neurons during memory formation, emphasizing that they adapt and change in order to encode and store information.

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  • 11. 

    Semantic network theory proposes that information in long-term memory is

    • A.

      Organised in different levels depending on the depth of processing.

    • B.

      Organised systematically, but the information is not necessarily related within each part of a network.

    • C.

      Organised in the form of overlapping networks of nodes that are interconnected and interrelated by meaningful links.

    • D.

      Not organised.

    Correct Answer
    C. Organised in the form of overlapping networks of nodes that are interconnected and interrelated by meaningful links.
    Explanation
    Semantic network theory suggests that information in long-term memory is organized in the form of overlapping networks of nodes. These nodes represent concepts or pieces of information, and they are interconnected and interrelated by meaningful links. This organization allows for efficient retrieval and association of information based on the relationships between nodes. It implies that the information is not randomly organized but rather structured in a way that promotes meaningful connections and associations.

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  • 12. 

    The levels of processing framework focuses on memory as a _____ system.

    • A.

      Multi-store

    • B.

      Inflexible

    • C.

      Single

    • D.

      Shallow or deep

    Correct Answer
    D. Shallow or deep
    Explanation
    The levels of processing framework suggests that memory is a system that can process information at different depths. It proposes that deeper levels of processing, such as semantic processing, result in better memory retention compared to shallow levels of processing, such as structural or phonemic processing. Therefore, memory is seen as a system that can engage in both shallow and deep processing depending on the depth of encoding.

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  • 13. 

    The process of organising smaller, separate bits of information into groups of related bits of information in order to increase the storage capacity of short-term memory is called

    • A.

      Grouping.

    • B.

      Maintenance rehearsal.

    • C.

      Chunking.

    • D.

      Elaborative rehearsal.

    Correct Answer
    C. Chunking.
    Explanation
    Chunking is the process of organizing smaller, separate bits of information into groups of related bits of information in order to increase the storage capacity of short-term memory. This allows individuals to remember and recall larger amounts of information more efficiently.

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  • 14. 

    Information in the middle of a 15-item word list that has just been learnt is least likely to be recalled shortly after because this information is

    • A.

      Still in short-term memory.

    • B.

      Confused with information that precedes it and information that follows it.

    • C.

      Still in long-term memory.

    • D.

      Learned too late to be adequately rehearsed and too early to be held in the STM without rehearsal.

    Correct Answer
    D. Learned too late to be adequately rehearsed and too early to be held in the STM without rehearsal.
    Explanation
    The information in the middle of a word list is least likely to be recalled shortly after because it is learned too late to be adequately rehearsed and too early to be held in short-term memory (STM) without rehearsal. When learning a word list, items at the beginning of the list are more likely to be rehearsed and transferred into long-term memory, while items at the end of the list can still be held in the STM. However, items in the middle are at a disadvantage as they are not rehearsed as much as the earlier items and are not held in the STM without rehearsal like the later items.

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  • 15. 

    The process of representing information in a form that can be used by memory is best described as

    • A.

      Rehearsal.

    • B.

      Encoding.

    • C.

      Information-processing.

    • D.

      Automatic processing.

    Correct Answer
    B. Encoding.
    Explanation
    Encoding is the process of converting information into a format that can be stored and used by memory. It involves transforming sensory input into a meaningful representation that can be stored and retrieved later. Rehearsal refers to the process of repeating information to maintain it in short-term memory. Information-processing is a general term that encompasses various cognitive processes involved in perception, attention, memory, and problem-solving. Automatic processing refers to the effortless and unconscious encoding of information. Among these options, encoding is the most accurate description of the process of representing information in a form that can be used by memory.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following activities is the best example of the use of information retrieved from implicit memory?

    • A.

      Distinguishing between a shark and a dolphin

    • B.

      Telling a friend about how the weekend was spent

    • C.

      Riding a bike

    • D.

      Recalling a word for a crossword puzzle

    Correct Answer
    C. Riding a bike
    Explanation
    Riding a bike is the best example of the use of information retrieved from implicit memory because it is a skill that is learned and becomes automatic over time. Implicit memory is responsible for remembering how to do things without conscious effort or awareness. Once someone learns how to ride a bike, they can do it without having to consciously think about each step or movement involved. This indicates that the information is stored in implicit memory and can be retrieved effortlessly when needed.

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  • 17. 

    The serial position effect used to describe superior recall of items at the end of a list is called the _________ effect.

    • A.

      Recency

    • B.

      Primacy

    • C.

      Serial

    • D.

      Recall

    Correct Answer
    A. Recency
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "recency." The serial position effect refers to the tendency for individuals to have better recall for items at the beginning (primacy effect) and end (recency effect) of a list compared to items in the middle. The recency effect specifically refers to the superior recall of items at the end of a list.

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  • 18. 

    What is required for information to be transferred from a sensory register to short-term or working memory?

    • A.

      Attention

    • B.

      Encoding

    • C.

      Rehearsal

    • D.

      Organisation

    Correct Answer
    A. Attention
    Explanation
    Attention is required for information to be transferred from a sensory register to short-term or working memory. Attention refers to the cognitive process of selectively focusing on specific information while filtering out irrelevant stimuli. Without attention, incoming sensory information would not be processed and encoded into memory. Therefore, attention plays a crucial role in the transfer of information from sensory register to short-term or working memory.

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  • 19. 

    Which specific type of long-term memory store is likely to be involved when a person recalls their first day as a VCE student?

    • A.

      Procedural

    • B.

      Episodic

    • C.

      Declarative

    • D.

      Semantic

    Correct Answer
    B. Episodic
    Explanation
    Episodic memory is a type of long-term memory that involves the recollection of specific events and personal experiences. When a person recalls their first day as a VCE student, they are remembering a specific event from their personal life, making it an episodic memory. Procedural memory refers to the memory of how to perform certain tasks or skills, while declarative memory involves the recall of facts and information. Semantic memory, on the other hand, involves the general knowledge and concepts that a person has acquired.

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  • 20. 

    Which memory system or sub-system stores information for the shortest duration?

    • A.

      Short-term memory

    • B.

      Working memory

    • C.

      Echoic memory

    • D.

      Iconic memory

    Correct Answer
    D. Iconic memory
    Explanation
    Iconic memory is a type of sensory memory that stores visual information for a very brief duration, typically lasting only a fraction of a second. It allows us to retain a brief visual image or "icon" of our surroundings even after the stimulus has been removed. Unlike short-term memory or working memory, which can hold information for a longer duration, iconic memory is very short-lived and quickly fades away. Echoic memory, on the other hand, stores auditory information for a slightly longer duration compared to iconic memory.

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