Health And Illness Quiz: Lung Diseases

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| By Ellensimms
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Quizzes Created: 3 | Total Attempts: 4,587
Questions: 25 | Attempts: 193

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Lung Quizzes & Trivia

Do you know anything about lung disease? Lung disease encompasses several types of diseases or illnesses that prevent the lungs from working properly. Lung disease can have a negative impact on respiratory function or the ability to breathe. Some examples of problems that affect the lungs include asthma, COPD, pneumonia, and tuberculosis. Even if you may be nervous about an upcoming test on lung disease, take a deep breath and complete this quiz.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    High altitudes may produce hypoxemia by:

    • A.

      Right to left shunts

    • B.

      Atelactasis

    • C.

      Decreased oxygen inspiration

    • D.

      Emphysema

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Decreased oxygen inspiration
    Explanation
    High altitudes may produce hypoxemia by decreased oxygen inspiration. At high altitudes, the air pressure is lower, leading to a decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen. This results in a reduced oxygen content in each breath, leading to decreased oxygen inspiration. This can cause hypoxemia, which is a low level of oxygen in the blood. The other options mentioned, such as right to left shunts, atelectasis, and emphysema, may also contribute to hypoxemia but are not specific to high altitudes.

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  • 2. 

    In ARDS, increased alveolocapillary membrane permeability mainly is due to:

    • A.

      Alveolar epithelial damage

    • B.

      Decreased surfactant

    • C.

      Vasoconstriction

    • D.

      Ventilation to perfusion mismatching

    • E.

      Inflammatory mediators released

    Correct Answer
    E. Inflammatory mediators released
    Explanation
    ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) is a condition characterized by severe lung inflammation and damage to the alveolar epithelium, which is the thin layer of cells that line the air sacs in the lungs. This damage leads to increased permeability of the alveolocapillary membrane, allowing fluid and inflammatory cells to leak into the alveoli. Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released in response to the initial lung injury and contribute to the increased permeability. These mediators cause further damage to the alveolar epithelium and perpetuate the inflammatory response, leading to the development of ARDS.

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  • 3. 

    Type II pneumocyte damage causes:

    • A.

      Increased alveolocapillary permeability

    • B.

      Chemotaxis for neutrophils

    • C.

      Exudation of fluid from caplillaries into the interstitium

    • D.

      Decreased surfactant production

    • E.

      All of the above are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. Decreased surfactant production
    Explanation
    Type II pneumocyte damage can lead to decreased surfactant production. Surfactant is a substance produced by type II pneumocytes that helps to reduce surface tension in the alveoli, preventing their collapse during expiration. When type II pneumocytes are damaged, their ability to produce surfactant is compromised, resulting in decreased surfactant levels. This can lead to alveolar collapse and increased work of breathing. Therefore, the statement "decreased surfactant production" is correct in relation to type II pneumocyte damage.

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  • 4. 

    Pulmonary edema may be caused by:

    • A.

      Hypoventilation

    • B.

      CNS abnormalities

    • C.

      Atelectasis

    • D.

      Rupture of pleura

    • E.

      Increased pulmonay hydrostatic pressure

    Correct Answer
    E. Increased pulmonay hydrostatic pressure
    Explanation
    Pulmonary edema refers to the accumulation of fluid in the lungs, and it can be caused by various factors. One of the possible causes is increased pulmonary hydrostatic pressure. This means that there is an increase in the pressure within the blood vessels in the lungs, which can lead to the leakage of fluid into the lung tissue. This can occur due to conditions such as congestive heart failure, where the heart is unable to pump blood effectively, causing a backup of fluid in the lungs. Other causes mentioned in the options, such as hypoventilation, CNS abnormalities, atelectasis, and rupture of pleura, may also contribute to pulmonary edema but are not specifically related to increased pulmonary hydrostatic pressure.

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  • 5. 

    In asthma:

    • A.

      Bronchial muscles contract

    • B.

      Bronchial muscles relax

    • C.

      Mucous secretions decrease

    • D.

      Imblances within the CNS develop

    Correct Answer
    A. Bronchial muscles contract
    Explanation
    In asthma, the bronchial muscles contract. This contraction is known as bronchoconstriction and it causes the airways to narrow, making it difficult for air to pass through. This narrowing of the airways leads to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Bronchial muscle contraction is triggered by inflammation and irritation in the airways, which can be caused by allergens, exercise, cold air, or respiratory infections. Treatment for asthma aims to relax the bronchial muscles and reduce inflammation in order to improve airflow and relieve symptoms.

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  • 6. 

    In emphysema:

    • A.

      There is increased area for gas exchange

    • B.

      There re prolonged inspirations

    • C.

      The bronchioles are primarily involved

    • D.

      There is increased diaphram movement

    • E.

      Alveoli are less able to recoil and expel air

    Correct Answer
    E. Alveoli are less able to recoil and expel air
    Explanation
    In emphysema, the alveoli lose their elasticity and become less able to recoil and expel air. This leads to air trapping in the lungs and difficulty in exhaling. As a result, the patient may experience shortness of breath and have an increased residual volume of air in their lungs. The loss of elasticity in the alveoli is caused by damage to the walls of the air sacs, which can be due to smoking or other factors.

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  • 7. 

    In pneumococcal pneumonia, the stage of gray hepatization is characterized by:

    • A.

      Solidification of tissue

    • B.

      Fibrin deposition

    • C.

      Alveoli filling with blood cells and pneumococci

    • D.

      Macrophages appearing in the alveolar spaces

    Correct Answer
    B. Fibrin deposition
    Explanation
    In pneumococcal pneumonia, the stage of gray hepatization is characterized by fibrin deposition. This means that fibrin, a protein involved in blood clotting, accumulates in the affected lung tissue. This leads to the solidification of the tissue, giving it a gray appearance. Fibrin deposition occurs as a result of the inflammatory response to the infection, and it helps to localize and contain the infection within the affected area.

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  • 8. 

    Pulmonary hypertension:

    • A.

      Shows an enlarged pulmonary artery

    • B.

      Involves deep vein thrombosis

    • C.

      Shows right ventricular hypertrophy

    • D.

      Both A and C

    • E.

      All of above

    Correct Answer
    D. Both A and C
    Explanation
    The correct answer is both A and C. Pulmonary hypertension is a condition characterized by high blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs. An enlarged pulmonary artery is a common finding in pulmonary hypertension, as it is a result of the increased pressure. Additionally, the condition can lead to right ventricular hypertrophy, which is an enlargement and thickening of the right ventricle of the heart. Therefore, both an enlarged pulmonary artery and right ventricular hypertrophy are associated with pulmonary hypertension.

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  • 9. 

    Cor pulmonale:

    • A.

      Occurs in response to long standing pulmonary hypertension

    • B.

      Is right heart failure

    • C.

      Is manifested by altered tricuspid and pulmonic valve sounds

    • D.

      A and B

    • E.

      All of above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of above
    Explanation
    Cor pulmonale is a condition that occurs in response to long-standing pulmonary hypertension, which is high blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs. It is characterized by right heart failure, which means that the right side of the heart is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to symptoms such as altered tricuspid and pulmonic valve sounds. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of above" because all of the statements are true regarding cor pulmonale.

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  • 10. 

    A lung cancer characterized by many anaplastic figures and the production of hormones is most likely :

    • A.

      Squamous cell carinoma

    • B.

      Small cell carcinoma

    • C.

      Large cell carcinoma

    • D.

      Adenocarcinoma

    • E.

      Bronchial adenoma

    Correct Answer
    B. Small cell carcinoma
    Explanation
    Small cell carcinoma is the most likely answer because it is a type of lung cancer characterized by many anaplastic figures and the production of hormones. Small cell carcinoma is an aggressive form of lung cancer that tends to grow and spread quickly, and it is known to produce hormones that can cause various symptoms. The other options, such as squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and bronchial adenoma, do not typically exhibit these specific characteristics.

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  • 11. 

    The mets of lung squamous cell carcinoma is:

    • A.

      Late

    • B.

      Very early and widespread

    • C.

      Early

    • D.

      Early and widespread

    • E.

      Never seen

    Correct Answer
    A. Late
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "late." This suggests that the metastasis of lung squamous cell carcinoma typically occurs at a later stage of the disease. This implies that the cancer has already progressed and spread to other parts of the body by the time it is detected.

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  • 12. 

    Which is true about tuberculosis:

    • A.

      It is caused by an aerobic bacillus

    • B.

      It may affect other organs

    • C.

      It involves a type 3 hypersensitivity

    • D.

      Antibodies to it may be detected with a skin test

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. It is caused by an aerobic bacillus
    B. It may affect other organs
    Explanation
    Tuberculosis is caused by an aerobic bacillus called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterium primarily affects the lungs, but it can also spread to other organs in the body, such as the kidneys, bones, and brain. It is a highly contagious disease that spreads through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The statement about tuberculosis being caused by an aerobic bacillus and its ability to affect other organs is true.

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  • 13. 

    Pulmonary emboli usually do which of the following:

    • A.

      Obstruct blood supply to lung parenghyma

    • B.

      Have origins from thrombi in the legs

    • C.

      Occclude pulmonary vein branches

    • D.

      Occlude pulmonary arteries

    Correct Answer
    A. Obstruct blood supply to lung parenghyma
    Explanation
    Pulmonary emboli typically obstruct the blood supply to the lung parenchyma. This means that they block the flow of blood to the lung tissue, which can lead to various symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up blood. The origins of pulmonary emboli are often thrombi (blood clots) that form in the legs and then travel to the lungs through the bloodstream. While pulmonary emboli can cause blockages in the pulmonary veins, they primarily occlude the pulmonary arteries, which are responsible for carrying oxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs.

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  • 14. 

    Chronic bronchitis:

    • A.

      Is caused by a lack of surfactant

    • B.

      Impairs cilia

    • C.

      Exhibits a nonproductive cough

    • D.

      Causes collapsed alveoli

    Correct Answer
    B. Impairs cilia
    Explanation
    Chronic bronchitis impairs cilia. Cilia are tiny hair-like structures that line the airways and help to move mucus and foreign particles out of the lungs. When the cilia are impaired, they are unable to function properly and clear the airways, leading to a buildup of mucus and inflammation. This can result in symptoms such as a persistent cough and difficulty breathing.

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  • 15. 

    Emphysema is precipitated by:

    • A.

      Histimine

    • B.

      TNF

    • C.

      Leukotrienes

    • D.

      Alpha-1 antitypsin deficience

    Correct Answer
    D. Alpha-1 antitypsin deficience
    Explanation
    Emphysema is a condition characterized by the destruction of the alveoli in the lungs, leading to difficulty in breathing. One of the causes of emphysema is alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a protein that protects the lungs from damage caused by enzymes released by immune cells. In individuals with a deficiency of this protein, these enzymes are not properly inhibited, resulting in the destruction of lung tissue. This genetic condition is a significant risk factor for developing emphysema, especially in individuals who smoke or are exposed to other respiratory irritants.

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  • 16. 

    Increased ventilatory rate, very lage tidal volume are no expiratory pause are characteristics of:

    • A.

      Kussmal respiration

    • B.

      Cheynes stokes respiration

    Correct Answer
    A. Kussmal respiration
    Explanation
    Kussmal respiration is characterized by an increased ventilatory rate, very large tidal volume, and no expiratory pause. This type of respiration is typically seen in metabolic acidosis, where the body tries to compensate for the excess acid by increasing the rate and depth of breathing. The increased ventilatory rate helps to eliminate more carbon dioxide, while the large tidal volume allows for greater gas exchange. The absence of an expiratory pause distinguishes Kussmal respiration from Cheyne-Stokes respiration, which is characterized by a cyclical pattern of alternating deep and shallow breaths with periods of apnea.

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  • 17. 

    Coughing up blood or bloody secretions is:

    • A.

      Hemoptemesis

    • B.

      Menorhea

    • C.

      Hemoptysis

    Correct Answer
    C. Hemoptysis
    Explanation
    Hemoptysis is the correct answer because it refers to the act of coughing up blood or bloody secretions from the respiratory tract. It is commonly associated with conditions such as bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, or lung cancer. Hemoptysis should not be confused with hematemesis, which refers to the vomiting of blood from the gastrointestinal tract. Menorhea is not a medical term and does not relate to coughing up blood.

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  • 18. 

    Decreased arterial oxygenation causes:

    • A.

      Cyanosis

    • B.

      Enlargement of the heart

    Correct Answer
    A. Cyanosis
    Explanation
    Decreased arterial oxygenation causes cyanosis because when there is a decrease in the amount of oxygen in the blood, the skin and mucous membranes can appear bluish or purple. This occurs because the oxygen-depleted blood has a darker color, which becomes more noticeable in areas with thinner skin. Cyanosis is a clinical sign that indicates a lack of adequate oxygenation in the body. On the other hand, enlargement of the heart is not directly caused by decreased arterial oxygenation, but it can occur as a result of chronic hypoxia due to conditions that cause low oxygen levels in the blood.

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  • 19. 

    Apnea, inward ventilation, then apnea again characterize:

    • A.

      Cheynes-stokes respirations

    • B.

      Kussmal respirations

    • C.

      Rigor mortis

    Correct Answer
    A. Cheynes-stokes respirations
    Explanation
    Cheyne-Stokes respirations are characterized by a pattern of breathing that involves periods of apnea (temporary cessation of breathing), followed by gradually increasing and then decreasing depth and frequency of breaths. This cycle repeats itself. This type of breathing pattern is commonly seen in individuals with congestive heart failure, brain injuries, and other conditions affecting the central nervous system. Kussmal respirations, on the other hand, are deep, rapid, and labored breathing often associated with metabolic acidosis. Rigor mortis refers to the stiffening of muscles after death and is unrelated to breathing patterns.

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  • 20. 

    Alveolar collapse is observed in_________.

    • A.

      Respiratory distress

    • B.

      Pleaural space atelactesis

    Correct Answer
    B. Pleaural space atelactesis
    Explanation
    Alveolar collapse, also known as atelectasis, is observed in pleural space atelectasis. This occurs when there is air or fluid accumulation in the pleural space, causing the lung to collapse. This can lead to respiratory distress, as the affected lung is unable to properly exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.

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  • 21. 

    Abnormal deflation of the bronchi is termed:

    • A.

      Bronchiectasis

    • B.

      Atelactesis

    Correct Answer
    A. Bronchiectasis
    Explanation
    Bronchiectasis is the correct answer because it refers to the abnormal and permanent dilation of the bronchi, which are the airways in the lungs. This condition is often caused by recurrent infections or other underlying lung diseases. Atelactesis, on the other hand, refers to the collapse or incomplete expansion of the lung or a part of it, which is not related to the abnormal deflation of the bronchi.

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  • 22. 

    Fibrous tissue or nodules in lungs is termed:

    • A.

      Fibroids

    • B.

      Pneumoconiosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Pneumoconiosis
    Explanation
    Pneumoconiosis is the correct answer because it refers to the condition characterized by the presence of fibrous tissue or nodules in the lungs. This condition is typically caused by the inhalation of certain dust particles, such as coal dust or silica, which can lead to the development of scar tissue in the lungs. Pneumoconiosis can result in symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, and chest pain, and it is commonly associated with occupational exposure to these dust particles. Fibroids, on the other hand, are noncancerous growths that can develop in the uterus, while pneumoconiosis specifically refers to lung conditions.

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  • 23. 

    Fractured ribs or sternum cause:

    • A.

      Cheynes stokes respirations

    • B.

      Flail chest

    Correct Answer
    B. Flail chest
    Explanation
    Fractured ribs or sternum can lead to flail chest, a condition characterized by multiple rib fractures that result in a segment of the chest wall becoming detached from the rest of the thoracic cage. This detachment causes paradoxical movement of the affected segment, meaning it moves in the opposite direction to the rest of the chest during respiration. This can impair the ability to breathe effectively and may result in respiratory distress, decreased oxygenation, and potentially life-threatening complications.

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  • 24. 

    Pleural space air is termed:

    • A.

      Pneumothorax

    • B.

      Atelactesis

    Correct Answer
    A. Pneumothorax
    Explanation
    Pleural space air is termed pneumothorax, which refers to the presence of air in the pleural cavity, the space between the lungs and the chest wall. This condition can occur due to various reasons, such as lung injury, certain medical procedures, or underlying lung diseases. Pneumothorax can cause symptoms like chest pain, shortness of breath, and decreased lung function. Treatment options for pneumothorax may include observation, chest tube insertion to remove the air, or surgery in severe cases.

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  • 25. 

    Streptococci pneumoniae causes:

    • A.

      Labor pneumonia

    • B.

      Congenstive heart failure

    Correct Answer
    A. Labor pneumonia
    Explanation
    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterium that commonly causes pneumonia, an infection in the lungs. It is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia, particularly in elderly individuals and those with weakened immune systems. "Labor pneumonia" is likely a typographical error, as there is no specific condition called "labor pneumonia." Congestive heart failure, on the other hand, is a condition characterized by the heart's inability to pump blood effectively, which is not directly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 31, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Ellensimms
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