Asthma Medication Quiz

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Asthma Medication Quiz - Quiz

Asthma is a condition in which your airways narrow down, swell, and tends to produce extra mucus. This can create problems while breathing and trigger coughing and shortness of breath.
Take this pharmacology quiz about asthma medications and drugs used in its treatment.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Asthma is defined as a syndrome in which there is(are)

    • A.

      Recurrent reversible obstruction of the airways

    • B.

      Intermittent attacks of dyspnoea, wheezing , and cough

    • C.

      Disorders in breathing in

    • D.

      Disorders in breathing out

    • E.

      Recurrent irreversible obstruction of the airways in response to stimuli

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Recurrent reversible obstruction of the airways
    B. Intermittent attacks of dyspnoea, wheezing , and cough
    C. Disorders in breathing in
    D. Disorders in breathing out
    Explanation
    Asthma is a syndrome characterized by recurrent reversible obstruction of the airways, which leads to intermittent attacks of dyspnea, wheezing, and cough. It involves difficulties in both breathing in and breathing out. This means that during an asthma attack, the airways become narrowed, making it difficult for air to flow in and out of the lungs. These symptoms can be triggered by various stimuli, such as allergens or exercise.

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  • 2. 

    The characteristic features of asthma is (are):

    • A.

      Purely a Type I hypersensitivity reactions

    • B.

      Bronchial hyper-responsiveness and inflammatory changes in the airways

    • C.

      The immediate and the late phase

    • D.

      Involving only the interaction of allergen with mast-cell-fixed IgE

    • E.

      Occurrence only in adults

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Bronchial hyper-responsiveness and inflammatory changes in the airways
    C. The immediate and the late phase
    Explanation
    Asthma is characterized by bronchial hyper-responsiveness and inflammatory changes in the airways. These changes can lead to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. The immediate and late phase refer to the two stages of an asthma attack, with the immediate phase occurring shortly after exposure to triggers and the late phase happening several hours later. Asthma can occur in both adults and children, and it is not solely caused by the interaction of allergens with mast-cell-fixed IgE.

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  • 3. 

    The term bronchial hyper-responsiveness refers to abnormal sensitivity  to:

    • A.

      Allergens (in sensitized individuals)

    • B.

      Exercise (the stimulus may be cold air)

    • C.

      Respiratory infections

    • D.

      Atmospheric pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke

    • E.

      Genetic dispositions

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Allergens (in sensitized individuals)
    B. Exercise (the stimulus may be cold air)
    C. Respiratory infections
    D. Atmospheric pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke
    E. Genetic dispositions
    Explanation
    Bronchial hyper-responsiveness refers to an abnormal sensitivity in the bronchial tubes. This sensitivity can be triggered by various factors including allergens, exercise (especially in cold air), respiratory infections, atmospheric pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and cigarette smoke, and genetic dispositions. In individuals who are sensitized, exposure to allergens can cause an exaggerated response in the bronchial tubes, leading to symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing. Exercise, especially in cold air, can also trigger bronchial hyper-responsiveness in some individuals. Respiratory infections, atmospheric pollutants, and genetic dispositions can further contribute to the abnormal sensitivity of the bronchial tubes.

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  • 4. 

    The immediate (early) phase:

    • A.

      Occurs abruptly

    • B.

      The cells involved in this phase are predominantly mast cells

    • C.

      Can be reversed by bronchodilators (glucocorticoids, cromoglycate)

    • D.

      Can be reversed by anti-inflammatory agents

    • E.

      Can be reversed by sedatives and hypnotics

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Occurs abruptly
    B. The cells involved in this phase are predominantly mast cells
    C. Can be reversed by bronchodilators (glucocorticoids, cromoglycate)
    Explanation
    In the immediate (early) phase of a reaction, it occurs abruptly and the cells involved are predominantly mast cells. This phase can be reversed by bronchodilators such as glucocorticoids and cromoglycate, which help to relax and open up the airways. Additionally, anti-inflammatory agents can also reverse this phase by reducing inflammation in the airways. Sedatives and hypnotics, however, are not effective in reversing this phase.

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  • 5. 

    Bronchodilators are:

    • A.

      Beta 2 antagonists

    • B.

      Beta 1 agonists

    • C.

      Beta 2 agonists

    • D.

      Antimuscarinic drugs

    • E.

      Methylxanthines

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Beta 2 agonists
    D. Antimuscarinic drugs
    E. Methylxanthines
    Explanation
    Bronchodilators are medications used to relax and widen the airways in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. Beta 2 agonists are a type of bronchodilator that work by stimulating the beta 2 receptors in the smooth muscles of the airways, causing them to relax. Antimuscarinic drugs are another type of bronchodilator that work by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that causes constriction of the airways. Methylxanthines are a third type of bronchodilator that work by relaxing the smooth muscles of the airways and reducing inflammation. Therefore, the correct answer is beta 2 agonists, antimuscarinic drugs, and methylxanthines.

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  • 6. 

    Short acting beta 2 mimetics (for an acute attack management) :

    • A.

      Are administered via inhalation if possible

    • B.

      Only orally

    • C.

      i.v.

    • D.

      S.c.

    • E.

      Parenterally

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Are administered via inhalation if possible
    C. i.v.
    D. S.c.
    E. Parenterally
    Explanation
    Short acting beta 2 mimetics are commonly used for managing acute attacks, such as asthma attacks. These medications work by relaxing the muscles in the airways, making it easier to breathe. Inhalation is the preferred route of administration for these medications as it allows them to directly target the lungs and provide quick relief. However, in certain situations where inhalation may not be possible or ineffective, short acting beta 2 mimetics can also be administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or through other parenteral routes to ensure the medication reaches the lungs and provides the necessary relief.

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  • 7. 

    Inhalation method(s) is (are):

    • A.

      Intranasal administration for systemic absorption

    • B.

      Metered dose inhaler-aerosol

    • C.

      Aerosol administered via a nebulizer

    • D.

      As a dry power (Turbohaler or Diskhaler)

    • E.

      Intranasal administration for the local effects on nasal mucosa

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Metered dose inhaler-aerosol
    C. Aerosol administered via a nebulizer
    D. As a dry power (Turbohaler or Diskhaler)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Metered dose inhaler-aerosol, Aerosol administered via a nebulizer, and As a dry powder (Turbohaler or Diskhaler). These are all methods of delivering medication directly to the lungs for the treatment of respiratory conditions. A metered dose inhaler is a handheld device that delivers a specific dose of medication in aerosol form. A nebulizer is a machine that converts liquid medication into a fine mist that can be inhaled. Turbohaler and Diskhaler are dry powder inhalers that deliver medication in a powdered form when the patient inhales. These methods allow for efficient and targeted delivery of medication to the lungs.

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  • 8. 

    Using metered dose inhaler -aerosol the dose of........ /puff is administered:

    • A.

      1ug

    • B.

      10 ug

    • C.

      100ug

    • D.

      1mg

    • E.

      10 mg

    Correct Answer
    C. 100ug
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 100ug because a metered dose inhaler delivers a specific amount of medication with each puff. In this case, the dose administered is 100ug, which stands for 100 micrograms.

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  • 9. 

    The increase in FEV-1  after inhalation of 200 ug of salbutamol:

    • A.

      Begins within 2 minutes

    • B.

      Begins within 15 min

    • C.

      Peaks at 1 hour

    • D.

      Peaks at 3 hours

    • E.

      Persists for 10-12 hours

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Begins within 15 min
    C. Peaks at 1 hour
    Explanation
    The increase in FEV-1 after inhalation of 200 ug of salbutamol begins within 15 minutes because it takes some time for the medication to be absorbed and reach the airways. It then peaks at 1 hour, indicating the maximum effect of the medication on improving lung function. The fact that it begins within 15 minutes suggests a relatively fast onset of action, while the peak at 1 hour indicates the duration of the medication's effect. The statement "persists for 10-12 hours" is not mentioned in the given options, so it cannot be considered as part of the explanation.

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  • 10. 

    Pharmacological effects of beta 2 agonists are:

    • A.

      Relaxation of skeletal muscle

    • B.

      Relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle

    • C.

      Relaxation of uterine smooth muscle

    • D.

      Decrease in heart rate, force of mycardial contraction, speed of impulse conduction

    • E.

      Increase in ectopic foci in the myocardium and automaticity in pacemaker tissue

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle
    C. Relaxation of uterine smooth muscle
    E. Increase in ectopic foci in the myocardium and automaticity in pacemaker tissue
    Explanation
    Beta 2 agonists have various pharmacological effects. They cause relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle, which helps in relieving symptoms of asthma and other respiratory conditions. They also cause relaxation of uterine smooth muscle, making them useful in the management of preterm labor. Additionally, beta 2 agonists can increase the occurrence of ectopic foci in the myocardium and enhance automaticity in pacemaker tissue, which can have implications for cardiac arrhythmias. However, beta 2 agonists do not have any direct effect on skeletal muscle or on heart rate, force of myocardial contraction, and speed of impulse conduction.

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  • 11. 

    Adverse effects of beta 2 agonists are:

    • A.

      Muscle tremor, headache and insomnia

    • B.

      Tachycardia, flushing, palpitations and cardiac arrhythmias

    • C.

      The risk of precipitating or exacerbating angina in patients with ischemic heart disease

    • D.

      Acute urinary retention in patients with prostatic hypertrophy

    • E.

      Hyperkalemia.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Muscle tremor, headache and insomnia
    B. Tachycardia, flushing, palpitations and cardiac arrhythmias
    C. The risk of precipitating or exacerbating angina in patients with ischemic heart disease
    Explanation
    Beta 2 agonists are medications commonly used to treat conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These medications work by relaxing the muscles in the airways, making it easier to breathe. However, they can also have adverse effects. Muscle tremor, headache, and insomnia are common side effects of beta 2 agonists. Tachycardia (rapid heart rate), flushing, palpitations, and cardiac arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms) can also occur. In patients with ischemic heart disease, beta 2 agonists can increase the risk of precipitating or worsening angina, a condition characterized by chest pain due to reduced blood flow to the heart.

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  • 12. 

    Muscarinic receptor antagonists (used for the treatment of asthma) involve:

    • A.

      Fenoterol

    • B.

      Ipratropium

    • C.

      Berodual

    • D.

      Atrovent

    • E.

      Atropin

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Ipratropium
    C. Berodual
    D. Atrovent
    Explanation
    Ipratropium, Berodual, and Atrovent are all muscarinic receptor antagonists used for the treatment of asthma. Muscarinic receptors are found in the smooth muscles of the airways, and their activation leads to bronchoconstriction. By blocking these receptors, muscarinic receptor antagonists help to relax the smooth muscles and widen the airways, making it easier for the patient to breathe. Fenoterol is not a muscarinic receptor antagonist but rather a beta-2 adrenergic agonist, which works by stimulating beta-2 receptors in the airways to cause bronchodilation. Atropine, on the other hand, is a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist used for other purposes, such as treating bradycardia and reducing secretions during surgery.

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  • 13. 

    Ipratropium:

    • A.

      Is administered orally

    • B.

      Is more effective than salbutamol

    • C.

      Could precipitate acute glaucoma

    • D.

      Is used for patients with heart disease

    • E.

      But cannot be used for patients with thyreotoxicosis

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Could precipitate acute glaucoma
    D. Is used for patients with heart disease
    Explanation
    Ipratropium could precipitate acute glaucoma because it is an anticholinergic medication that can increase intraocular pressure. It is used for patients with heart disease because it helps to relax and open up the airways, making it easier to breathe. However, it cannot be used for patients with thyrotoxicosis because it can worsen symptoms such as rapid heart rate and high blood pressure.

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  • 14. 

    Methylxanthines used for the treatment of asthma are:

    • A.

      Theophyllin

    • B.

      Oxyphyllin

    • C.

      Aminophyllin

    • D.

      Pentoxiphyllin

    • E.

      Caffeine

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Theophyllin
    C. Aminophyllin
    Explanation
    Methylxanthines are a class of drugs used for the treatment of asthma. Theophylline and aminophylline are two specific methylxanthines that are commonly used for this purpose. They work by relaxing the muscles in the airways, allowing for easier breathing. Other options listed, such as oxyphyllin, pentoxiphyllin, and caffeine, are not typically used for the treatment of asthma. Therefore, the correct answer is theophylline and aminophylline.

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  • 15. 

    Theophylline  and/or aminophylline in the form of sustained release preparation:

    • A.

      Is administered orally 4times/day

    • B.

      Is administered orally once or twice a day

    • C.

      Is administered i.v. once a day

    • D.

      Is not dependent on food

    • E.

      Has a reduced incidence of gastrointestinal adverse effects

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Is administered orally once or twice a day
    D. Is not dependent on food
    E. Has a reduced incidence of gastrointestinal adverse effects
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "is administered orally once or twice a day, is not dependent on food, has a reduced incidence of gastrointestinal adverse effects." Theophylline and aminophylline in the form of sustained release preparation are designed to be taken orally once or twice a day. They do not need to be taken with food and have a lower risk of causing gastrointestinal side effects compared to other formulations.

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  • 16. 

    Aminophylline is:

    • A.

      Used i.v.( injections)

    • B.

      Used orally

    • C.

      Used orally in the form of sustained release preparations

    • D.

      By inhalation

    • E.

      Used i.v. (infusions)

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Used i.v.( injections)
    B. Used orally
    C. Used orally in the form of sustained release preparations
    E. Used i.v. (infusions)
    Explanation
    Aminophylline can be administered through different routes depending on the desired effect and the patient's condition. It can be used intravenously (i.v.) in the form of injections or infusions, which allows for rapid absorption and onset of action. Aminophylline can also be taken orally, either in immediate-release form or as sustained-release preparations, which provide a longer duration of action. Additionally, aminophylline can be administered by inhalation for the treatment of respiratory conditions.

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  • 17. 

    Adverse effects of theophylline:

    • A.

      Are generally related to its plasma concentration

    • B.

      Include tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias

    • C.

      Do not comprise insomnia, headache, anxiety

    • D.

      Include nauzea and vomiting

    • E.

      Theophylline can induce anxiety and seizures

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Are generally related to its plasma concentration
    B. Include tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias
    D. Include nauzea and vomiting
    E. Theophylline can induce anxiety and seizures
    Explanation
    The adverse effects of theophylline are generally related to its plasma concentration, meaning that higher levels of theophylline in the blood can lead to more severe side effects. These side effects include tachycardia (rapid heart rate) and cardiac arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms). Additionally, nausea and vomiting can occur as a result of theophylline use. It is also possible for theophylline to induce anxiety and seizures in some individuals.

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  • 18. 

    Theophylline produces bronchodilating effects by means of:

    • A.

      Inhibition of mediator release from mast cells

    • B.

      Antagonism of adenosine at A 2 receptors

    • C.

      Anti-inflammatory activity on T lymphocytes

    • D.

      Central stimulation of respiration

    • E.

      Stimulation of beta 2 receptors

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Inhibition of mediator release from mast cells
    B. Antagonism of adenosine at A 2 receptors
    C. Anti-inflammatory activity on T lymphocytes
    D. Central stimulation of respiration
    Explanation
    Theophylline produces bronchodilating effects by inhibiting the release of mediators from mast cells, antagonizing adenosine at A2 receptors, exerting anti-inflammatory activity on T lymphocytes, and centrally stimulating respiration. These mechanisms work together to relax and open up the airways, improving breathing in individuals with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

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  • 19. 

    The therapeutic range of theophylline in plasma is:

    • A.

      5-15 ug/ml in children

    • B.

      8-15 ug/ml in adults

    • C.

      20-40 ug/ml in adults

    • D.

      0.5 - 5 ug/ml in children

    • E.

      0.1 - 1 ug/ml in children

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. 5-15 ug/ml in children
    B. 8-15 ug/ml in adults
    Explanation
    The therapeutic range of theophylline in plasma varies depending on the age group. For children, the recommended range is 5-15 ug/ml, while for adults, it is slightly higher at 8-15 ug/ml. This indicates the optimal concentration of theophylline in the blood to achieve the desired therapeutic effect without causing toxicity.

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  • 20. 

    Pharmacokinetics of theophylline. Theophylline is:

    • A.

      Not metabolised in the liver

    • B.

      Excreted predominantly in non-changed form by the urine

    • C.

      Used in patients with liver disease without caution

    • D.

      Not used in patients with congestive heart failure

    • E.

      Not used in patients with congestive heart failure

    Correct Answer(s)
    D. Not used in patients with congestive heart failure
    E. Not used in patients with congestive heart failure
    Explanation
    Theophylline is not used in patients with congestive heart failure because it can worsen the condition by increasing heart rate and causing fluid retention.

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  • 21. 

    The half-life of theophylline is:

    • A.

      Decreased by erythromycin

    • B.

      Increased by cimetidine

    • C.

      Increased by oral contraceptives

    • D.

      Increased by phenytoin

    • E.

      Decreased by carbamazepin

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Increased by cimetidine
    C. Increased by oral contraceptives
    E. Decreased by carbamazepin
    Explanation
    Cimetidine and oral contraceptives are known to inhibit the metabolism of theophylline, leading to increased levels of the drug in the body. This results in a longer half-life for theophylline. On the other hand, carbamazepine is known to induce the metabolism of theophylline, leading to decreased levels of the drug in the body and a shorter half-life. Therefore, theophylline's half-life is increased by cimetidine and oral contraceptives, and decreased by carbamazepine.

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  • 22. 

    Glucocorticoids  are:

    • A.

      Bronchodilators with a large effect on early-phase response

    • B.

      Not bronchodilators, are not effective in the treatment of the early response to the eliciting agent

    • C.

      Administered by inhalation they are extremely powerful anti-inflammatory drugs.

    • D.

      Considered as first-line drugs in asthma prophylaxis, for all but the mildest cases

    • E.

      For severe asthma an oral glucocorticoid is indicated

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Not bronchodilators, are not effective in the treatment of the early response to the eliciting agent
    C. Administered by inhalation they are extremely powerful anti-inflammatory drugs.
    D. Considered as first-line drugs in asthma prophylaxis, for all but the mildest cases
    E. For severe asthma an oral glucocorticoid is indicated
    Explanation
    Glucocorticoids are not bronchodilators and are not effective in treating the early response to the eliciting agent. However, when administered by inhalation, they are extremely powerful anti-inflammatory drugs. They are considered first-line drugs in asthma prophylaxis for all but the mildest cases. For severe asthma, an oral glucocorticoid is indicated.

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  • 23. 

    Glucocorticoids given by inhalation:

    • A.

      Can cause oropharyngeal candidiasis

    • B.

      In low doses cause adrenal suppression

    • C.

      Are administered 2-4times daily

    • D.

      Involve budesonide, beclomethasone

    • E.

      Involve hydrocortisone, prednisolone , methylprednisolone

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Can cause oropharyngeal candidiasis
    C. Are administered 2-4times daily
    D. Involve budesonide, beclomethasone
    Explanation
    Glucocorticoids given by inhalation can cause oropharyngeal candidiasis, a fungal infection in the mouth and throat. This is because inhalation of glucocorticoids can suppress the immune system in the oropharyngeal area, allowing for the overgrowth of candida fungus. These medications are also typically administered 2-4 times daily to maintain their therapeutic effect. Budesonide and beclomethasone are examples of glucocorticoids commonly used for inhalation therapy. Hydrocortisone, prednisolone, and methylprednisolone are not typically administered via inhalation.

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  • Sep 11, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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