24 Questions
| Attempts: 68

Chapter 18 Reaction Rates and Equilibrium Part 2 3/13/11

Questions and Answers

- 1.Does entropy tend to increase or decrease in chemical reactions in which the total number of product molecules is greater than the total number of reactant molecules? ______________________
- A.
Entropy decreases

- B.
Entropy increases

- C.
Entropy stays the same

- 2.Entropy tends to ______________________ when temperature increases.
- A.
Increase

- B.
Decrease

- C.
Stay the same

- 3.What determines whether a reaction is spontaneous?
- A.
The size and direction of heat (enthalpy) changes and entropy changes together determine whether a reaction is spontaneous.

- B.
The size and direction of moisture(enthalpy) changes and entropy changes together determine whether a reaction is spontaneous.

- C.
The size and amount of heat (enthalpy) changes and entropy changes together determine whether a reaction is spontaneous.

- 4.Why is an exothermic reaction accompanied by an increase in entropy considered a spontaneous reaction?
- A.
Because both factors are favorable too many

- B.
Because both factors are not favorable

- C.
Because both factors are favorable

- 5.A nonspontaneous reaction, one in which the products are __________, has heat changes, entropy changes, or both working against it.
- A.
Not favored

- B.
Favored

- C.
Small

- 6.What is the symbol for entropy and what are the units?
- A.
J; P/S

- B.
R; J/P

- C.
S; J/K

- 7.The standard entropy of a liquid or solid substance at 25 °C is designated as ______________________ .
- A.
S exponent 0

- B.
S exponent 9

- C.
S exponent 4

- 8.What is the pressure at
*S exponent*0 for gaseous substances?- A.
101.9 kPa

- B.
101.3 kPa

- C.
101.6 kPa

- 9.The theoretical entropy of a perfect crystal at 0 K is ____________.
- A.
-0

- B.
4

- C.
0

- 10.What is the equation used to calculate standard entropy change (triangle
*S exponent*0)?- A.
ΔS0 =S exponent 1 (products) - S exponent -1 (reactants)

- B.
ΔS0 =S exponent 0 (products) - S exponent -0 (reactants)

- C.
ΔS0 =S exponent 0 (products) - S exponent 0 (reactants)

- 11.What is the standard entropy of calcium carbonate (CaCO3)?
- A.
98.7 J/Kmol

- B.
88.7 J/Kmol

- C.
108.7 J/Kmol

- 12.The Gibbs free-energy change (
*Δ**G*) is the maximum amount of energy that can be coupled to another process to do useful- A.
Work

- B.
Rest

- C.
Product

- 13.What is the equation used to calculate the Gibbs free-energy change?
- A.
ΔG = ΔH =TΔS, where ΔH is the change in enthalpy, ΔS is the change in entropy, and temperature (T) is in kelvins.

- B.
ΔG = ΔH =TΔS, where ΔH is the no change in enthalpy, ΔS is the change in entropy, and temperature (T) is in kelvins.

- C.
ΔG = ΔH =TΔS, where ΔH is the small change in enthalpy, ΔS is the change in entropy, and temperature (T) is in kelvins.

- 14.The numerical value of Δ
*G*is _____________________ in spontaneous processes because the system loses free energy; the numerical value of Δ*G*is _____________________ in nonspontaneous processes because the system requires that work be expended to make them go forward at the specified conditions.- A.
Negative, positive

- B.
Positive, negative

- C.
Both negative, positive and positive, negative

- 15.What is the equation used to calculate the standard free-energy change (
*Δ**G exponent*0) of a chemical reaction?- A.
ΔGexponent0 = ΔH exponent 0=TΔS0, where ΔH exponent 0 and ΔS exponent 0 are known, and the temperature (T) is in kelvins.

- B.
ΔG exponent 0 = ΔHexponent0=TΔSexponent 0, where ΔHexponent 0 and ΔSexponent 0 are unknown, and the temperature (T) is in kelvins.

- C.
ΔG exponent 0 = ΔH exponent 0=TΔS exponent 0, where ΔH exponent 0 and ΔS exponent 0 are known, and the temperature (T) is in kelvins.

- 16.How do you calculate the standard free-energy change (
*Δ**G exponent*0) of a chemical reaction when Δ*H exponent*0 and*ΔS**exponent*0 are unknown?- A.
You use ΔG exponent 0 f , the standard free-energy change for the formation of substances from their elements. The formula is ΔG0 = ΔG exponet 0 f (products) = ΔG exponent0 f (reactants).

- B.
You use ΔG exponent 0 f , the standard free-energy no change for the formation of substances from their elements. The formula is ΔG0 = ΔG exponet 0 f (products) = ΔG exponent0 f (reactants).

- C.
You use ΔG exponent 0 t , the standard free-energy no change for the formation of substances from their elements. The formula is ΔG0 = ΔG exponet 0 f (products) = ΔG exponent0 f (reactants).

- 17.What is a one-step reaction?
- A.
It is a reaction with ore than one activated complex between the reactants and the products.

- B.
It is a reaction with only one activated complex between the reactants and the products.

- C.
It is a reaction with only one activated complex between the reactants and the heat.

- 18.What is a specific rate constant (
*k*) for a reaction?- A.
The constant is a proportionality constant relating the concentrations of chemical change to the rate of the reaction.

- B.
The constant is a proportionality constant relating the concentrations of reactants to the rate of the reaction.

- C.
The constant is a proportionality constant relating the concentrations of product to the rate of the reaction.

- 19.The ______________________ of a reaction is the power to which the concentration of a reactant must be raised to give the experimentally observed relationship between concentration and rate.
- A.
Product

- B.
Amount

- C.
Order

- 20.In a first-order reaction, the reaction rate is directly proportional to the concentration of _______ .
- A.
Two or more reactants

- B.
Both reactants and products

- C.
Only one reactant

- 21.
*How do you determine the actual kinetic order of a reaction?*- A.
The actual chemical order must be determined by experiment.

- B.
The actual kinetic order must be determined by experiment.

- C.
The actual potential order must be determined by experiment.

- 22.What is a reaction progress curve?
- A.
A reaction progress curve is a graph of all the energy changes that occur as reactants are converted to products.

- B.
A reaction progress curve is a graph of all the energy changes that occur as products are converted to reactants.

- C.
A reaction progress curve is a graph of all the energy changes that occur as kentic energy is converted to products.

- 23.A(n) ______________________ reaction is one in which reactants are converted to products in a single step.
- A.
Major

- B.
Elementary

- C.
Median

- 24.What is an intermediate product of a reaction?
- A.
It is a product of a reaction that becomes a reactant of same reaction.

- B.
It is a reaction of a product that becomes a reactant of another reaction.

- C.
It is a product of a reaction that becomes a reactant of another reaction.

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