Chapter 18 Reaction Rates and Equilibrium Part 2 3/13/11
Entropy decreases
Entropy increases
Entropy stays the same
Increase
Decrease
Stay the same
The size and direction of heat (enthalpy) changes and entropy changes together determine whether a reaction is spontaneous.
The size and direction of moisture(enthalpy) changes and entropy changes together determine whether a reaction is spontaneous.
The size and amount of heat (enthalpy) changes and entropy changes together determine whether a reaction is spontaneous.
Because both factors are favorable too many
Because both factors are not favorable
Because both factors are favorable
Not favored
Favored
Small
J; P/S
R; J/P
S; J/K
S exponent 0
S exponent 9
S exponent 4
101.9 kPa
101.3 kPa
101.6 kPa
-0
4
0
ΔS0 =S exponent 1 (products) - S exponent -1 (reactants)
ΔS0 =S exponent 0 (products) - S exponent -0 (reactants)
ΔS0 =S exponent 0 (products) - S exponent 0 (reactants)
98.7 J/Kmol
88.7 J/Kmol
108.7 J/Kmol
Work
Rest
Product
ΔG = ΔH =TΔS, where ΔH is the change in enthalpy, ΔS is the change in entropy, and temperature (T) is in kelvins.
ΔG = ΔH =TΔS, where ΔH is the no change in enthalpy, ΔS is the change in entropy, and temperature (T) is in kelvins.
ΔG = ΔH =TΔS, where ΔH is the small change in enthalpy, ΔS is the change in entropy, and temperature (T) is in kelvins.
Negative, positive
Positive, negative
Both negative, positive and positive, negative
ΔGexponent0 = ΔH exponent 0=TΔS0, where ΔH exponent 0 and ΔS exponent 0 are known, and the temperature (T) is in kelvins.
ΔG exponent 0 = ΔHexponent0=TΔSexponent 0, where ΔHexponent 0 and ΔSexponent 0 are unknown, and the temperature (T) is in kelvins.
ΔG exponent 0 = ΔH exponent 0=TΔS exponent 0, where ΔH exponent 0 and ΔS exponent 0 are known, and the temperature (T) is in kelvins.
You use ΔG exponent 0 f , the standard free-energy change for the formation of substances from their elements. The formula is ΔG0 = ΔG exponet 0 f (products) = ΔG exponent0 f (reactants).
You use ΔG exponent 0 f , the standard free-energy no change for the formation of substances from their elements. The formula is ΔG0 = ΔG exponet 0 f (products) = ΔG exponent0 f (reactants).
You use ΔG exponent 0 t , the standard free-energy no change for the formation of substances from their elements. The formula is ΔG0 = ΔG exponet 0 f (products) = ΔG exponent0 f (reactants).
It is a reaction with ore than one activated complex between the reactants and the products.
It is a reaction with only one activated complex between the reactants and the products.
It is a reaction with only one activated complex between the reactants and the heat.
The constant is a proportionality constant relating the concentrations of chemical change to the rate of the reaction.
The constant is a proportionality constant relating the concentrations of reactants to the rate of the reaction.
The constant is a proportionality constant relating the concentrations of product to the rate of the reaction.
Product
Amount
Order
Two or more reactants
Both reactants and products
Only one reactant
The actual chemical order must be determined by experiment.
The actual kinetic order must be determined by experiment.
The actual potential order must be determined by experiment.
A reaction progress curve is a graph of all the energy changes that occur as reactants are converted to products.
A reaction progress curve is a graph of all the energy changes that occur as products are converted to reactants.
A reaction progress curve is a graph of all the energy changes that occur as kentic energy is converted to products.
Major
Elementary
Median
It is a product of a reaction that becomes a reactant of same reaction.
It is a reaction of a product that becomes a reactant of another reaction.
It is a product of a reaction that becomes a reactant of another reaction.