Quiz Over Chapter 17 Microbiology

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Quiz Over Chapter 17 Microbiology - Quiz


Microbiology is a branch of the scientific topic of biology wherein we take a closer look at some of the organisms that the naked eye itself can’t provide a lot of information on – those bacteria, fungi, viruses and more which need to be looked at and analysed with a microscope.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The ability of the body to specifically react to a microbial infection. It usually includes a memory component & is acquired during the life of the individual.

    Explanation
    Adaptive immunity refers to the body's ability to specifically respond to a microbial infection. It is characterized by the presence of memory cells that allow for a faster and more effective response upon subsequent encounters with the same pathogen. This type of immunity is acquired throughout an individual's life, as they are exposed to different pathogens and develop immune responses against them. Adaptive immunity plays a crucial role in protecting the body against various infections and is a key component of the immune system.

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  • 2. 

    Glycoprotein that reacts with (binds to) antigen

    Explanation
    An antibody is a glycoprotein that reacts with (binds to) antigens. Antibodies are produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, known as antigens, in the body. When an antibody binds to an antigen, it can neutralize or eliminate the antigen, preventing it from causing harm. This binding interaction is highly specific, with each antibody recognizing and binding to a particular antigen. Therefore, the given answer correctly describes the function and characteristics of an antibody.

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  • 3. 

    Have at least two binding sites for antigens; valence= number of binding sites

    Explanation
    Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of antigens. They have at least two binding sites for antigens, which allows them to bind to multiple antigens simultaneously. The valence of antibodies refers to the number of binding sites they possess. This means that antibodies can bind to multiple antigens at once, enhancing their ability to neutralize or eliminate pathogens.

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  • 4. 

    Recognize antigens in association with MHCs on APCs

    Explanation
    T cells are a type of immune cell that play a crucial role in recognizing and responding to antigens. Antigens are foreign substances that can trigger an immune response. T cells are able to recognize antigens in association with major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). MHCs are proteins that present antigens to T cells, allowing them to identify and respond to specific antigens. Therefore, the correct answer is T cells because they are responsible for recognizing antigens in association with MHCs on APCs.

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  • 5. 

    Based on functions & cell surface glycoproteins called CDs (clusters of differentiations)

    Explanation
    The correct answer refers to the different classes of T cells, which are distinguished based on their functions and the presence of specific cell surface glycoproteins called CDs (clusters of differentiations). T cells are a type of white blood cell that play a crucial role in the immune response. The classification of T cells into different classes helps to identify and understand their specific functions and roles in the immune system.

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  • 6. 

    Classified as CD4 which are adhesion molecules that bind to MHC class II molecules  on APCs; after binding APC, CD4 cells differentiate into Th1 and Th2 cells; Th1 cells secrete cytokines that stimulate other immune cells and also enable macrophages to degrade microbes that have invaded them; Th2 cells associated with parasitic infections and allergic reactions

    Explanation
    Helper T cells, also known as Th cells, are classified as CD4 cells because they express CD4, which is an adhesion molecule that binds to MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Once CD4 cells bind to APCs, they differentiate into Th1 and Th2 cells. Th1 cells secrete cytokines that stimulate other immune cells and help macrophages to degrade microbes that have invaded them. Th2 cells, on the other hand, are associated with parasitic infections and allergic reactions. Therefore, the correct answer is helper T cells (Th).

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  • 7. 

    Classified as CD8 which are adhesions that bind MHC class I molecules; when activated by Th cell, Tc cells become cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) which can lyse target cells (target cells have endogenous antigen combined with MHC molecule) or induce apoptosis; CTLs release perforin, then granzymes are allowed to enter cell 

    Explanation
    The correct answer is cytotoxic T cells (Tc). Cytotoxic T cells, also known as CTLs, are a subset of T cells that have the ability to kill infected or abnormal cells. They are classified as CD8 cells because they express the CD8 protein on their surface, which allows them to bind to MHC class I molecules on target cells. When activated by helper T cells (Th cells), Tc cells become cytotoxic and release perforin, a protein that forms pores in the target cell's membrane. This allows granzymes, enzymes that induce apoptosis, to enter the target cell and cause its death.

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  • 8. 

    Appear to suppress other T cells

    Explanation
    Regulatory T cells (Tr) are a subset of T cells that play a crucial role in the immune response by suppressing the activity of other T cells. They help maintain immune tolerance and prevent excessive immune reactions that could lead to autoimmune diseases or allergies. By suppressing the activity of other T cells, regulatory T cells help regulate the immune system and prevent it from attacking the body's own tissues. Therefore, it can be inferred that regulatory T cells appear to suppress other T cells.

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  • 9. 

    Chemicals by which cells of immune system communicate with each other

    Explanation
    Cytokines are chemicals that allow cells of the immune system to communicate with each other. They are secreted by immune cells and act as signaling molecules, coordinating the response of the immune system to infections or other challenges. Cytokines can stimulate or suppress the activity of immune cells, regulate inflammation, and promote the recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection or injury. Overall, cytokines play a crucial role in maintaining immune system function and orchestrating the complex immune response.

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  • 10. 

    1st encounter with pathogen (antigen); appearance of IgM, followed by IgG; antibody increase is slow

    Explanation
    This answer refers to the immune response that occurs during the first encounter with a pathogen. When the pathogen (antigen) enters the body, the immune system produces antibodies called IgM, which are the first line of defense. As the immune response progresses, IgG antibodies are also produced. However, during the initial encounter, the antibody increase is slow because the immune system is still learning to recognize and respond to the pathogen. This immune response is known as the primary response. The term "memory" is also mentioned, indicating that the immune system will remember the pathogen and mount a faster and stronger response upon subsequent encounters.

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  • 11. 

    More rapid; IgM production same as in primary response, but there is a rapid rise in IgG due to memory cell activity; antibody peak in 2-7 deays

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "memory; secondary response." This is because in a secondary immune response, the body already has memory cells from a previous exposure to the antigen. These memory cells can quickly recognize and respond to the antigen, leading to a more rapid production of antibodies. In this case, the IgM production remains the same as in the primary response, but there is a rapid rise in IgG antibodies due to the activity of memory cells. The peak of antibody production occurs within 2-7 days.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 15, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 09, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Mmcloninger
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