11 Questions |
By Mmcloninger | Last updated: Jan 3, 2019
| Total Attempts: 53
Microbiology is a branch of the scientific topic of biology wherein we take a closer look at some of the organisms that the naked eye itself can’t provide a lot of information on – those bacteria, fungi, viruses and more which need to be looked at and analysed with a microscope.
The ability of the body to specifically react to a microbial infection. It usually includes a memory component & is acquired during the life of the individual.
Glycoprotein that reacts with (binds to) antigen
Have at least two binding sites for antigens; valence= number of binding sites
Recognize antigens in association with MHCs on APCs
Based on functions & cell surface glycoproteins called CDs (clusters of differentiations)
Classified as CD4 which are adhesion molecules that bind to MHC class II molecules on APCs; after binding APC, CD4 cells differentiate into Th1 and Th2 cells; Th1 cells secrete cytokines that stimulate other immune cells and also enable macrophages to degrade microbes that have invaded them; Th2 cells associated with parasitic infections and allergic reactions
Classified as CD8 which are adhesions that bind MHC class I molecules; when activated by Th cell, Tc cells become cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) which can lyse target cells (target cells have endogenous antigen combined with MHC molecule) or induce apoptosis; CTLs release perforin, then granzymes are allowed to enter cell
Appear to suppress other T cells
Chemicals by which cells of immune system communicate with each other
1st encounter with pathogen (antigen); appearance of IgM, followed by IgG; antibody increase is slow
More rapid; IgM production same as in primary response, but there is a rapid rise in IgG due to memory cell activity; antibody peak in 2-7 deays