A Microbiology Quiz For Learners! Trivia Questions

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A Microbiology Quiz For Learners! Trivia Questions - Quiz

Are you a microbiology student and are looking for some way to test out what you have understood in your classes so far? The quiz below is exactly what the doctor prescribed and will ensure that you have a smooth transition when it comes to sitting for your finals by showing you how questions are structured. Do give it a shot and all the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The scientific study of organisms with the ultimate goal of characterizing and arranging them in an orderly manner is  

    • A.

      Taxonomy

    • B.

      Classification

    • C.

      Systematics

    • D.

      Identification

    Correct Answer
    C. Systematics
    Explanation
    Systematics is the correct answer because it refers to the scientific study of organisms with the goal of characterizing and arranging them in an orderly manner. This involves identifying and classifying organisms based on their similarities and differences, and understanding their evolutionary relationships. Taxonomy and classification are closely related terms that are part of the broader field of systematics, while identification refers to the process of recognizing and naming individual organisms.

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  • 2. 

    The assignment of names to taxonomic groups is referred to as  

    • A.

      Taxonomy

    • B.

      Nomenclature

    • C.

      Systematics

    • D.

      Identification

    Correct Answer
    B. Nomenclature
    Explanation
    The assignment of names to taxonomic groups is referred to as nomenclature. Nomenclature involves the process of naming and classifying organisms based on a set of rules and guidelines. It ensures that each organism is given a unique and standardized name, allowing for clear communication and understanding among scientists. Taxonomy, systematics, and identification are related concepts, but they do not specifically refer to the assignment of names.

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  • 3. 

    The determination of the taxon to which an organism belongs is called  

    • A.

      Taxonomy

    • B.

      Classification

    • C.

      Systematics

    • D.

      Identification

    Correct Answer
    D. Identification
    Explanation
    Identification refers to the process of determining the taxon or group to which an organism belongs. It involves examining various characteristics and traits of the organism to classify it into a specific category. This process helps in understanding the relationships and similarities between different organisms and is an important aspect of taxonomy, classification, and systematics.

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  • 4. 

    The science dealing with classification is called  

    • A.

      Taxonomy

    • B.

      Nomenclature

    • C.

      Systematics

    • D.

      Identification

    Correct Answer
    A. Taxonomy
    Explanation
    Taxonomy is the science that deals with the classification of organisms. It involves organizing and categorizing living things into different groups based on their similarities and differences. Taxonomists use various characteristics such as morphology, genetics, and behavior to determine the relationships between organisms and assign them to specific taxonomic ranks. This classification system helps scientists in understanding the diversity of life on Earth and studying the evolutionary relationships between different species.

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  • 5. 

    The arrangement of organisms into groups is best described as  

    • A.

      Taxonomy

    • B.

      Classification

    • C.

      Systematics

    • D.

      Identification

    Correct Answer
    B. Classification
    Explanation
    The arrangement of organisms into groups is best described as classification. Classification involves organizing organisms into categories based on their shared characteristics. It helps scientists understand the relationships between different species and allows for easier identification and study of organisms. Taxonomy and systematics are related fields that also involve the classification of organisms, but they focus more on the naming and evolutionary relationships between species. Identification is a process within classification that involves recognizing and naming individual organisms.

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  • 6. 

     A classification system based on mutual similarity that involves comparing as many characteristics as possible is called a __________ system.  

    • A.

      Phylogenetic

    • B.

      Phyletic

    • C.

      Phenetic

    • D.

      Determinative systematic

    Correct Answer
    C. Phenetic
    Explanation
    A classification system based on mutual similarity that involves comparing as many characteristics as possible is called a phenetic system. This system focuses on the overall similarity between organisms without considering their evolutionary relationships. It aims to group organisms based on their observable characteristics rather than their shared ancestry.

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  • 7. 

     A classification system based on evolutionary relationships is called a __________ system.  

    • A.

      Phylogenetic

    • B.

      Phenetic

    • C.

      Systematic

    • D.

      Determinative

    Correct Answer
    A. Phylogenetic
    Explanation
    A classification system based on evolutionary relationships is called a phylogenetic system. This type of system organizes organisms based on their shared ancestry and evolutionary history. It groups organisms into categories based on their genetic similarities and common ancestors. By using phylogenetic analysis, scientists can understand the relationships between different species and how they have evolved over time. This helps in understanding the diversity and evolutionary patterns in the natural world.

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  • 8. 

     Which of the following is useful in biological systematics?  

    • A.

      Physiology

    • B.

      Epidemiology

    • C.

      Ecology

    • D.

      All of the choices

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the choices
    Explanation
    Biological systematics involves the classification and organization of organisms based on their evolutionary relationships. Physiology is useful in biological systematics as it helps in understanding the functions and processes of different organisms. Epidemiology, the study of the patterns, causes, and effects of diseases in populations, is also relevant in biological systematics as it provides insights into the impact of diseases on different organisms. Ecology, the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment, is essential in understanding the habitats and niches of different organisms, which is crucial for their classification. Therefore, all of the choices (physiology, epidemiology, and ecology) are useful in biological systematics.

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  • 9. 

    A general term used to describe groups based on mutual similarity or evolutionary relatedness is  

    • A.

      Class

    • B.

      Taxa

    • C.

      System

    • D.

      Group

    Correct Answer
    B. Taxa
    Explanation
    Taxa is the correct answer because it is a general term used to describe groups based on mutual similarity or evolutionary relatedness. It is commonly used in the field of biology to classify organisms into different categories or levels, such as kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. Taxa helps in organizing and categorizing organisms based on their shared characteristics and evolutionary relationships.

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  • 10. 

    Microorganisms do not generally reproduce sexually; therefore, species are usually defined by phenotypic and genotypic similarities.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, typically reproduce asexually through processes like binary fission or budding. This means that they do not exchange genetic material with another organism to produce offspring. As a result, species of microorganisms are often identified and classified based on their observable characteristics (phenotypes) and genetic similarities (genotypes). Therefore, the statement that microorganisms do not generally reproduce sexually and are defined by phenotypic and genotypic similarities is true.

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  • 11. 

    In an approach called __________ taxonomy, relatedness is determined by a wide range of phenotypic and genotypic information.  

    Correct Answer
    polyphasic
    Explanation
    In the polyphasic taxonomy approach, relatedness is determined by considering a wide range of phenotypic and genotypic information. This means that multiple characteristics and genetic factors are taken into account to determine the relationship between different organisms. This approach allows for a more comprehensive understanding of the similarities and differences between species, leading to a more accurate classification system.

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  • 12. 

    A population descending from a single organism or pure culture isolate is called a  

    • A.

      Genus

    • B.

      Species

    • C.

      Subspecies

    • D.

      Strain

    Correct Answer
    D. Strain
    Explanation
    A population descending from a single organism or pure culture isolate is called a strain. This term is commonly used in microbiology to refer to a specific group of microorganisms that share similar genetic characteristics and are derived from a common ancestor. Strains can differ in various phenotypic and genotypic traits, such as their ability to metabolize certain substances or their susceptibility to antibiotics. The concept of strains is important in studying microbial diversity and understanding the evolution and adaptation of microorganisms.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is an example of the use of the binomial system devised by Linnaeus?  

    • A.

      Escherichia coli

    • B.

      Enterobacteriaceae

    • C.

      Enterobacteriales

    • D.

      O157:H7

    Correct Answer
    A. Escherichia coli
    Explanation
    Escherichia coli is an example of the use of the binomial system devised by Linnaeus because it follows the naming convention of genus (Escherichia) and species (coli). Linnaeus developed the binomial system of nomenclature to provide a standardized way of naming and classifying organisms. This system assigns each organism a unique two-part scientific name based on its genus and species, allowing for easier identification and classification. Escherichia coli follows this naming convention, making it an example of the use of the binomial system.

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  • 14. 

    The organisms in which of the following are more closely related?  

    • A.

      Order

    • B.

      Family

    • C.

      Class

    • D.

      Phylum

    Correct Answer
    B. Family
    Explanation
    Organisms within the same family are more closely related compared to organisms in different families. Family is a taxonomic rank that groups together organisms that share common characteristics and have descended from a common ancestor. It is a higher rank than order, class, and phylum, indicating a closer relationship between the organisms within the same family.

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  • 15. 

    The binomial system of nomenclature assigns each organism a scientific name consisting of  

    • A.

      Species and strain.

    • B.

      Kingdom and species.

    • C.

      Genus and species.

    • D.

      Kingdom and genus.

    Correct Answer
    C. Genus and species.
    Explanation
    The binomial system of nomenclature assigns each organism a scientific name consisting of genus and species. This system was developed by Carl Linnaeus in the 18th century and is still used today. The genus is a broader category that groups similar organisms together, while the species is a more specific category that distinguishes one organism from another within the same genus. By using both the genus and species names, scientists can accurately identify and classify organisms.

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  • 16. 

    Serovars are strains of a species that have distinctive antigenic properties.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Serovars are indeed strains of a species that have distinctive antigenic properties. This means that different strains of the same species can have different surface antigens, which allows them to be differentiated and classified into different serovars. This is important in the field of microbiology and epidemiology, as it helps in identifying and tracking the spread of infectious diseases caused by different strains of the same species.

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  • 17. 

    Microbial species are collections of strains that share many stable properties in common but differ significantly from other strains.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Microbial species are indeed collections of strains that have several stable properties in common. These properties can include genetic, physiological, and ecological characteristics. These shared traits distinguish them from other strains and help classify them into distinct species. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 18. 

     The type strain is a well-characterized strain to which other strains are compared for inclusion in or exclusion from a particular species.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the type strain serves as a reference strain for a particular species. It is extensively studied and well-characterized, allowing it to be used as a standard for comparison with other strains. The characteristics of the type strain are used to define the species, and any new strains must be compared to the type strain to determine if they belong to the same species or not.

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  • 19. 

     The type strain is the most representative strain of a particular species.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given answer is that the statement is true. The type strain is indeed the most representative strain of a particular species. It is used as a reference strain for taxonomic purposes and serves as a standard for identifying and characterizing other strains within the same species.

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  • 20. 

    Bacterial strains that are characterized by biochemical differences are called __________.  

    Correct Answer
    biovars
    Explanation
    Biovars are bacterial strains that are characterized by biochemical differences. These differences can be observed in their metabolic activities, such as the ability to utilize certain substrates or produce specific enzymes. Biovars are used to classify bacteria within a species based on their distinct biochemical profiles. This classification helps in understanding the diversity and variability within bacterial populations and can provide valuable information for medical, agricultural, and environmental purposes.

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  • 21. 

     Bacterial strains that have distinct antigenic properties are called __________.  

    Correct Answer
    serovars
    Explanation
    Bacterial strains that have distinct antigenic properties are called serovars. Serovars are subgroups within a species of bacteria that are differentiated based on their unique surface antigens. These antigens can be used to classify and identify different strains of bacteria, allowing for more specific and accurate characterization. Serovars are commonly used in medical and epidemiological studies to track the spread of bacterial infections and to develop targeted vaccines and treatments.

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  • 22. 

    The general order of classification below the domain or kingdom level is  

    • A.

       phyla, order, class, family, genus, species.

    • B.

       phyla, order, family, class, genus, species.

    • C.

       phyla, class, family, order, genus, species.


    • D.

      Phyla, class, order, family, genus, species.

    Correct Answer
    D. Phyla, class, order, family, genus, species.
    Explanation
    The general order of classification below the domain or kingdom level is phyla, class, order, family, genus, species. This is because classification starts with the broadest category, which is the phyla, and then becomes more specific as you move down the hierarchy. The class comes after the phyla, followed by the order, family, genus, and species. This hierarchical system allows for the organization and categorization of organisms based on their similarities and differences.

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  • 23. 

    Mole percent (G+C) of DNA is useful for determining relatedness at the __________ level.  

    • A.

      Kingdom

    • B.

      Class

    • C.

      Genus

    • D.

      None of the choices

    Correct Answer
    C. Genus
    Explanation
    The mole percent (G+C) of DNA is useful for determining relatedness at the genus level because it provides information about the genetic composition of organisms. By comparing the mole percent (G+C) of DNA between different organisms, scientists can assess the similarity or dissimilarity of their genetic makeup. This can help in classifying organisms into different taxonomic groups, such as genus, based on their genetic relatedness.

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  • 24. 

    Stable annealing due to hydrogen bonding between DNAs of similar nucleotide sequence from different organisms is referred to as  

    • A.

      Hydrolysis

    • B.

      Restriction

    • C.

      Hybridization

    • D.

      Ligation

    Correct Answer
    C. Hybridization
    Explanation
    Hybridization refers to the stable annealing process that occurs due to hydrogen bonding between DNA molecules with similar nucleotide sequences from different organisms. This process allows for the formation of hybrid DNA molecules, which can be used in various applications such as DNA sequencing, genetic engineering, and DNA fingerprinting.

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  • 25. 

    The temperature at which half of the strands of a double-stranded DNA molecule have separated from each other is called the __________ temperature.  

    • A.

      Separation

    • B.

      Melting

    • C.

      Destabilizing

    • D.

      Mobilization

    Correct Answer
    B. Melting
    Explanation
    The temperature at which half of the strands of a double-stranded DNA molecule have separated from each other is called the melting temperature. This is because at this temperature, the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs of the DNA molecule break, causing the strands to separate or "melt" apart.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following is not true about the G + C content percentages in DNA of organisms?  

    • A.

      Organisms with similar G + C percentages have similar base sequences.

    • B.

      Organisms with different G + C percentages have dissimilar base sequences.

    • C.

      Similar G + C percentages only suggests relatedness if the two organisms are also alike phenotypically. 


    • D.

      All of these are true about the G + C percentages of organisms.

    Correct Answer
    A. Organisms with similar G + C percentages have similar base sequences.
    Explanation
    Similar G + C percentages only suggests relatedness if the two organisms are also alike phenotypically.

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  • 27. 

    Conserved indels are  

    • A.

      a type of transposable sequence characteristic of particular genus and useful for taxonomic analysis

    • B.

      sequences in eukaryotic mRNAs that are removed by RNA splicing

    • C.

      a type of signature sequence particularly useful for phylogenetic analysis 


    • D.

      Sequences of protein coding genes that are found altered in related species due to their tendency to accumulate small deletions

    Correct Answer
    C. a type of signature sequence particularly useful for phylogenetic analysis 

    Explanation
    Conserved indels are a type of signature sequence particularly useful for phylogenetic analysis. These indels are insertions or deletions of nucleotides or amino acids that are conserved among related species. By comparing the presence or absence of these indels in different species, scientists can determine their evolutionary relationships and construct phylogenetic trees. This method is especially valuable when other genetic markers are not available or are not informative enough.

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  • 28. 

    The analysis of genetic relatedness by observing the DNA fragmentation patterns resulting from restriction endonuclease cleavage is referred to as  

    • A.

      Genetic fingerprinting

    • B.

      Genetic patterning.

    • C.

      Genetic restriction.

    • D.

      None of the choices

    Correct Answer
    A. Genetic fingerprinting
    Explanation
    Genetic fingerprinting is the correct answer because it refers to the analysis of genetic relatedness using DNA fragmentation patterns resulting from restriction endonuclease cleavage. This technique involves cutting DNA at specific sites using restriction enzymes and then separating the resulting fragments using gel electrophoresis. By comparing the patterns of DNA fragments, scientists can determine the genetic similarities and differences between individuals or species. This method is commonly used in forensic science, paternity testing, and studying genetic diversity.

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  • 29. 

     rRNA signature sequences can be used to place microorganisms in the correct domain.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    rRNA signature sequences are highly conserved regions of ribosomal RNA that can be used to identify and classify microorganisms. These sequences are unique to each domain of life (Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya), allowing scientists to determine which domain a particular microorganism belongs to. By comparing the rRNA signature sequences of an unknown microorganism to a database of known sequences, researchers can accurately place the microorganism in the correct domain. Therefore, the statement that rRNA signature sequences can be used to place microorganisms in the correct domain is true.

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  • 30. 

    The G + C content of a DNA sample can be estimated from its TM of a DNA.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The G + C content of a DNA sample can be estimated from its TM (melting temperature) because the TM is influenced by the percentage of G + C base pairs in the DNA. G + C base pairs have three hydrogen bonds, while A + T base pairs have only two hydrogen bonds. Therefore, a higher G + C content in the DNA sample will result in a higher melting temperature. By measuring the TM, scientists can estimate the G + C content of the DNA sample.

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  • 31. 

    Conjugation is useful for determining relatedness between bacteria at the species level because it never occurs between organisms of different genera.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Conjugation is a process of genetic exchange between bacteria where a plasmid is transferred from one bacterium to another. This process can occur between bacteria of the same species or even between different species. Therefore, it is not accurate to say that conjugation never occurs between organisms of different genera. Thus, the given statement is false.

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  • 32. 

    Phylogenetic trees are usually constructed using either a distance-based ___________ approach, or a characteristic _________ approach.  (answer, answer)  

    Correct Answer
    phenetic, cladistic
    Explanation
    Phylogenetic trees are constructed using either a distance-based phenetic approach or a characteristic cladistic approach. The phenetic approach focuses on measuring the overall similarity between species based on their observable traits, such as physical characteristics or DNA sequences. In contrast, the cladistic approach emphasizes the identification of shared derived characteristics, known as synapomorphies, to determine evolutionary relationships. This approach aims to create a tree that reflects the true evolutionary history of species by grouping them based on their unique shared characteristics.

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  • 33. 

    An unrooted tree containing four unrelated species can become rooted by adding  

    • A.

      A descendant group related to two of the species

    • B.

      An unrelated outgroup 


    • C.

      A distantly related outgroup

    • D.

      A descendant related to only one of the species

    Correct Answer
    C. A distantly related outgroup
    Explanation
    Adding a distantly related outgroup to the unrooted tree containing four unrelated species can help root the tree. The outgroup is distantly related to the four species, meaning it shares a common ancestor with them but is not closely related. By adding this outgroup, the root of the tree can be determined based on the shared ancestry between the outgroup and the four species. This allows for the establishment of a hierarchical relationship among the species and helps in understanding their evolutionary history.

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  • 34. 

     Phylogenetic trees show inferred evolutionary relationships in the form of multiple branching lineages connected by nodes.    

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Phylogenetic trees are graphical representations that depict the evolutionary relationships between different species or groups of organisms. These trees consist of branching lineages that represent the common ancestors and descendants of various organisms. The nodes in the tree represent the points at which these lineages diverged. Therefore, it is true that phylogenetic trees show inferred evolutionary relationships in the form of multiple branching lineages connected by nodes.

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  • 35. 

    Transformation is not useful in determining relatedness between two organisms because it frequently crosses genera.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Transformation is a process by which genetic material is transferred between organisms. It is a useful tool in determining the relatedness between two organisms because it allows for the transfer of genetic information, including DNA sequences, between different species. This can provide insights into evolutionary relationships and genetic similarities between organisms. Therefore, the statement that transformation is not useful in determining relatedness between two organisms is false.

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  • 36. 

    The _____________ hypothesis proposes that mitochondria and chloroplasts developed from free-living prokaryotes that invaded a precursor to the eukaryotes and established a stable relationship.  

    Correct Answer
    endosymbiotic
    Explanation
    The endosymbiotic hypothesis suggests that mitochondria and chloroplasts originated from free-living prokaryotes that invaded a precursor to the eukaryotes and formed a symbiotic relationship. This theory explains the presence of these organelles in eukaryotic cells and their similarities to prokaryotes, such as their own DNA and ability to replicate independently. The endosymbiotic hypothesis is widely accepted and supported by evidence such as the similarities in genetic material and membrane structure between mitochondria/chloroplasts and prokaryotes.

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  • 37. 

    Chromosomal gene exchange is not useful in classification studies because prokaryotes do not reproduce sexually.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Chromosomal gene exchange is actually useful in classification studies because it allows for genetic variation and the transfer of beneficial traits between organisms. This process, known as horizontal gene transfer, is common in prokaryotes and can contribute to their evolution and adaptation to different environments. Therefore, the statement that chromosomal gene exchange is not useful in classification studies is false.

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  • 38. 

     Extensive horizontal gene transfer between domains greatly simplifies the construction of phylogenetic trees.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Horizontal gene transfer refers to the transfer of genetic material between different organisms, often from different species or even different domains. While horizontal gene transfer can complicate the construction of phylogenetic trees by introducing shared genetic material that does not reflect common ancestry, it does not simplify the process. In fact, it can make it more challenging to accurately determine the evolutionary relationships between organisms. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 39. 

     Numerical taxonomy was made practical with the advent of  

    • A.

      The compound microscope.


    • B.

      The electron microscope.

    • C.

      Computers

    • D.

      Nucleotide sequencing.

    Correct Answer
    C. Computers
    Explanation
    Numerical taxonomy, which involves classifying organisms based on numerical data, became practical with the advent of computers. Computers allowed for the efficient handling and analysis of large amounts of data, making it easier to perform calculations and comparisons necessary for numerical taxonomy. The use of computers in this field revolutionized the way organisms are classified and studied.

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  • 40. 

    Small, random genetic changes that occur over generations is known as  

    • A.

      Microgenesis

    • B.

      Progenesis

    • C.

      Degenesis

    • D.

      Anagenesis

    Correct Answer
    D. Anagenesis
    Explanation
    Anagenesis refers to the small, random genetic changes that occur over generations. It is a process of evolution where a species gradually changes and evolves into a new species over time. This can happen through accumulation of genetic mutations and variations, leading to the emergence of new traits and characteristics in the population. Anagenesis is different from speciation, which involves the branching off of a new species from an existing one.

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  • 41. 

     According to genome analysis, a member of the genus ______________is most closely related to the mitochondrion.  

    • A.

      Escherichia

    • B.

      Agrobacterium

    • C.

      Prochloron

    • D.

      Rickettsia

    Correct Answer
    D. Rickettsia
    Explanation
    Rickettsia is the correct answer because genome analysis has shown that it is the genus most closely related to the mitochondrion. This suggests a common ancestry or evolutionary relationship between Rickettsia and mitochondria.

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  • 42. 

    According to the endosymbiosis hypothesis  

    • A.

      The first endosymbiotic event involved an anaerobic bacterium. 


    • B.

      The first endosymbiont was a fermentative organism.

    • C.

        the mitochondrion evolved from the same endosymbiont as the hydrogenosome.

    • D.

      All of the choices

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the choices
    Explanation
    The correct answer is all of the choices. According to the endosymbiosis hypothesis, all of the statements mentioned in the answer are true. The first endosymbiotic event did involve an anaerobic bacterium, the first endosymbiont was a fermentative organism, and the mitochondrion did evolve from the same endosymbiont as the hydrogenosome.

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  • 43. 

    The ancestors of modern _______________ performed the oxygenic photosynthesis responsible for converting our anoxic planet to an oxygenated one.  

    • A.

      Crenarchaeota

    • B.

      Proteobacteria

    • C.

      Firmicutes

    • D.

      Cyanobacteria

    Correct Answer
    D. Cyanobacteria
    Explanation
    Cyanobacteria are the ancestors of modern organisms that performed oxygenic photosynthesis. This process was responsible for converting our planet from an anoxic (lacking oxygen) state to an oxygenated one. Cyanobacteria are known for their ability to produce oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis, and their ancient ancestors played a crucial role in shaping Earth's atmosphere and enabling the development of aerobic life forms.

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  • 44. 

     A theoretical concept that is used to understand how and why certain organisms can be sorted into discrete taxonomic groups is known as the  

    • A.

      Endosymbiotic theory.

    • B.

      Species concept.

    • C.

      Phylogenetic concept. 


    • D.

      Genotypic concept.

    Correct Answer
    B. Species concept.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "species concept." The species concept is a theoretical concept used to understand how and why certain organisms can be sorted into discrete taxonomic groups. It helps to define and classify different species based on their characteristics and evolutionary relationships. The species concept is an important tool in biology and taxonomy for studying and categorizing the diversity of life on Earth.

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  • 45. 

    The pace of evolution does not always occur at a constant rate but is periodically interrupted by rapid bursts of speciation; this is known as _________ ________.  (2 words)  

    Correct Answer
    punctuated equilibrium
    punctuated equillibrium
    Explanation
    Punctuated equilibrium refers to the theory that evolution does not always happen gradually and steadily, but rather in short bursts of rapid speciation followed by long periods of stability. This concept suggests that species remain relatively unchanged for extended periods of time, and then experience sudden periods of rapid diversification. This theory challenges the traditional view of evolution as a slow and gradual process, highlighting the importance of these punctuated bursts of change in shaping the diversity of life on Earth.

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  • 46. 

    Numerical taxonomy is based primarily on the percent DNA sequence homology.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Numerical taxonomy is not based primarily on the percent DNA sequence homology. It is a method of classification that uses various numerical techniques to analyze and compare different characteristics or traits of organisms in order to determine their relationships and create a taxonomy. DNA sequence homology is often used in molecular taxonomy, which is a different approach. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 47. 

     Which of the following is true about Bergey's Manual?  

    • A.

      The first edition is mostly phenetic while the second edition is more phylogenetic. 


    • B.

      The first edition is largely phylogenetic while the second edition is more phenetic.

    • C.

        The first and second editions are both largely phenetic. 


    • D.

      The first and second editions are both largely phylogenetic.

    Correct Answer
    A. The first edition is mostly phenetic while the second edition is more phylogenetic. 

    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the first edition of Bergey's Manual is mostly phenetic while the second edition is more phylogenetic. This means that the first edition focused more on the observable characteristics of organisms to classify them, while the second edition incorporated more information about evolutionary relationships and genetic data to classify organisms.

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  • 48. 

     Although there are other classification schemes for prokaryotes, the one used in Bergey's Manual is currently considered by most microbiologists to be the most .  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given answer is true because the classification scheme used in Bergey's Manual is widely recognized and accepted by most microbiologists as the most reliable and comprehensive system for classifying prokaryotes. It is a trusted reference in the field of microbiology and provides detailed information about the taxonomy and identification of prokaryotic organisms.

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  • 49. 

    The second edition of Bergey's Manual classifies bacteria  

    • A.

      Phylogenetically

    • B.

      Phonetically

    • C.

      Numerically

    • D.

      None of the choices

    Correct Answer
    A. Phylogenetically
    Explanation
    The second edition of Bergey's Manual classifies bacteria phylogenetically. Phylogenetic classification is a system that organizes organisms based on their evolutionary relationships and genetic similarities. This approach groups bacteria into different taxa based on their shared ancestry and genetic characteristics. This classification method allows scientists to understand the evolutionary history and relationships between different bacterial species, providing valuable information for studying their characteristics, behavior, and potential applications. Phonetically and numerically are not appropriate methods for classifying bacteria, and none of the choices is incorrect.

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  • 50. 

    The second edition of Bergey's manual groups pathogenic species together rather than in phylogenetic groups.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The second edition of Bergey's manual does not group pathogenic species together. Instead, it organizes species based on their phylogenetic relationships. Therefore, the statement is false.

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