Quiz Over Chapter 16 Microbiology

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| By Mmcloninger
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Mmcloninger
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Quizzes Created: 3 | Total Attempts: 927
Questions: 11 | Attempts: 235

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Microbiology Quizzes & Trivia

Welcome to the sixteenth chapter of our ongoing studies, where we’ll be looking at the wonderful topic of microbiology – the branch of the scientific study of biology wherein we take a closer look at some of the smaller organisms out there like bacteria, viruses and fungi.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Refers to all body defenses that protect the body against any invader; always present and respond rapidly; no memory component; includes 2 lines of defense: adaptive and toll-like receptors

    Explanation
    The given answer, innate (non specific) immunity, refers to the body's natural defense mechanisms that protect against any invader. It is always present and responds rapidly without the need for prior exposure. It does not have a memory component, meaning it does not remember specific pathogens. Innate immunity includes two lines of defense: the adaptive immune response, which targets specific pathogens, and toll-like receptors, which recognize and respond to specific molecules associated with pathogens.

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  • 2. 

    Physical factors

    • A.

      Skin

    • B.

      Mucous membranes

    • C.

      Lacrimal apparatus

    • D.

      Saliva

    • E.

      Hairs in nose

    • F.

      Urine flow

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Skin
    B. Mucous membranes
    C. Lacrimal apparatus
    D. Saliva
    E. Hairs in nose
    F. Urine flow
    Explanation
    The physical factors mentioned in the answer are all part of the body's defense mechanisms against pathogens. The skin acts as a barrier, preventing pathogens from entering the body. Mucous membranes, such as those in the respiratory and digestive systems, produce mucus that traps pathogens and prevents them from spreading. The lacrimal apparatus produces tears that contain enzymes and antibodies that can kill pathogens. Saliva contains antimicrobial enzymes that can help kill bacteria in the mouth. Hairs in the nose filter out particles and pathogens from the air we breathe. Urine flow helps to flush out any pathogens that may have entered the urinary system.

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  • 3. 

    Normal flora compete for nutrients, produce wastes or metabolic products that are harmful, or alter environment(pH, oxygen levels, etc.) all of which help prevent growth of potential pathogens refers to?

    Correct Answer(s)
    microbiota and innate immunity
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given answer is that the normal flora, also known as microbiota, compete with potential pathogens for nutrients, produce harmful waste products, and alter the environment in ways that are unfavorable for the growth of pathogens. This competition and alteration of the environment contribute to innate immunity, which is the body's first line of defense against pathogens. Therefore, the statement "Normal flora compete for nutrients, produce wastes or metabolic products that are harmful, or alter environment (pH, oxygen levels, etc.) all of which help prevent growth of potential pathogens" refers to microbiota and innate immunity.

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  • 4. 

    Chemical factors

    • A.

      Sebum

    • B.

      Perspiration

    • C.

      Lysozyme

    • D.

      Gastric juice

    • E.

      Lactoferrin

    • F.

      Peroxidase

    • G.

      Complement

    • H.

      Interferons

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Sebum
    B. Perspiration
    C. Lysozyme
    D. Gastric juice
    E. Lactoferrin
    F. Peroxidase
    G. Complement
    H. Interferons
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes various chemical factors that play a role in the body's defense against pathogens. Sebum is an oily substance secreted by the skin that helps create a barrier against bacteria. Perspiration contains antimicrobial peptides that can kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. Lysozyme is an enzyme found in tears, saliva, and mucus that can break down bacterial cell walls. Gastric juice, which includes hydrochloric acid, can kill many bacteria that are ingested. Lactoferrin, peroxidase, complement, and interferons are all components of the immune system that help fight against pathogens in different ways.

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  • 5. 

    Ingestion of microbe or other particle by a cell; cells that do this are called?

    Correct Answer(s)
    phagocytosis; phagocytes
    Explanation
    Phagocytosis refers to the process of a cell ingesting a microbe or particle. Cells that perform phagocytosis are known as phagocytes. This mechanism allows the cell to engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria or debris, in order to protect the body from infections and maintain tissue health. Phagocytes are an essential part of the immune system and play a crucial role in defending against pathogens.

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  • 6. 

    As monocytes migrate in infected area, they mature into fixed macrophages and wandering macrophages

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Monocytes are a type of white blood cell that can migrate to infected areas. Once they reach the infected area, they undergo maturation and differentiate into two types of macrophages: fixed macrophages and wandering macrophages. Fixed macrophages are stationary and reside in specific tissues, while wandering macrophages move freely throughout the body. Therefore, the statement that monocytes mature into fixed macrophages and wandering macrophages as they migrate to infected areas is true.

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  • 7. 

    A group of 30+ proteins that act in cascade fashion leading to amplified effect; increase vessel permeability, stimulate chemotaxis, cause cytolysis& enhance phagocytosis (through opsonization)

    • A.

      Complement

    • B.

      Antimicrobial substances

    Correct Answer
    A. Complement
    Explanation
    The complement system is a group of 30+ proteins that work together in a cascade fashion to produce an amplified effect. These proteins increase the permeability of blood vessels, stimulate the movement of immune cells towards the site of infection (chemotaxis), cause the destruction of cells (cytolysis), and enhance the process of phagocytosis through opsonization. Therefore, the complement system plays a crucial role in the immune response against microbial pathogens.

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  • 8. 

    Host regulatory proteins function as inhibitors and destructive enzymes in breaking down complement is the inactivation of a complement

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that host regulatory proteins play a role in inhibiting and breaking down the complement system. The complement system is a part of the immune system that helps in fighting infections. Therefore, if host regulatory proteins function as inhibitors and destructive enzymes, it would result in the inactivation of the complement system. Hence, the statement is true.

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  • 9. 

    Complement deficiencies cannot result in increased susceptibility to disease?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Complement deficiencies can result in increased susceptibility to disease. The complement system is a part of the immune system that helps to fight off infections. When there is a deficiency in the complement system, the body's ability to fight off infections is compromised, making individuals more susceptible to diseases. Therefore, the statement that complement deficiencies cannot result in increased susceptibility to disease is false.

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  • 10. 

    Antiviral proteins produced by host cells in response to viral infection; 3 types: alpha, beta, &gamma 

    Correct Answer
    interferons
    Explanation
    Interferons are antiviral proteins produced by host cells in response to viral infection. They come in three types: alpha, beta, and gamma. These proteins play a crucial role in the immune response against viruses by inhibiting viral replication and spreading to other cells. Interferons also enhance the activity of other immune cells, such as natural killer cells and macrophages, to help eliminate the virus. Overall, interferons are an important defense mechanism of the body against viral infections.

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  • 11. 

    Iron binding proteins found in blood, milk, saliva, & tears; reduce amount of iron available to bacteria

    Correct Answer
    transferrins
    Explanation
    Transferrins are iron binding proteins found in various bodily fluids such as blood, milk, saliva, and tears. These proteins play a crucial role in reducing the amount of iron available to bacteria. By binding to iron, transferrins limit its availability to bacteria, which rely on iron for their growth and survival. This helps to inhibit bacterial growth and protect the body from infections.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 09, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Mmcloninger
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