Cells And Cell Processes Unit Post-assessment (Grade 8)

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Cells And Cell Processes Unit Post-assessment (Grade 8) - Quiz


Cells and Cell Processes Unit Post-Assessment (Grade 8)


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Arrange the following levels of organization from least complex to most complex:  cells, organelles, tissues, organs, organisms, and organ systems. (Standard 1.2a)

    • A.

      Organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms

    • B.

      Cells, organelles, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms

    • C.

      Organelles, cells, organs, organ systems, tissues, organism

    • D.

      Cells, organelles, organs, organ systems, tissue, organism

    • E.

      Cells, tissues, organs, organelles, organ systems, organism

    Correct Answer
    A. Organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms
    Explanation
    The levels of organization from least complex to most complex are arranged as follows: organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms. Organelles are the smallest functional units within cells. Cells are the basic building blocks of living organisms. Tissues are groups of cells that work together to perform a specific function. Organs are made up of different tissues and perform specific functions in the body. Organ systems are groups of organs that work together to perform a common function. Organisms are complete living beings made up of multiple organ systems.

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  • 2. 

    Structures found in a plant cell, but not an animal cell, include the following: (Standards 1.2 f, 5.1b)

    • A.

      Centrioles, mitochondria, and a nucleus

    • B.

      Chloroplasts, a cell wall, and a large vacuole

    • C.

      Chloroplasts, a cell wall, and mitochondria

    • D.

      Chloroplasts, centrioles, and Golgi apparatus

    • E.

      Centrioles, a cell membrane, and a nucleus

    Correct Answer
    B. Chloroplasts, a cell wall, and a large vacuole
    Explanation
    The correct answer is chloroplasts, a cell wall, and a large vacuole. These structures are found in a plant cell but not in an animal cell. Chloroplasts are responsible for photosynthesis, which is the process by which plants convert sunlight into energy. A cell wall provides structural support and protection for the plant cell. A large vacuole stores water, nutrients, and waste products in plant cells. These structures are not present in animal cells, which is why the answer is correct.

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  • 3. 

    The body cells of most multicellular animals are not in direct contact with the external environment. These cells are supplied with materials from the environment by: (Standard 1.2e) 

    • A.

      A central nervous system

    • B.

      Hydrolytic enzymes

    • C.

      Sense receptors

    • D.

      A circulatory system

    • E.

      Symbiotic bacteria

    Correct Answer
    D. A circulatory system
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a circulatory system. A circulatory system, such as the cardiovascular system in humans, is responsible for transporting materials, such as oxygen, nutrients, and waste products, to and from the body cells. It consists of a network of blood vessels and a pump (heart) that helps in the circulation of blood throughout the body. This allows the body cells to receive the necessary materials from the external environment for their functioning and removes waste products.

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  • 4. 

    The cell structure responsible for controlling which molecules enter and leave the cell and for the recognition of chemical signals is the: (Standard 1.2g)

    • A.

      Cell wall

    • B.

      Nuclear membrane

    • C.

      Mitochondria

    • D.

      Chloroplast

    • E.

      Plasma membrane

    Correct Answer
    E. Plasma membrane
    Explanation
    The plasma membrane is responsible for controlling the movement of molecules into and out of the cell. It acts as a barrier, allowing only certain substances to pass through while blocking others. Additionally, the plasma membrane is involved in the recognition of chemical signals, allowing the cell to communicate and respond to its environment. The other options listed, such as the cell wall, nuclear membrane, mitochondria, and chloroplast, do not have the same functions as the plasma membrane in terms of controlling molecule movement and chemical signal recognition.

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  • 5. 

    Which statement best describes the function of a cell? (Standard 1.2h)

    • A.

      Large organic food molecules like protein are broken down only after they enter the cell. Once broken down, the cell will excrete the broken down substances.

    • B.

      The cell makes its own protein and does not need nutrients from the outside environments.

    • C.

      The function of the cell is to convert proteins to amino acids.

    • D.

      Large organic food molecules like protein must be initially broken down. Once the broken down nutrient enters the cell, the cell will use the building blocks to synthesize organic compounds necessary for life.

    • E.

      Large organic food molecules like protein directly enter the cell where they are used for energy.

    Correct Answer
    D. Large organic food molecules like protein must be initially broken down. Once the broken down nutrient enters the cell, the cell will use the building blocks to synthesize organic compounds necessary for life.
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that large organic food molecules like protein must be initially broken down before they can enter the cell. Once broken down, the cell will use the building blocks to synthesize organic compounds necessary for life. This explanation accurately describes the process of how cells obtain nutrients and convert them into usable substances for various functions within the cell. It highlights the importance of breaking down large molecules and utilizing their components to sustain cellular activities.

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  • 6. 

    The organelle most directly involved in the synthesis of ATP is the (Standard 1.2 i):

    • A.

      Ribosome

    • B.

      Mitochondrion

    • C.

      Nucleus

    • D.

      Centriole

    • E.

      Golgi apparatus

    Correct Answer
    B. Mitochondrion
    Explanation
    The mitochondrion is the organelle most directly involved in the synthesis of ATP. ATP is produced through a process called cellular respiration, which takes place in the mitochondria. This organelle contains enzymes and proteins that are necessary for the various steps of cellular respiration, including the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain. These processes generate ATP, which is the main energy currency of the cell. Therefore, the mitochondrion plays a crucial role in the synthesis of ATP.

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  • 7. 

    Which substances are secreted at the endings of nerve cells?  (Standard 1.2j)

    • A.

      Antibodies

    • B.

      Cell Receptors

    • C.

      Neurotransmitters

    • D.

      Amino Acids

    • E.

      Neurons

    Correct Answer
    E. Neurons
  • 8. 

    What structure in the paramecium below has a similar function to the muscles and bones of humans? (Standard 1.3a)

    • A.

      Gullet

    • B.

      Food Vacuole

    • C.

      Macronucleus

    • D.

      Cilia

    • E.

      Micronucleus

    Correct Answer
    D. Cilia
    Explanation
    Cilia in paramecium have a similar function to the muscles and bones of humans. Cilia are hair-like structures that cover the surface of the paramecium and are involved in its movement. They beat in a coordinated manner, allowing the paramecium to move in a specific direction. Similarly, muscles in humans contract and relax to produce movement, while bones provide support and structure. Therefore, cilia can be considered analogous to the muscles and bones in humans.

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  • 9. 

    Which statement best describes ATP (Standard 5.1 e)?

    • A.

      When ADP is converted to ATP, energy is released during bonds that form.

    • B.

      When ATP is converted to ADP and Phosphate, energy is released from the bond that break.

    • C.

      ATP is a reactant of photosynthesis.

    • D.

      ATP is a reactant of cellular respiration.

    • E.

      ATP is a product in the hydrolysis of ADP.

    Correct Answer
    B. When ATP is converted to ADP and Phosphate, energy is released from the bond that break.
    Explanation
    When ATP is converted to ADP and Phosphate, energy is released from the bond that breaks. This statement accurately describes the process of ATP hydrolysis, where ATP is broken down into ADP and inorganic phosphate. This hydrolysis reaction releases energy that can be used by cells for various metabolic processes.

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  • 10. 

    The movement of water from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration is known as (Standard 1.2g):

    • A.

      Diffusion

    • B.

      Osmosis

    • C.

      Active Transport

    • D.

      Hydrolysis

    • E.

      Phagocytosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Osmosis
    Explanation
    Osmosis is the correct answer because it refers to the movement of water molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. This process occurs across a semi-permeable membrane, allowing water to pass through while preventing the movement of solute particles. Osmosis is important in various biological processes, such as maintaining the balance of water and solutes in cells and tissues.

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  • 11. 

    The diagram below represents some events that take place in a plant cell.  The letters X, Y, and Z most likely represent (Standards 5.1a, 5.1b):

    • A.

      Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and Nitrogen

    • B.

      Glucose, Light, and Carbon Dioxide

    • C.

      Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Water

    • D.

      Light, Oxygen, and Methane

    • E.

      Carbon Dioxide, Light, and Water

    Correct Answer
    E. Carbon Dioxide, Light, and Water
    Explanation
    The diagram represents events in a plant cell, so the letters X, Y, and Z are most likely representing the substances involved in photosynthesis, which occurs in plant cells. Carbon dioxide, light, and water are the main inputs for photosynthesis, and they are converted into glucose and oxygen. Therefore, the answer choice "Carbon Dioxide, Light, and Water" is the most likely representation of the substances in the diagram.

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  • 12. 

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a toxic by-product of cellular metabolism in aerobic organisms. The reaction below occurs within the cells to prevent the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. In this reaction, catalase functions as an:

    • A.

      Enzyme in the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide

    • B.

      Enzyme in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide

    • C.

      Enzyme in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide Emulsifier in the digestion of hydrogen peroxide

    • D.

      Indicator in the detection of hydrogen peroxide

    • E.

      Inhibitor preventing the digestion of hydrogen peroxide

    Correct Answer
    A. Enzyme in the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide
    Explanation
    Catalase is an enzyme that functions in the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide. Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in cells. In this case, catalase helps to break down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, preventing the accumulation of toxic levels of hydrogen peroxide. This reaction is important for maintaining cellular homeostasis and protecting cells from oxidative damage.

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  • 13. 

    Rate, on a scale of 1 – 4, 1 being the lowest and 4 being the highest, how much do you already know about cells and cell processes?

    Correct Answer
    1
    2
    3
    4
    Explanation
    The answer to this question is 1,2,3,4 because the question asks the respondent to rate their knowledge on cells and cell processes on a scale of 1 to 4, with 1 being the lowest and 4 being the highest. The answer options provided cover the entire range of the scale, allowing the respondent to choose the appropriate rating based on their level of knowledge.

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  • 14. 

    Rate, on a scale of 1 – 4, 1 being the lowest and 4 being the highest, how interested are you in cells and cell processes?

    Correct Answer
    1
    2
    3
    4
    Explanation
    The answer is 1,2,3,4 because the question asks the respondent to rate their interest in cells and cell processes on a scale of 1 to 4, with 1 being the lowest and 4 being the highest. By providing all four options, the respondent is able to choose the level of interest that best represents their own.

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  • Current Version
  • Apr 09, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 14, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Tagscience
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