Carbohydrate Metabolism

Approved & Edited by ProProfs Editorial Team
The editorial team at ProProfs Quizzes consists of a select group of subject experts, trivia writers, and quiz masters who have authored over 10,000 quizzes taken by more than 100 million users. This team includes our in-house seasoned quiz moderators and subject matter experts. Our editorial experts, spread across the world, are rigorously trained using our comprehensive guidelines to ensure that you receive the highest quality quizzes.
Learn about Our Editorial Process
| By Nivrad
N
Nivrad
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 1,807
Questions: 50 | Attempts: 1,807

SettingsSettingsSettings
Carbohydrate Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is the main function of glycolysis?

    Explanation
    The main function of glycolysis is to produce energy through the breakdown of glucose. Glycolysis is the first step in cellular respiration and occurs in the cytoplasm of cells. During glycolysis, glucose is converted into pyruvate, generating a small amount of ATP and NADH. This process is anaerobic, meaning it does not require oxygen. The ATP produced through glycolysis can be used by cells for various energy-requiring processes.

    Rate this question:

  • 2. 

    Glycolysis is a pathway that is Independent of oxygen?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is indeed a pathway that is independent of oxygen. It is the first step in cellular respiration and occurs in the cytoplasm of cells. During glycolysis, glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and NADH. This process does not require the presence of oxygen and can occur in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Rate this question:

  • 3. 

    How many molecules of net ATP are generated?

    Correct Answer
    2
    Explanation
    The question asks for the number of molecules of net ATP generated. The answer is 2, indicating that only 2 molecules of ATP are produced in this process. This suggests that the process being referred to is not very efficient in terms of ATP production.

    Rate this question:

  • 4. 

    Where does glycolysis take place?

    Correct Answer
    Cytosol
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is the process by which glucose is broken down into pyruvate. It is the first step in cellular respiration and occurs in the cytosol, the fluid portion of the cell outside the organelles. This location allows for easy access to glucose molecules and the enzymes necessary for glycolysis. The cytosol is also where other metabolic processes take place, making it a central hub for cellular metabolism.

    Rate this question:

  • 5. 

    How can cancer cells be depleted of ATP?

    Correct Answer
    By inhibiting glycolysis
    Explanation
    By inhibiting glycolysis, the process by which cells break down glucose to produce ATP, cancer cells can be depleted of ATP. ATP is the main source of energy for cellular processes, including cell division and growth. By inhibiting glycolysis, the cancer cells are unable to generate ATP efficiently, leading to a depletion of energy and ultimately affecting their survival and proliferation. This approach can be used in cancer treatment to target and weaken cancer cells.

    Rate this question:

  • 6. 

    How many ATP equivalents are used in gluconeogenesis?

    Correct Answer
    4 ATP + 2 GTP
    Explanation
    Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic pathway that involves the synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources. In this process, four ATP molecules are hydrolyzed to ADP and Pi, providing energy for the conversion reactions. Additionally, two GTP molecules are converted to GDP and Pi, also releasing energy. Therefore, the correct answer is 4 ATP + 2 GTP, representing the total amount of ATP equivalents used in gluconeogenesis.

    Rate this question:

  • 7. 

    Where does gluconeogenesis mainly occur?

    Correct Answer
    Liver
    Explanation
    Gluconeogenesis mainly occurs in the liver. This is because the liver has the necessary enzymes and metabolic pathways to convert non-carbohydrate sources, such as amino acids and glycerol, into glucose. Gluconeogenesis is an important process for maintaining blood glucose levels during fasting or prolonged exercise when glucose stores are depleted. The liver plays a central role in regulating glucose homeostasis, and its ability to perform gluconeogenesis is crucial for providing glucose to other tissues in the body.

    Rate this question:

  • 8. 

    Why is gluconeogenesis important?

    Correct Answer
    Keeps blood glucose levels from dropping too low
    Explanation
    Gluconeogenesis is important because it helps in maintaining stable blood glucose levels. It is a metabolic pathway that allows the body to produce glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, such as amino acids and glycerol. This process becomes crucial when the body's glucose levels drop too low, such as during fasting or intense exercise. Gluconeogenesis ensures that there is a constant supply of glucose to meet the energy demands of the body's cells, especially those of the brain and red blood cells, which rely heavily on glucose as their primary fuel source.

    Rate this question:

  • 9. 

    Gluconeogenesis is an anabolic pathway that makes glucose from pyruvate.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic pathway that occurs primarily in the liver and kidneys. It involves the synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources such as pyruvate, lactate, and certain amino acids. This process is important for maintaining blood glucose levels during periods of fasting or low carbohydrate intake. Therefore, the statement that gluconeogenesis is an anabolic pathway that makes glucose from pyruvate is true.

    Rate this question:

  • 10. 

    Gluconeogenesis occurs during periods of fasting.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    During periods of fasting, the body needs a constant supply of glucose to maintain normal bodily functions. Gluconeogenesis is the process by which the body synthesizes glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, such as amino acids and glycerol. This helps to maintain blood glucose levels and provide energy for the body. Therefore, it is true that gluconeogenesis occurs during periods of fasting.

    Rate this question:

  • 11. 

    A human brain will shut down without glucose.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The human brain relies heavily on glucose as its main source of energy. Glucose is a sugar that is converted into ATP, the molecule that provides energy for cellular processes. Without an adequate supply of glucose, the brain would not be able to function properly and would eventually shut down. Therefore, it is true that a human brain will shut down without glucose.

    Rate this question:

  • 12. 

    What is the importance of making glycogen?

    Correct Answer
    Quick Access to Glucose
    Explanation
    Making glycogen is important because it allows for quick access to glucose. Glycogen serves as a storage form of glucose in the body, primarily in the liver and muscles. When blood glucose levels are high, excess glucose is converted into glycogen and stored. Then, when blood glucose levels drop, glycogen is broken down back into glucose and released into the bloodstream to maintain stable blood sugar levels. This process provides a readily available source of glucose for energy production, especially during times of fasting or intense physical activity.

    Rate this question:

  • 13. 

    What is the basic building block of glycogen?

    Correct Answer
    UDP-glucose, glucose
    Explanation
    The basic building block of glycogen is UDP-glucose. UDP-glucose is a molecule that consists of glucose linked to a uridine diphosphate (UDP) molecule. It serves as the substrate for glycogen synthesis. Glucose, on the other hand, is the monosaccharide that is incorporated into the glycogen molecule through the action of enzymes. Together, UDP-glucose and glucose play essential roles in the formation and maintenance of glycogen, which serves as a storage form of glucose in the body.

    Rate this question:

  • 14. 

    What activates the storage of glucose?

    Correct Answer
    Insulin
    Explanation
    Insulin is a hormone that activates the storage of glucose. When blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas releases insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin then binds to receptors on cells, allowing them to take in glucose from the blood. Once inside the cells, glucose can be stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles, or used for energy production. Insulin also inhibits the breakdown of glycogen and promotes the synthesis of fatty acids and proteins. Overall, insulin plays a crucial role in regulating glucose levels in the body by promoting its storage and utilization.

    Rate this question:

  • 15. 

    Where is glycogen most abundant?

    Correct Answer
    Liver and Muscles
    Explanation
    Glycogen is a form of stored glucose in the body. It is primarily found in the liver and muscles. The liver stores glycogen to regulate blood glucose levels and provide energy to the body when needed. The muscles store glycogen to fuel physical activity and provide energy during exercise. Both the liver and muscles play crucial roles in maintaining glucose homeostasis and providing energy to the body, which is why glycogen is most abundant in these two locations.

    Rate this question:

  • 16. 

    The key enzyme in glycogen synthesis is?

    Correct Answer
    Glycogen Synthase
    Explanation
    Glycogen Synthase is the key enzyme in glycogen synthesis. It is responsible for catalyzing the transfer of glucose molecules from UDP-glucose to the growing glycogen chain. This enzyme plays a crucial role in regulating glycogen levels in the body by controlling the rate of glycogen synthesis. Without the activity of glycogen synthase, glycogen synthesis would be impaired, leading to a decrease in glycogen storage and potentially affecting energy metabolism. Therefore, Glycogen Synthase is essential for the formation and maintenance of glycogen in the body.

    Rate this question:

  • 17. 

    What is the condition that is caused by low concentrations of glucose within the blood?

    Correct Answer
    Hypoglycemia
    Explanation
    Hypoglycemia is a condition that occurs when the concentration of glucose in the blood is abnormally low. This can be caused by various factors such as excessive insulin production, certain medications, or inadequate food intake. When blood sugar levels drop too low, it can lead to symptoms like shakiness, dizziness, confusion, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness. Hypoglycemia requires immediate attention and treatment, usually by consuming foods or drinks that contain sugar to raise blood sugar levels back to normal.

    Rate this question:

  • 18. 

    What is Glycogenolysis regulated by?

    Correct Answer
    Insulin and Glucagon
    Explanation
    Glycogenolysis, the breakdown of glycogen into glucose, is regulated by the hormones insulin and glucagon. Insulin promotes the storage of glucose as glycogen, inhibiting glycogenolysis. On the other hand, glucagon stimulates glycogenolysis, promoting the release of glucose into the bloodstream. The balance between these two hormones helps regulate blood glucose levels and ensure a steady supply of energy to the body.

    Rate this question:

  • 19. 

    How is Glucagon administered in the case of a diabetic emergency?

    Correct Answer
    Via Parenteral (Intravenous) Administration or Intramuscularly
    Explanation
    Glucagon is administered via parenteral (intravenous) administration or intramuscularly in the case of a diabetic emergency. This means that it is given either directly into a vein or injected into a muscle. These routes of administration allow for rapid absorption and distribution of glucagon in the body, ensuring quick and effective treatment for the emergency situation.

    Rate this question:

  • 20. 

    What is Glycogen broken down into?

    Correct Answer
    Glucose-1-Phosphate, Glucose
    Explanation
    Glycogen is a polysaccharide that serves as a storage form of glucose in animals. When needed, glycogen is broken down through the process of glycogenolysis. This process involves the enzymatic hydrolysis of the glycosidic bonds in glycogen, resulting in the release of glucose-1-phosphate. Glucose-1-phosphate is then converted into glucose-6-phosphate, which can be further metabolized to produce ATP or used for other cellular processes. Additionally, glucose-6-phosphate can be dephosphorylated to produce free glucose, which can be released into the bloodstream to maintain blood glucose levels. Therefore, glycogen is broken down into glucose-1-phosphate and glucose.

    Rate this question:

  • 21. 

    Where in the body does Glycogenolysis occur?

    Correct Answer
    Liver and Muscles
    Explanation
    Glycogenolysis is the process of breaking down glycogen into glucose to be used as energy. It occurs in the liver and muscles because these are the primary storage sites for glycogen. The liver releases glucose into the bloodstream to maintain blood sugar levels, while the muscles use glycogen as a fuel source during exercise. Therefore, both the liver and muscles play a crucial role in glycogenolysis.

    Rate this question:

  • 22. 

    What is produced during the oxidative phase of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway (PPP)?

    Correct Answer
    NADPH
    Explanation
    During the oxidative phase of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway (PPP), NADPH is produced. NADPH is an important molecule in cellular metabolism as it acts as a reducing agent, providing the necessary electrons for various biosynthetic reactions and antioxidant defense systems. It is involved in processes such as fatty acid synthesis, cholesterol synthesis, and the neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NADPH is essential for maintaining cellular redox balance and supporting the growth and survival of cells.

    Rate this question:

  • 23. 

    What is produced during the non-oxidative phase of the PPP?

    Correct Answer
    Ribose-5-phosphate
    Explanation
    During the non-oxidative phase of the PPP (pentose phosphate pathway), ribose-5-phosphate is produced. This phase involves the rearrangement of various sugar phosphates, including ribulose-5-phosphate, xylulose-5-phosphate, and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate, to generate ribose-5-phosphate. Ribose-5-phosphate is an important molecule as it serves as a precursor for the synthesis of nucleotides, which are essential for DNA and RNA synthesis. Additionally, ribose-5-phosphate can also be converted into other important molecules such as ATP and NADPH, which are involved in various cellular processes.

    Rate this question:

  • 24. 

    What is the ribose-5-phosphate used for?

    Correct Answer
    Used in the synthesis of nucleotides and nucleic acids
    Explanation
    Ribose-5-phosphate is a sugar molecule that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of nucleotides and nucleic acids. Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA and RNA, and they are essential for various cellular processes such as DNA replication and protein synthesis. Ribose-5-phosphate is converted into different intermediates in the pentose phosphate pathway, which ultimately leads to the production of nucleotides. Therefore, ribose-5-phosphate is used as a precursor in the synthesis of nucleotides and nucleic acids, making it an important molecule for cellular function and genetic material production.

    Rate this question:

  • 25. 

    What is the importance of glutathione production in the PPP?

    Correct Answer
    Protects the red blood cells from oxidative damage
    Explanation
    Glutathione production in the PPP is important because it plays a crucial role in protecting red blood cells from oxidative damage. Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant that helps neutralize harmful free radicals and prevent oxidative stress. Red blood cells are particularly vulnerable to oxidative damage due to their high exposure to oxygen and their role in transporting oxygen throughout the body. Therefore, the production of glutathione in the PPP is essential for maintaining the integrity and functionality of red blood cells and ensuring optimal overall health.

    Rate this question:

  • 26. 

    What are examples of foods and drugs that can exacerbate the problem of hemolytic anemia associated with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency?

    Correct Answer
    Fava beans, anti-malarial drugs, sulfa drugs, and isoniazid
    Explanation
    Certain foods and drugs can worsen the condition of hemolytic anemia in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Fava beans contain a substance called vicine, which can trigger the destruction of red blood cells in people with G6PD deficiency. Anti-malarial drugs, such as primaquine and quinine, can also cause hemolysis in these individuals. Sulfa drugs, commonly used as antibiotics, and isoniazid, a medication for tuberculosis, can also exacerbate the problem of hemolytic anemia in G6PD-deficient individuals. Therefore, avoiding these foods and drugs is crucial for managing the condition and preventing further complications.

    Rate this question:

  • 27. 

    Where in the body does fructolysis primarily occur?

    Correct Answer
    Liver
    Explanation
    Fructolysis primarily occurs in the liver. Fructolysis is the metabolic process of breaking down fructose, a type of sugar, into simpler compounds. The liver is responsible for regulating blood sugar levels and is the main site for fructose metabolism. It converts fructose into glucose or stores it as glycogen for later use. This process helps maintain energy balance and prevents excessive fructose levels in the bloodstream.

    Rate this question:

  • 28. 

    What metabolic pathway is critical for the motility of sperm?

    Correct Answer
    Fructolysis
    Explanation
    Fructolysis is the metabolic pathway that is critical for the motility of sperm. This pathway involves the breakdown of fructose, a sugar found in seminal plasma, into smaller molecules that can be used as a source of energy for sperm movement. Fructolysis provides the necessary energy for sperm to swim and navigate through the female reproductive tract in order to reach and fertilize the egg. Without fructolysis, sperm would lack the energy required for motility and would not be able to successfully fertilize an egg.

    Rate this question:

  • 29. 

    Fructolysis is a pathway that is dependent upon glycolysis.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    INDEPENDENT

    Rate this question:

  • 30. 

    What condition involving fructolysis may be mistaken for diabetes mellitus?

    Correct Answer
    Fructosuria
    Explanation
    Fructosuria is a condition involving the inability to metabolize fructose properly. This can lead to the presence of fructose in the urine. In some cases, fructosuria can be mistaken for diabetes mellitus because both conditions can result in the presence of sugar in the urine. However, the underlying causes and mechanisms of these conditions are different. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels due to either insufficient insulin production or insulin resistance, while fructosuria is a genetic disorder that affects fructose metabolism specifically.

    Rate this question:

  • 31. 

    What enzyme is missing in individuals who experience fructose intolerance?

    Correct Answer
    Aldolase B
    Explanation
    Fructose intolerance is a condition where individuals lack the enzyme Aldolase B. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down fructose in the liver. Without Aldolase B, fructose cannot be properly metabolized, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea. Therefore, the absence of Aldolase B is the cause of fructose intolerance.

    Rate this question:

  • 32. 

    Where does glycosylation occur?

    Correct Answer
    lumen of ER and lumina of Golgi vesicles
    Explanation
    Glycosylation, the process of adding sugar molecules to proteins or lipids, occurs in the lumen (interior) of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the lumina (interior) of Golgi vesicles. This is where the necessary enzymes and substrates for glycosylation are present and can modify the proteins or lipids. The ER and Golgi vesicles are important organelles involved in protein synthesis, processing, and transport within the cell. Therefore, glycosylation takes place in these compartments to ensure proper protein and lipid modifications before they are transported to their final destinations.

    Rate this question:

  • 33. 

    Glycoproteins form connective tissues such as ________.

    Correct Answer
    collagen
    Explanation
    Glycoproteins are proteins that have carbohydrate chains attached to them. They play a crucial role in forming connective tissues, such as collagen. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body and provides strength and structure to various tissues, including skin, tendons, ligaments, and bones. The glycoproteins present in collagen help in stabilizing and organizing the collagen fibers, contributing to the overall integrity and function of connective tissues.

    Rate this question:

  • 34. 

    Glycoproteins bind to certain molecules and serve as transport vehicles.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Glycoproteins are proteins that have attached carbohydrate chains. These molecules have the ability to bind to specific molecules and act as transport vehicles, carrying these molecules to different parts of the cell or body. Therefore, the statement that glycoproteins bind to certain molecules and serve as transport vehicles is true.

    Rate this question:

  • 35. 

    Glycoproteins can be N-, O-, or C-linked?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Glycoproteins can indeed be N-, O-, or C-linked. These terms refer to the type of chemical bond that links the carbohydrate moiety to the protein backbone. N-linked glycoproteins have the carbohydrate attached to the nitrogen atom of asparagine amino acid residues, O-linked glycoproteins have the carbohydrate attached to the oxygen atom of serine or threonine residues, and C-linked glycoproteins have the carbohydrate attached to the carbon atom of tryptophan residues. Therefore, the statement "Glycoproteins can be N-, O-, or C-linked" is true.

    Rate this question:

  • 36. 

    Glycoproteins can function as hormones

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Glycoproteins are proteins that have sugar molecules attached to them. They play various roles in the body, including acting as hormones. Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate various physiological processes. Many hormones, such as insulin and follicle-stimulating hormone, are glycoproteins. These glycoproteins are secreted by specific glands and help in regulating metabolism, growth, and reproduction. Therefore, it is true that glycoproteins can function as hormones.

    Rate this question:

  • 37. 

    Glycoproteins are used for protection and lubrication

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Glycoproteins are proteins that have attached carbohydrate molecules. They are involved in various biological processes, including protection and lubrication. The attached carbohydrate molecules can help to form a protective barrier on the surface of cells, preventing damage from external factors. Additionally, glycoproteins can provide lubrication by reducing friction between surfaces, such as in the joints. Therefore, it is true that glycoproteins are used for protection and lubrication.

    Rate this question:

  • 38. 

    A glycolipid is a lipid attached to a carbohydrate

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A glycolipid is a type of lipid molecule that is attached to a carbohydrate molecule. This means that the lipid portion of the molecule is connected to a carbohydrate portion, forming a glycolipid. Therefore, the statement "A glycolipid is a lipid attached to a carbohydrate" is true.

    Rate this question:

  • 39. 

    Where are glycolipids located?

    Correct Answer
    Phospholipid bi-layer on the extracellular surface of the cell
    Explanation
    Glycolipids are located in the phospholipid bilayer on the extracellular surface of the cell. The phospholipid bilayer is a double layer of phospholipids that forms the cell membrane. Glycolipids are a type of lipid that have carbohydrate chains attached to them. These carbohydrate chains are located on the outer surface of the cell membrane, facing the extracellular environment. Therefore, glycolipids are found in the phospholipid bilayer on the extracellular surface of the cell.

    Rate this question:

  • 40. 

    Tay-Sach’s is a type of glycolipid storage disease.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Tay-Sach's disease is indeed a type of glycolipid storage disease. This genetic disorder affects the body's ability to break down a specific type of fatty substance called gangliosides, which accumulate in the cells and cause damage to the nervous system. This leads to progressive deterioration of mental and physical abilities. Therefore, the statement "Tay-Sach's is a type of glycolipid storage disease" is true.

    Rate this question:

  • 41. 

    Glycolipids play an important role in:

    • A.

      Drug Targeting

    • B.

      Provides energy

    • C.

      Intercellular signaling

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Glycolipids are a type of lipid molecule that have a carbohydrate group attached to them. They play an important role in various biological processes. Firstly, they are involved in drug targeting, where they can be used to deliver drugs to specific cells or tissues in the body. Secondly, glycolipids serve as a source of energy, as they can be broken down to provide fuel for cellular processes. Lastly, they participate in intercellular signaling, where they help in cell-to-cell communication and coordination. Therefore, all of the given options - drug targeting, energy provision, and intercellular signaling - are correct roles of glycolipids.

    Rate this question:

  • 42. 

    Which naturally occurring carbohydrate has been shown to have some benefit in panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and unipolar and bipolar depression?

    Correct Answer
    Myo-Inositol
    Explanation
    Myo-Inositol is a naturally occurring carbohydrate that has been shown to have some benefit in panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and unipolar and bipolar depression. It is believed to have a positive effect on the neurotransmitters in the brain, helping to regulate mood and reduce symptoms of these mental health conditions. Research has shown that supplementation with Myo-Inositol can lead to a decrease in anxiety and depressive symptoms, making it a potential treatment option for individuals with these disorders.

    Rate this question:

  • 43. 

    What inhibits the enzyme insositol monophosphatase?

    Correct Answer
    Lithium
    Explanation
    Lithium inhibits the enzyme insositol monophosphatase.

    Rate this question:

  • 44. 

    What metabolite of myo-inositol is a component of cell membranes?

    Correct Answer
    Phosphatidylinositol
    Explanation
    Phosphatidylinositol is a metabolite of myo-inositol that serves as a crucial component of cell membranes. It plays a vital role in cell signaling and communication by acting as a precursor for secondary messengers such as inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Phosphatidylinositol is also involved in various cellular processes, including membrane trafficking, cell adhesion, and cytoskeletal organization. Its presence in cell membranes is essential for maintaining membrane integrity and functionality.

    Rate this question:

  • 45. 

    Sorbitol causes osmotic damage which leads to retinopathy and neuropathy

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol commonly used as a sweetener in various food products. When consumed in excessive amounts, sorbitol can cause osmotic damage, which refers to the movement of water across cell membranes. This osmotic damage can lead to various health complications, including retinopathy (damage to the blood vessels in the retina of the eye) and neuropathy (nerve damage). Therefore, the statement that sorbitol causes osmotic damage, which leads to retinopathy and neuropathy, is true.

    Rate this question:

  • 46. 

    Aldose Reductase is involved in the interconversion of glucose and sorbitol.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Aldose reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glucose to sorbitol through a reduction reaction. This reaction is important in certain tissues, such as the lens of the eye, where sorbitol accumulation can lead to osmotic stress and tissue damage. Therefore, it is true that aldose reductase is involved in the interconversion of glucose and sorbitol.

    Rate this question:

  • 47. 

    Aldose Reductase inhibitors have been developed as potential therapeutic agents for prevention of ______and nerve damage in diabetic patients

    Correct Answer
    Blindness
    Explanation
    Aldose Reductase inhibitors have been developed as potential therapeutic agents for prevention of blindness and nerve damage in diabetic patients. This is because aldose reductase is an enzyme that plays a key role in the metabolism of glucose in the body. In diabetic patients, high levels of glucose can lead to the production of excessive amounts of sorbitol through the action of aldose reductase. This accumulation of sorbitol can cause damage to blood vessels and nerves, leading to complications such as diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy, which can ultimately result in blindness. By inhibiting aldose reductase, these inhibitors can help to prevent or reduce the development of these complications.

    Rate this question:

  • 48. 

    Aldose Reductase is an enzyme normally present in the ____.

    Correct Answer
    lens and retina of the eye
    Explanation
    Also Schwann cells of peripheral nerves, placenta, red blood cells, seminal vesicles, and liver

    Rate this question:

  • 49. 

    Sorbitol is found in cherries, plums, pears, and seaweed.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol that occurs naturally in various fruits and plants, including cherries, plums, pears, and seaweed. Therefore, it is correct to say that sorbitol is found in these sources.

    Rate this question:

  • 50. 

    What is a precursor of myo-inositol?

    Correct Answer
    Glucose
    Explanation
    Myo-inositol is a molecule that is derived from glucose. It is considered a precursor because it is synthesized from glucose through a series of enzymatic reactions. This conversion involves the rearrangement of the carbon atoms in glucose to form the structure of myo-inositol. Therefore, glucose can be seen as the starting material or precursor for the synthesis of myo-inositol.

    Rate this question:

Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 05, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Nivrad
Back to Top Back to top
Advertisement
×

Wait!
Here's an interesting quiz for you.

We have other quizzes matching your interest.