# Calculating Var ( Value At Risk)

Approved & Edited by ProProfs Editorial Team
The editorial team at ProProfs Quizzes consists of a select group of subject experts, trivia writers, and quiz masters who have authored over 10,000 quizzes taken by more than 100 million users. This team includes our in-house seasoned quiz moderators and subject matter experts. Our editorial experts, spread across the world, are rigorously trained using our comprehensive guidelines to ensure that you receive the highest quality quizzes.
| By Uzmas
U
Uzmas
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 2 | Total Attempts: 966
Questions: 17 | Attempts: 807  Settings  • 1.

### Which one of the following is not an element of the formal definition for VaR?

• A.

Worst Case Loss

• B.

Tolerance Level

• C.

Normality of returns

• D.

Liquidation period

• E.

None of the above

C. Normality of returns
Explanation
The formal definition of Value at Risk (VaR) is a measure of the potential loss in value of a portfolio of assets due to market movements over a specified time period. It is used to estimate the maximum loss that an investor is willing to accept with a certain level of confidence. The elements of the formal definition for VaR include Worst Case Loss, Tolerance Level, and Liquidation period. However, Normality of returns is not an element of the formal definition for VaR. This is because VaR assumes a normal distribution of returns, but it does not require the returns to be normally distributed in reality.

Rate this question:

• 2.

### Which metric is used to measure the contribution of the addition of a particular position to the total risk of a portfolio?

• A.

SMA VaR

• B.

EWMA VaR

• C.

Historical VaR

• D.

Incremental VaR

• E.

None of the above

D. Incremental VaR
Explanation
Incremental VaR is the metric used to measure the contribution of the addition of a particular position to the total risk of a portfolio. It calculates the change in VaR (Value at Risk) when a new position is added to the portfolio. By calculating the incremental VaR, investors can assess the impact of adding or removing positions on the overall risk of the portfolio. This metric helps in making informed decisions regarding portfolio management and risk mitigation strategies.

Rate this question:

• 3.

### We can compare recent risk of the portfolio with historical risk of the portfolio by comparing the results of SMA VaR and Historical VaR.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The statement is false because we cannot compare the recent risk of a portfolio with the historical risk solely by comparing the results of SMA VaR and Historical VaR. SMA VaR (Simple Moving Average VaR) measures the risk of a portfolio based on recent data, while Historical VaR measures the risk based on historical data. These two methods provide different perspectives on risk and cannot be directly compared. To compare recent and historical risk, additional analysis and consideration of other factors are required.

Rate this question:

• 4.

### We can learn more about the true risk distribution of the portfolio by looking at Historical VaR and the VaR trend line over time.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
By looking at Historical VaR and the VaR trend line over time, we can gain insights into the true risk distribution of the portfolio. Historical VaR provides information about the worst-case losses that the portfolio has experienced in the past, giving us an idea of the potential downside risk. The VaR trend line over time helps us understand how the portfolio's risk profile has changed over different periods, allowing us to identify any patterns or trends in the risk distribution. Therefore, it is true that we can learn more about the true risk distribution of the portfolio by analyzing these factors.

Rate this question:

• 5.

### One way of extending the application of VaR is to use it as a tool for margin projection and margin management purposes.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
VaR, or Value at Risk, is a widely used risk management tool that measures the potential loss in value of a financial instrument or portfolio over a specified time period and at a given confidence level. By extending the application of VaR, it can be used as a tool for margin projection and margin management purposes. This means that VaR can be used to estimate the potential losses that may occur in a portfolio or investment, allowing for better management of margin requirements and ensuring that sufficient funds are available to cover potential losses. Therefore, the statement "One way of extending the application of VaR is to use it as a tool for margin projection and margin management purposes" is true.

Rate this question:

• 6.

### Daily returns are calculated as:

• A.

The arithmetic difference between consecutive daily prices

• B.

The proportion of consecutive daily prices less 1

• C.

The natural logarithm of the daily price

• D.

The natural logarithm of the difference between consecutive daily prices

• E.

None of the above

D. The natural logarithm of the difference between consecutive daily prices
Explanation
The correct answer is the natural logarithm of the difference between consecutive daily prices. This is because the question asks for the method of calculating daily returns, and the natural logarithm of the difference between consecutive daily prices is a common method used to calculate returns in finance. It helps to normalize the returns and make them more interpretable.

Rate this question:

• 7.

### Daily volatility under SMA VaR is calculated in EXCEL as:

• A.

STDEV (Daily Prices)

• B.

VAR (Daily Prices)

• C.

STDEV (% Change in Daily Returns)

• D.

VAR (% Change in Daily Returns)

• E.

STDEV (Daily Returns)

E. STDEV (Daily Returns)
Explanation
The correct answer is STDEV (Daily Returns). This is because daily volatility is a measure of the standard deviation of daily returns. By calculating the standard deviation of the daily returns, we can determine the level of volatility in the daily price movements. This measure takes into account the magnitude and frequency of price changes, providing a comprehensive understanding of the level of risk associated with the investment.

Rate this question:

• 8.

### A more appropriate measure for Value at Risk for a Bond is Rate VaR rather than Price VaR.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
Rate VaR measures the potential loss in value of a bond due to changes in interest rates, while Price VaR measures the potential loss in value of a bond due to changes in its market price. Since interest rates and bond prices are inversely related, Price VaR is a more appropriate measure for Value at Risk for a Bond. Therefore, the statement that Rate VaR is more appropriate than Price VaR for a Bond is false.

Rate this question:

• 9.

### Which one of the VaR methods does not make use of the normality of returns assumption?

• A.

Monte Carlo Simulation Approach

• B.

Simple Moving Average Variance Covariance Approach

• C.

Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Variance Covariance Approach

• D.

Historical Simulation Approach

• E.

None of the Above

D. Historical Simulation Approach
Explanation
The Historical Simulation Approach does not make use of the normality of returns assumption. Instead, it uses historical data to estimate the VaR. It calculates the VaR by ordering historical returns from worst to best and then selecting the appropriate percentile. This method allows for the incorporation of non-normal distributions and captures the tail risk that may be missed by assuming normality.

Rate this question:

• 10.

### Which of the VaR methods can be easily explained to senior management?

• A.

Variance Covariance, Monte Carlo Simulation, Historical Simulation

• B.

Monte Carlo Simulation and Historical Simulation

• C.

Monte Carlo Simulation

• D.

Variance Covariance

• E.

Historical Simulation

E. Historical Simulation
Explanation
Historical Simulation is the VaR method that can be easily explained to senior management. This method calculates VaR by using historical data to determine the potential losses based on past market movements. It is a straightforward approach that senior management can understand as it relies on actual historical data rather than complex mathematical models.

Rate this question:

• 11.

### Value at Risk for a given equity portfolio is:

• A.

The underlying volatility of the equity portfolio

• B.

The maximum loss that can be experienced in the equity portfolio over a specified holding period

• C.

The worst case loss that can be experienced in the equity portfolio with a certain level of probability

• D.

The regulatory capital needed to cover the underlying risk in the equity portfolio

• E.

None of the above

C. The worst case loss that can be experienced in the equity portfolio with a certain level of probability
Explanation
Value at Risk (VaR) is a statistical measure used to estimate the potential loss of an investment or portfolio over a specified time period with a certain level of confidence. It represents the maximum loss that can be experienced in the equity portfolio with a certain level of probability. In other words, it quantifies the potential downside risk of the portfolio. Therefore, the given answer, "The worst case loss that can be experienced in the equity portfolio with a certain level of probability," correctly describes the concept of VaR.

Rate this question:

• 12.

### Under the Historical Simulation approach to calculating VaR what is not an underlying assumption or requirement:

• A.

Liquidity factor

• B.

Confidence Level

• C.

Normal Distribution

• D.

Ordered Distribution

• E.

Past Data

C. Normal Distribution
Explanation
The Historical Simulation approach to calculating VaR assumes that the distribution of returns is not necessarily normal, which means that it does not require the assumption of a normal distribution. Instead, it relies on past data to simulate potential future outcomes, without assuming any specific distribution shape. Therefore, the correct answer is "Normal Distribution."

Rate this question:

• 13.

### The daily volatility is 0.74%. The number of trading days in a year is 252 days. The confidence level is 99% and the length of the holding period is 10-days. What is the 10-day holding period VaR according to the Variance Covariance Approach?

• A.

1.72%

• B.

2.34%

• C.

5.44%

• D.

6.03%

• E.

7.40%

C. 5.44%
Explanation
The 10-day holding period VaR according to the Variance Covariance Approach is 5.44%. This is calculated by multiplying the daily volatility (0.74%) by the square root of the number of trading days in the holding period (10) and then multiplying it by the z-value corresponding to the desired confidence level (99%).

Rate this question:

• 14.

### A way to bypass the construction of the Variance Covariance Matrix for determining portfolio VCV VaR is to:

• A.

Calculate the VaR for each instrument in the portfolio and then calculate a weighted average using these VAR figures and the instruments respective weight in the portfolio.

• B.

Calculate the volatility for each instrument in the portfolio and then calculate a weighted average volatility. Use the appropriate confidence level and holding period to determine the portfolio VaR from this average volatility.

• C.

Calculate a weighted average prices series for the portfolio. Calculate the returns of the resulting weighted average price series. Determine the standard deviation of this resulting return series. Use the appropriate confidence level and holding period to determine the portfolio VaR from this volatility.

• D.

Calculate a weighted average returns series for the portfolio. Determine the standard deviation of this resulting return series. Use the appropriate confidence level and holding period to determine the portfolio VaR from this volatility.

• E.

None of the above.

D. Calculate a weighted average returns series for the portfolio. Determine the standard deviation of this resulting return series. Use the appropriate confidence level and holding period to determine the portfolio VaR from this volatility.
Explanation
The correct answer suggests that the way to bypass the construction of the Variance Covariance Matrix for determining portfolio VCV VaR is to calculate a weighted average returns series for the portfolio. By determining the standard deviation of this resulting return series, one can then use the appropriate confidence level and holding period to determine the portfolio VaR from this volatility. This method avoids the need to construct the Variance Covariance Matrix, which can be time-consuming and computationally expensive.

Rate this question:

• 15.

### Σ(Returnasset×Weightasset) summed across all assets in the portfolio can be calculated in excel using the function SUMPRODUCT.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
The given statement is true. The function SUMPRODUCT in Excel allows us to calculate the sum of the product of two or more arrays. In this case, we can use it to calculate the sum of the product of the return of each asset and its corresponding weight in the portfolio. This calculation is commonly used in portfolio management to determine the overall return of a portfolio.

Rate this question:

• 16.

### A way to reduce the difference in results between a full valuation Price VaR approach to calculating VaR for fixed income bonds and a delta normal adjustment to the Rate VaR approach is to make an additional adjustment for:

• A.

Duration

• B.

Convexity

• C.

Maturity

• D.

Price

• E.

Yield

B. Convexity
Explanation
Convexity is a measure of the curvature of the price-yield relationship of a bond. When calculating Value at Risk (VaR) for fixed income bonds, the delta normal adjustment to the Rate VaR approach only considers the linear relationship between price and yield, neglecting the impact of convexity. By making an additional adjustment for convexity, the full valuation Price VaR approach takes into account the non-linear relationship, reducing the difference in results between the two approaches and providing a more accurate estimate of VaR for fixed income bonds.

Rate this question:

• 17.

### The Rate VaR measure does not reflect the interest rate sensitivity, hence the market risk, of a given fixed income bond.

• A.

True

• B.

False Back to top