1.
Which one of the following is not an element of the formal definition for VaR?
Correct Answer
C. Normality of returns
Explanation
The formal definition of Value at Risk (VaR) is a measure of the potential loss in value of a portfolio of assets due to market movements over a specified time period. It is used to estimate the maximum loss that an investor is willing to accept with a certain level of confidence. The elements of the formal definition for VaR include Worst Case Loss, Tolerance Level, and Liquidation period. However, Normality of returns is not an element of the formal definition for VaR. This is because VaR assumes a normal distribution of returns, but it does not require the returns to be normally distributed in reality.
2.
Which metric is used to measure the contribution of the addition of a particular position to the total risk of a portfolio?
Correct Answer
D. Incremental VaR
Explanation
Incremental VaR is the metric used to measure the contribution of the addition of a particular position to the total risk of a portfolio. It calculates the change in VaR (Value at Risk) when a new position is added to the portfolio. By calculating the incremental VaR, investors can assess the impact of adding or removing positions on the overall risk of the portfolio. This metric helps in making informed decisions regarding portfolio management and risk mitigation strategies.
3.
We can compare recent risk of the portfolio with historical risk of the portfolio by comparing the results of SMA VaR and Historical VaR.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The statement is false because we cannot compare the recent risk of a portfolio with the historical risk solely by comparing the results of SMA VaR and Historical VaR. SMA VaR (Simple Moving Average VaR) measures the risk of a portfolio based on recent data, while Historical VaR measures the risk based on historical data. These two methods provide different perspectives on risk and cannot be directly compared. To compare recent and historical risk, additional analysis and consideration of other factors are required.
4.
We can learn more about the true risk distribution of the portfolio by looking at Historical VaR and the VaR trend line over time.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
By looking at Historical VaR and the VaR trend line over time, we can gain insights into the true risk distribution of the portfolio. Historical VaR provides information about the worst-case losses that the portfolio has experienced in the past, giving us an idea of the potential downside risk. The VaR trend line over time helps us understand how the portfolio's risk profile has changed over different periods, allowing us to identify any patterns or trends in the risk distribution. Therefore, it is true that we can learn more about the true risk distribution of the portfolio by analyzing these factors.
5.
One way of extending the application of VaR is to use it as a tool for margin projection and margin management purposes.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
VaR, or Value at Risk, is a widely used risk management tool that measures the potential loss in value of a financial instrument or portfolio over a specified time period and at a given confidence level. By extending the application of VaR, it can be used as a tool for margin projection and margin management purposes. This means that VaR can be used to estimate the potential losses that may occur in a portfolio or investment, allowing for better management of margin requirements and ensuring that sufficient funds are available to cover potential losses. Therefore, the statement "One way of extending the application of VaR is to use it as a tool for margin projection and margin management purposes" is true.
6.
Daily returns are calculated as:
Correct Answer
D. The natural logarithm of the difference between consecutive daily prices
Explanation
The correct answer is the natural logarithm of the difference between consecutive daily prices. This is because the question asks for the method of calculating daily returns, and the natural logarithm of the difference between consecutive daily prices is a common method used to calculate returns in finance. It helps to normalize the returns and make them more interpretable.
7.
Daily volatility under SMA VaR is calculated in EXCEL as:
Correct Answer
E. STDEV (Daily Returns)
Explanation
The correct answer is STDEV (Daily Returns). This is because daily volatility is a measure of the standard deviation of daily returns. By calculating the standard deviation of the daily returns, we can determine the level of volatility in the daily price movements. This measure takes into account the magnitude and frequency of price changes, providing a comprehensive understanding of the level of risk associated with the investment.
8.
A more appropriate measure for Value at Risk for a Bond is Rate VaR rather than Price VaR.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
Rate VaR measures the potential loss in value of a bond due to changes in interest rates, while Price VaR measures the potential loss in value of a bond due to changes in its market price. Since interest rates and bond prices are inversely related, Price VaR is a more appropriate measure for Value at Risk for a Bond. Therefore, the statement that Rate VaR is more appropriate than Price VaR for a Bond is false.
9.
Which one of the VaR methods does not make use of the normality of returns assumption?
Correct Answer
D. Historical Simulation Approach
Explanation
The Historical Simulation Approach does not make use of the normality of returns assumption. Instead, it uses historical data to estimate the VaR. It calculates the VaR by ordering historical returns from worst to best and then selecting the appropriate percentile. This method allows for the incorporation of non-normal distributions and captures the tail risk that may be missed by assuming normality.
10.
Which of the VaR methods can be easily explained to senior management?
Correct Answer
E. Historical Simulation
Explanation
Historical Simulation is the VaR method that can be easily explained to senior management. This method calculates VaR by using historical data to determine the potential losses based on past market movements. It is a straightforward approach that senior management can understand as it relies on actual historical data rather than complex mathematical models.
11.
Value at Risk for a given equity portfolio is:
Correct Answer
C. The worst case loss that can be experienced in the equity portfolio with a certain level of probability
Explanation
Value at Risk (VaR) is a statistical measure used to estimate the potential loss of an investment or portfolio over a specified time period with a certain level of confidence. It represents the maximum loss that can be experienced in the equity portfolio with a certain level of probability. In other words, it quantifies the potential downside risk of the portfolio. Therefore, the given answer, "The worst case loss that can be experienced in the equity portfolio with a certain level of probability," correctly describes the concept of VaR.
12.
Under the Historical Simulation approach to calculating VaR what is not an underlying assumption or requirement:
Correct Answer
C. Normal Distribution
Explanation
The Historical Simulation approach to calculating VaR assumes that the distribution of returns is not necessarily normal, which means that it does not require the assumption of a normal distribution. Instead, it relies on past data to simulate potential future outcomes, without assuming any specific distribution shape. Therefore, the correct answer is "Normal Distribution."
13.
The daily volatility is 0.74%. The number of trading days in a year is 252 days. The confidence level is 99% and the length of the holding period is 10-days. What is the 10-day holding period VaR according to the Variance Covariance Approach?
Correct Answer
C. 5.44%
Explanation
The 10-day holding period VaR according to the Variance Covariance Approach is 5.44%. This is calculated by multiplying the daily volatility (0.74%) by the square root of the number of trading days in the holding period (10) and then multiplying it by the z-value corresponding to the desired confidence level (99%).
14.
A way to bypass the construction of the Variance Covariance Matrix for determining portfolio VCV VaR is to:
Correct Answer
D. Calculate a weighted average returns series for the portfolio. Determine the standard deviation of this resulting return series. Use the appropriate confidence level and holding period to determine the portfolio VaR from this volatility.
Explanation
The correct answer suggests that the way to bypass the construction of the Variance Covariance Matrix for determining portfolio VCV VaR is to calculate a weighted average returns series for the portfolio. By determining the standard deviation of this resulting return series, one can then use the appropriate confidence level and holding period to determine the portfolio VaR from this volatility. This method avoids the need to construct the Variance Covariance Matrix, which can be time-consuming and computationally expensive.
15.
Σ(Return_{asset}×Weight_{asset}) summed across all assets in the portfolio can be calculated in excel using the function SUMPRODUCT.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The given statement is true. The function SUMPRODUCT in Excel allows us to calculate the sum of the product of two or more arrays. In this case, we can use it to calculate the sum of the product of the return of each asset and its corresponding weight in the portfolio. This calculation is commonly used in portfolio management to determine the overall return of a portfolio.
16.
A way to reduce the difference in results between a full valuation Price VaR approach to calculating VaR for fixed income bonds and a delta normal adjustment to the Rate VaR approach is to make an additional adjustment for:
Correct Answer
B. Convexity
Explanation
Convexity is a measure of the curvature of the price-yield relationship of a bond. When calculating Value at Risk (VaR) for fixed income bonds, the delta normal adjustment to the Rate VaR approach only considers the linear relationship between price and yield, neglecting the impact of convexity. By making an additional adjustment for convexity, the full valuation Price VaR approach takes into account the non-linear relationship, reducing the difference in results between the two approaches and providing a more accurate estimate of VaR for fixed income bonds.
17.
The Rate VaR measure does not reflect the interest rate sensitivity, hence the market risk, of a given fixed income bond.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The Rate VaR measure is a risk measurement technique that quantifies the potential loss in the value of a fixed income bond due to changes in interest rates. However, it does not take into account the interest rate sensitivity of the bond, meaning it does not accurately reflect the market risk associated with the bond. Therefore, the statement that the Rate VaR measure does not reflect the interest rate sensitivity and market risk of a fixed income bond is true.