Bms 331 Exam 2 2011

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Bms 331 Exam 2 2011 - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In the normal adult animal, which of the following would be seen on a thoracic radiograph (or set of radiographs to visualize the entire thorax)?

    • A.

      Esophagus

    • B.

      Tracheobronchial lymph nodes

    • C.

      Thymus

    • D.

      Caudal vena cava

    • E.

      Right atrium

    Correct Answer
    D. Caudal vena cava
    Explanation
    On a thoracic radiograph of a normal adult animal, the caudal vena cava would be seen. The caudal vena cava is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower body back to the heart. It is located on the right side of the thorax and can be visualized on radiographs as a dark, tubular structure. The presence of the caudal vena cava on a thoracic radiograph is a normal finding and indicates proper blood flow in the animal.

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  • 2. 

    In the horse, branches forming the brachial plexus can readily be identified as they course dorsal to which muscle?

    • A.

      Dorsal scalenus

    • B.

      Ventral scalenus

    • C.

      Splenius

    • D.

      Rectus thoracis

    • E.

      Transversus thoracis

    Correct Answer
    B. Ventral scalenus
    Explanation
    The branches forming the brachial plexus in the horse can be readily identified as they course dorsal to the ventral scalenus muscle.

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  • 3. 

    You are performing a pericardial centesis (removal of fluid from the pericardial cavity) on a horse and are using an ultrasound to avoid the lung. To gain access to the cavity how many serous layers did the needle pierce?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    C. 3
    Explanation
    During a pericardial centesis, the needle is inserted into the pericardial cavity to remove fluid. The pericardial cavity is surrounded by three serous layers: the parietal pericardium, the pericardial space, and the visceral pericardium. The needle pierces through these three layers to gain access to the pericardial cavity. Therefore, the correct answer is 3.

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  • 4. 

    Typically, the ox has how many cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae?

    • A.

      C6, T13, L7

    • B.

      C6, T18, L6

    • C.

      C7, T18, L7

    • D.

      C7, T13, L6

    Correct Answer
    D. C7, T13, L6
    Explanation
    The correct answer is C7, T13, L6. The ox typically has 7 cervical vertebrae, 13 thoracic vertebrae, and 6 lumbar vertebrae.

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  • 5. 

    In the ox, the cupula pleurae is best described as a:

    • A.

      Projection of pleura cranial to the first rib from the right pleural cavity

    • B.

      Projection of pleura cranial to the first rib from the left pleural cavity

    • C.

      Blind projection of pleura into the mediastinal recess

    • D.

      Caudal projection of pleura into the right costodiaphragmatic recess

    • E.

      Caudal projection of pleura into the left costodiaphragmatic recess

    Correct Answer
    A. Projection of pleura cranial to the first rib from the right pleural cavity
    Explanation
    The cupula pleurae is a projection of the pleura that is located cranial to the first rib. In the ox, it is specifically found in the right pleural cavity. This projection helps to separate the thoracic cavity from the neck region and allows for proper movement of the lungs during respiration.

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  • 6. 

    In the ox, what vein is found immediately cranial to the tracheal bronchus?

    • A.

      Right costocervical

    • B.

      Left costocervical

    • C.

      Right azygous

    • D.

      Left azygous

    • E.

      Right subclavian

    Correct Answer
    C. Right azygous
    Explanation
    The right azygous vein is found immediately cranial to the tracheal bronchus in the ox. This vein is responsible for draining blood from the posterior intercostal veins on the right side of the body. It then joins with the cranial vena cava to return deoxygenated blood back to the heart. The other options mentioned, such as the right costocervical, left costocervical, left azygous, and right subclavian veins, are not located immediately cranial to the tracheal bronchus in the ox.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following ligaments attaches to the rib?

    • A.

      Supraspinous

    • B.

      Interspinous

    • C.

      Intercapital

    • D.

      Dorsal longitudinal

    • E.

      Ventral longitudinal

    Correct Answer
    C. Intercapital
    Explanation
    The intercapital ligament attaches to the rib.

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  • 8. 

    What cardiac structure is found spanning between the outer ventricular wall and the interventricular septum?

    • A.

      Trabeculae septomarginalis

    • B.

      Trabeculae carneae

    • C.

      Papillary muscle

    • D.

      Chordae tendineae

    • E.

      Pectinate muscles

    Correct Answer
    A. Trabeculae septomarginalis
    Explanation
    Trabeculae septomarginalis, also known as the moderator band, is a cardiac structure found spanning between the outer ventricular wall and the interventricular septum. It contains muscle fibers and conducts electrical signals to the anterior papillary muscle, helping to coordinate the contraction of the heart.

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  • 9. 

    In the horse, what artery supplies the subsinousal interventricular groove?

    • A.

      Subsinousal branch of the left coronary

    • B.

      Subsinousal branch of the right coronary

    • C.

      Circumflex branch of the left coronary

    • D.

      Paraconal interventricular branch of the left coronary

    • E.

      Paraconal interventricular branch of the right coronary

    Correct Answer
    B. Subsinousal branch of the right coronary
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the subsinousal branch of the right coronary artery. This artery supplies the subsinousal interventricular groove in the horse.

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  • 10. 

    When present, what lymph node is found immediately caudal to the tracheal bifurcation?

    • A.

      Middle tracheobronchial

    • B.

      Middle mediastinal

    • C.

      Right tracheobronchial

    • D.

      Cranial tracheobronchial

    • E.

      Caudal mediastinal

    Correct Answer
    A. Middle tracheobronchial
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Middle tracheobronchial. The lymph node found immediately caudal to the tracheal bifurcation is known as the middle tracheobronchial lymph node. This lymph node is located in the mediastinum, specifically in the region between the trachea and the main bronchi. It plays a role in filtering and draining lymph from the lungs and surrounding structures.

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  • 11. 

    What segment of the intestinal tract passes right to left cranial to the root of the mesentery?

    • A.

      Cranial duodenal flexure

    • B.

      Descending duodenum

    • C.

      Caudal duodenal flexure

    • D.

      Ascending colon

    • E.

      Transverse colon

    Correct Answer
    E. Transverse colon
    Explanation
    The transverse colon is the segment of the intestinal tract that passes right to left cranial to the root of the mesentery. This means that it is located above and to the left of the root of the mesentery, which is the structure that attaches the intestines to the back wall of the abdomen. The other options listed do not pass cranial to the root of the mesentery, so they are not the correct answer.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following nerves supplies parasympathetic innervation to the rumen?

    • A.

      Hypogastric

    • B.

      Iliohypogastric

    • C.

      Major splanchnic

    • D.

      Minor splanchnic

    • E.

      Vagus

    Correct Answer
    E. Vagus
    Explanation
    The vagus nerve supplies parasympathetic innervation to the rumen. The vagus nerve is the tenth cranial nerve and is responsible for the parasympathetic control of many organs in the body, including the rumen. Parasympathetic innervation promotes rest and digest activities, such as increased digestive secretions and motility in the rumen. The other nerves listed do not specifically innervate the rumen or have parasympathetic functions.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following sections of bowel is characterized by the absence of bands and sacculations?

    • A.

      Porcine centrifugal coil of spiral colon

    • B.

      Porcine centripetal coil of spiral colon

    • C.

      Equine left ventral colon

    • D.

      Equine right ventral colon

    • E.

      Equine descending colon

    Correct Answer
    A. Porcine centrifugal coil of spiral colon
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Porcine centrifugal coil of spiral colon. This section of the bowel is characterized by the absence of bands and sacculations.

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  • 14. 

    Concerning the banding of the equine cecum, which one is described as vascular and also associated with the cecocolic fold?

    • A.

      Dorsal

    • B.

      Lateral

    • C.

      Ventral

    • D.

      Medial

    Correct Answer
    B. Lateral
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Lateral." The lateral banding of the equine cecum is described as vascular and is also associated with the cecocolic fold. This means that the lateral side of the cecum has a distinct pattern of blood vessels and is connected to the cecocolic fold, which is a fold of tissue that connects the cecum to the colon.

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  • 15. 

    Which letter in the drawing corresponds to the approximate location of the reticulum?

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    • E.

      E

    Correct Answer
    C. C
    Explanation
    The reticulum is located in the approximate middle of the drawing. Looking at the drawing, letter C is the only letter that is situated in the middle of the drawing. Therefore, letter C corresponds to the approximate location of the reticulum.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following species typically has the following liver lobes: medial and lateral right, medial and lateral left, quadrate, and a caudate lobe with only a caudate process?

    • A.

      Ox

    • B.

      Goat

    • C.

      Dog

    • D.

      Pig

    • E.

      Horse

    Correct Answer
    D. Pig
    Explanation
    The pig typically has the following liver lobes: medial and lateral right, medial and lateral left, quadrate, and a caudate lobe with only a caudate process.

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  • 17. 

    A well defined, firm swelling is found near the pylorus. In which of the following species would this be considered a pathologic problem?

    • A.

      Ox

    • B.

      GOat

    • C.

      Sheep

    • D.

      Pig

    • E.

      Horse

    Correct Answer
    E. Horse
    Explanation
    In horses, a well-defined, firm swelling near the pylorus would be considered a pathologic problem. The pylorus is the opening between the stomach and the small intestine, and a swelling in this area could indicate a blockage or obstruction. This can lead to digestive issues and potentially serious health problems for the horse. In contrast, such a swelling near the pylorus would not be considered abnormal or pathologic in ox, goat, sheep, or pig.

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  • 18. 

    Occasionally the celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries arise from the abdominal aorta as a common trunk referred to as the celiacomesenteric artery. Based on general vascular distribution patterns which of the following would least likely receive blood from this combined vessel?

    • A.

      Descending colon

    • B.

      Descendign duodenum

    • C.

      Ascending colon

    • D.

      Ascending duodenum

    • E.

      Stomach

    Correct Answer
    A. Descending colon
    Explanation
    The celiacomesenteric artery is a common trunk that gives rise to the celiac artery and the cranial mesenteric artery. These arteries supply blood to various organs in the abdomen. The descending colon is located in the lower part of the abdomen, and it is primarily supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery. Therefore, it would least likely receive blood from the combined celiacomesenteric artery.

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  • 19. 

    In a cow, which of the following cannot be palpated during rectal examination?

    • A.

      Dorsal sac of the rumen

    • B.

      Cecum

    • C.

      Spiral colon

    • D.

      Transverse colon

    • E.

      Left kidney

    Correct Answer
    D. Transverse colon
    Explanation
    During a rectal examination of a cow, various organs and structures can be palpated. The dorsal sac of the rumen, cecum, spiral colon, and left kidney can all be felt during this examination. However, the transverse colon cannot be palpated. The transverse colon is located higher up in the abdominal cavity and is not easily accessible during rectal examination.

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  • 20. 

    In the ruminant, what artery is found coursing in the caudal groove of the rumen?

    • A.

      Left gastroepiploic

    • B.

      Right gastroepiploic

    • C.

      Left ruminal

    • D.

      Right ruminal

    • E.

      Left gastric

    Correct Answer
    D. Right ruminal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Right ruminal". In ruminants, the rumen is a large fermentation chamber where food is broken down by microorganisms. The right ruminal artery is responsible for supplying blood to the rumen. It courses in the caudal groove of the rumen, ensuring proper blood flow and oxygenation to this important organ. The other options, such as the left gastroepiploic and left gastric arteries, are not specifically associated with the rumen.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following nerves provides motor innervation to the levator labii superioris muscle?

    • A.

      Infraorbital

    • B.

      Buccal branch of the facial

    • C.

      Supraorbital

    • D.

      Rostral auricular

    • E.

      Zygomaticotemporal

    Correct Answer
    B. Buccal branch of the facial
    Explanation
    The buccal branch of the facial nerve provides motor innervation to the levator labii superioris muscle. This muscle is responsible for elevating the upper lip.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following bones does not contribute to the formation of the complete bony orbit of the ox?

    • A.

      Lacrimal

    • B.

      Frontal

    • C.

      Zygomatic

    • D.

      Temporal

    • E.

      Presphenoid

    Correct Answer
    D. Temporal
    Explanation
    The temporal bone does not contribute to the formation of the complete bony orbit of the ox. The bony orbit is formed by the lacrimal, frontal, zygomatic, and presphenoid bones. The temporal bone is located on the side of the skull and does not directly contribute to the orbit.

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  • 23. 

    In the mid-cervical area, the esophagus is located:

    • A.

      Directly dorsal to the trachea

    • B.

      Directly ventral to the trachea

    • C.

      To the right of the trachea

    • D.

      To the left of the trachea

    Correct Answer
    D. To the left of the trachea
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "to the left of the trachea". In the mid-cervical area, the esophagus is positioned on the left side of the trachea. This anatomical arrangement allows for the smooth passage of food from the mouth to the stomach without obstruction from the trachea, which is responsible for air passage to the lungs.

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  • 24. 

    In the linguofacial trunk of the horse is typically a branch from which artery?

    • A.

      Common carotid

    • B.

      External carotid

    • C.

      Maxillary

    • D.

      Inferior alveolar

    • E.

      Ascending palatine

    Correct Answer
    B. External carotid
    Explanation
    The linguofacial trunk of the horse typically gives rise to the external carotid artery. The external carotid artery is responsible for supplying blood to the face, scalp, and neck. It branches off from the common carotid artery, which is the main artery supplying blood to the head and neck. The linguofacial trunk is a specific branch of the external carotid artery that provides blood to the tongue and facial muscles.

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  • 25. 

    In the ox, the tracheal duct originates from which lymph node?

    • A.

      Mandibular

    • B.

      Lateral retropharyngeal

    • C.

      Cranial superficial cervical

    • D.

      Parotid

    • E.

      Medial retropharyngeal

    Correct Answer
    B. Lateral retropharyngeal
    Explanation
    The tracheal duct in the ox originates from the lateral retropharyngeal lymph node.

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  • 26. 

    During its course through the guttural pouch, which of the following structures is primarily found in the lateral compartment?

    • A.

      Hypoglossal n.

    • B.

      Vagus n.

    • C.

      Glossopharyngeal n.

    • D.

      Internal carotid a.

    • E.

      External carotid a.

    Correct Answer
    E. External carotid a.
    Explanation
    The external carotid artery is primarily found in the lateral compartment of the guttural pouch. The guttural pouch is a paired structure located in the head and neck region of horses. It contains various structures including nerves and blood vessels. The external carotid artery is one of the major arteries supplying blood to the head and neck region, and it passes through the lateral compartment of the guttural pouch. Therefore, it is the correct answer to the question.

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  • 27. 

    The lateral part of the equine nostril is not supported by any cartilage and is capable of wide dilation. What muscle is responsible for this action?

    • A.

      Levator labii superioris

    • B.

      Depressor labii superioris

    • C.

      Caninus

    • D.

      Zygomaticus

    • E.

      Levator nasolabialis

    Correct Answer
    C. Caninus
    Explanation
    The muscle responsible for the wide dilation of the lateral part of the equine nostril is the Caninus muscle. This muscle is not supported by any cartilage and allows for the nostril to open up and expand.

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