Take The Ultimate Practice Questions On Radiography! Quiz

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Take The Ultimate Practice Questions On Radiography! Quiz - Quiz

Have you ever had a fracture and needed to get an X-ray? To check your knowledge, you can take this radiography test with informative questions and answers. You might not have known it at the time, but the process whereby an image was taken of your skeleton is called radiography – it is defined as an imaging technique used in order to view the internal form of an object. Take the quiz and find out how well do you know about radiography. All the best for a perfect score!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In film radiography, the penetrameters are mostly placed:

    • A.

      In between the intensifying screen and the film

    • B.

      On the source side of the object for testing

    • C.

      On the film side of the test object for testing

    • D.

      In between the operator and the radiation source

    Correct Answer
    B. On the source side of the object for testing
    Explanation
    In film radiography, the penetrameters are mostly placed on the source side of the object for testing. This is because penetrameters are used to measure the quality of the X-ray beam and the overall system performance. By placing the penetrameters on the source side, they can accurately assess the X-ray beam before it interacts with the object being tested. This allows for better evaluation of the image quality and detection of any potential flaws or defects in the object.

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  • 2. 

    The penetrating ability of an X-ray beam is calculated by:

    • A.

      Kilovoltage or wavelength

    • B.

      Time

    • C.

      Milliamperage

    • D.

      Source-to-film distance

    Correct Answer
    A. Kilovoltage or wavelength
    Explanation
    The penetrating ability of an X-ray beam is determined by the kilovoltage or wavelength. Kilovoltage refers to the voltage applied to the X-ray tube, which affects the energy of the X-ray photons. Higher kilovoltage results in greater penetration. Wavelength, on the other hand, refers to the distance between the peaks of the X-ray waves. Shorter wavelengths correspond to higher energy and greater penetration. Therefore, both kilovoltage and wavelength play a crucial role in determining the penetrating ability of an X-ray beam.

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  • 3. 

    Cobalt-60 used in nondestructive testing emits:

    • A.

      Alpha particles

    • B.

      Neutrons

    • C.

      Gamma rays

    • D.

      X rays

    Correct Answer
    C. Gamma rays
    Explanation
    Cobalt-60 is a radioactive isotope commonly used in nondestructive testing. It emits gamma rays, which are high-energy electromagnetic waves. Gamma rays are able to penetrate materials, making them useful for testing the integrity of structures and detecting any flaws or defects. They are also used in medical imaging and cancer treatment due to their ability to penetrate the body and interact with tissues. Unlike alpha particles, neutrons, and X-rays, gamma rays have the highest energy and can travel the farthest distance.

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  • 4. 

    A densitometer is:

    • A.

      A meter used to measure X-ray intensity.

    • B.

      An instrument for measuring film density

    • C.

      A meter used for measuring the density of a material.

    • D.

      A meter used to measure tube current.

    Correct Answer
    B. An instrument for measuring film density
    Explanation
    A densitometer is an instrument used for measuring film density. Film density refers to the degree of darkness or opacity of a film, which can be used to determine the quality or characteristics of the film. A densitometer measures the amount of light that passes through the film and provides a numerical value that represents the density. This measurement is important in various industries such as photography, printing, and radiology, where the density of the film can affect the final output or interpretation of the image.

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  • 5. 

    Three liquids that are essential to process an exposed film properly are:

    • A.

      Stop batch, acetic acid, and water

    • B.

      Developer, stop bath, and H2O2.

    • C.

      Developer, fixer, and water

    • D.

      Acetic acid, fixer, and stop bath

    Correct Answer
    C. Developer, fixer, and water
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Developer, fixer, and water." In order to process an exposed film properly, developer is needed to develop the latent image on the film, fixer is required to make the image permanent and remove any unexposed silver halide, and water is necessary for rinsing and washing the film to remove any residual chemicals. Acetic acid and stop bath are not essential for the processing of the film. H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) is not typically used in film processing.

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  • 6. 

    The two most common reasons for excessively high-density radiographs are:

    • A.

      Insufficient washing and overdevelopment

    • B.

      Contaminated fixer and insufficient washing

    • C.

      Overexposure and contaminated fixer

    • D.

      Overexposure and overdevelopment

    Correct Answer
    D. Overexposure and overdevelopment
    Explanation
    Overexposure refers to the excessive amount of radiation that the film receives during the exposure process. This can result in a dark and dense radiograph. On the other hand, overdevelopment refers to the excessive amount of time that the film spends in the developer solution. This can cause the image to become even darker and denser. Therefore, the combination of overexposure and overdevelopment can lead to excessively high-density radiographs.

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  • 7. 

    The time required for one-half of the atoms in a specific sample of radioactive material to disintegrate is called:

    • A.

      The inverse square law

    • B.

      A curie

    • C.

      A half-life

    • D.

      The exposure time

    Correct Answer
    C. A half-life
    Explanation
    A half-life is the time required for half of the atoms in a radioactive sample to undergo radioactive decay. This means that after one half-life, half of the original radioactive material will have disintegrated, and after two half-lives, only one-fourth of the original material will remain. The concept of half-life is important in understanding the rate of decay and the stability of radioactive materials.

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  • 8. 

    What does R/hr refer to when talking of intensity:

    • A.

      Radiation limits for humans

    • B.

      Roentgens per hour

    • C.

      X rays per hour

    • D.

      Radiation in hydrogen

    Correct Answer
    B. Roentgens per hour
    Explanation
    R/hr refers to Roentgens per hour. Roentgen is a unit of measurement used to quantify the ionizing radiation in the air. It measures the amount of radiation that produces a certain amount of ionization in a specific volume of air. Therefore, R/hr indicates the rate at which ionizing radiation is being emitted or received in terms of Roentgens per hour.

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  • 9. 

    What is the ability to detect a small discontinuity or flaw called?

    • A.

      Radiographic contrast

    • B.

      Radiographic sensitivity

    • C.

      Radiographic density

    • D.

      Radiographic resolution

    Correct Answer
    B. Radiographic sensitivity
    Explanation
    Radiographic sensitivity refers to the ability to detect small discontinuities or flaws in an image. It is a measure of how well a radiographic technique can detect subtle changes in density or contrast. A high level of sensitivity means that even small flaws or discontinuities can be easily identified in the image. Therefore, radiographic sensitivity is the most appropriate term to describe the ability to detect small discontinuities or flaws.

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  • 10. 

    Movement, geometry, and screen contact are the factors that affect radiographic:

    • A.

      Contrast

    • B.

      Unsharpness

    • C.

      Reticulation

    • D.

      Density

    Correct Answer
    B. Unsharpness
    Explanation
    Unsharpness in radiography refers to the lack of sharpness or clarity in an image. It is affected by movement, geometry, and screen contact. Movement of the patient or the x-ray machine during exposure can cause blurring and result in unsharpness. The geometry of the x-ray beam and the positioning of the patient can also impact the sharpness of the image. Additionally, the contact between the x-ray film and the intensifying screens can affect the overall sharpness of the radiograph.

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  • 11. 

    What is the difference between the densities of two areas of a radiograph called?

    • A.

      Radiographic contrast

    • B.

      Subject contrast

    • C.

      Film contrast

    • D.

      Definition Definition

    Correct Answer
    A. Radiographic contrast
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Radiographic contrast. Radiographic contrast refers to the difference in densities between two areas on a radiograph. It is used to describe the distinguishability of different structures within the image. Subject contrast refers to the differences in X-ray attenuation properties of the subject being imaged. Film contrast refers to the differences in densities on the developed film.

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  • 12. 

    The most widely used unit of measurement to measure the rate at which the output of a gamma-ray source decays is the:

    • A.

      Curie

    • B.

      Roentgen

    • C.

      Half-life

    • D.

      MeV

    Correct Answer
    A. Curie
    Explanation
    The curie is the most widely used unit of measurement to measure the rate at which the output of a gamma-ray source decays. It is a unit of radioactivity that represents the number of radioactive disintegrations per second in a given sample. The curie is commonly used in the field of nuclear medicine and radiation therapy to quantify the amount of radiation emitted by a source. The other options, such as roentgen, half-life, and MeV, are not specifically used to measure the rate of decay of a gamma-ray source.

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  • 13. 

    Who handles the source when doing gamma-ray radiography with high-intensity emitters?

    • A.

      Directly by personnel equipped with special protective clothing with special protective clothing

    • B.

      By remote handling equipment

    • C.

      Directly by personnel with special protective clothing except when radiographs are being made

    • D.

      By the same methods used for low-intensity emitters

    Correct Answer
    B. By remote handling equipment
    Explanation
    When performing gamma-ray radiography with high-intensity emitters, the source is handled by remote handling equipment. This means that personnel do not directly handle the source themselves, but instead use specialized equipment to manipulate the source from a safe distance. This is necessary because high-intensity emitters can pose a significant radiation hazard, and it is important to minimize the risk to personnel.

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  • 14. 

    What happens if a film is placed in a developer solution and allowed to develop without any agitation?

    • A.

      The radiograph will not show proper contrast

    • B.

      It will become impossible to fix the radiograph permanently

    • C.

      There will be a usual "fogging" condition over the entire radiograph

    • D.

      There will be a tendency for each area of the film to affect the development of the areas immediately below it

    Correct Answer
    D. There will be a tendency for each area of the film to affect the development of the areas immediately below it
    Explanation
    If a film is placed in a developer solution and allowed to develop without any agitation, there will be a tendency for each area of the film to affect the development of the areas immediately below it. This means that the developer solution will not be evenly distributed across the film, resulting in uneven development. This can lead to variations in density and contrast in different areas of the radiograph, making it difficult to interpret the image accurately.

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  • 15. 

    The selection of the proper type of film that needs to be used for the X-ray examination of a particular part depends on:

    • A.

      The thickness of the part

    • B.

      The material of the specimen

    • C.

      The voltage range of the available X-ray machine

    • D.

      All three of the above factors

    Correct Answer
    D. All three of the above factors
    Explanation
    The selection of the proper type of film for an X-ray examination depends on the thickness of the part, the material of the specimen, and the voltage range of the available X-ray machine. The thickness of the part is important because it determines the amount of X-ray penetration required. The material of the specimen is significant because different materials have different levels of X-ray absorption. The voltage range of the X-ray machine is crucial because it determines the energy level of the X-rays produced. Therefore, all three factors need to be considered to ensure accurate and effective X-ray imaging.

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  • 16. 

    While radiographing a part that contains a large crack, the crack will appear on the radiograph as:

    • A.

      A dark, intermittent, or continuous line

    • B.

      A light, irregular line

    • C.

      Either a dark or light line

    • D.

      A fogged area on the radiograph

    Correct Answer
    A. A dark, intermittent, or continuous line
    Explanation
    When radiographing a part that contains a large crack, the crack will appear on the radiograph as a dark, intermittent, or continuous line. This is because the crack acts as a barrier to the penetration of X-rays, resulting in reduced exposure on the film. As a result, the crack appears darker compared to the surrounding area. The line may appear intermittent if the crack is not continuous throughout the part or if there are other factors affecting the X-ray exposure.

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  • 17. 

    A cobalt-60 source has a half-life of

    • A.

      1.2 years

    • B.

      6 months

    • C.

      5.3 years

    • D.

      75 days

    Correct Answer
    C. 5.3 years
  • 18. 

    X-ray heat is generated by:

    • A.

      The current passing through the filament (cathode)

    • B.

      The distance from the cathode to the anode

    • C.

      The type of material used in the target

    • D.

      The voltage and waveform applied to-the X-ray tube

    Correct Answer
    A. The current passing through the filament (cathode)
    Explanation
    X-ray heat is generated by the current passing through the filament (cathode) because the filament is heated up by the current, causing it to emit electrons. These electrons are then accelerated towards the anode, creating X-rays through the process of bremsstrahlung radiation. The heat generated by the current passing through the filament is essential in producing the necessary energy for the X-ray production. The other factors mentioned, such as the distance from the cathode to the anode, the type of material used in the target, and the voltage and waveform applied to the X-ray tube, may affect the intensity and quality of the X-rays produced, but they do not directly generate the X-ray heat.

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  • 19. 

    What do the voltage and waveform apply to the X-ray tube by a high-voltage transformer primarily determine?

    • A.

      Quantity of radiation

    • B.

      Duration of exposure

    • C.

      Penetrating ability

    • D.

      X-ray beam divergence

    Correct Answer
    C. Penetrating ability
    Explanation
    The voltage and waveform applied to the X-ray tube by a high-voltage transformer primarily determine the penetrating ability of the X-ray beam. The higher the voltage, the greater the penetrating ability of the X-rays. Additionally, the waveform can affect the quality and intensity of the X-ray beam, further influencing its ability to penetrate objects.

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  • 20. 

    What happens if the foil is in direct contact with X-ray film?

    • A.

      Intensifies the scatter radiation more than the primary radiation

    • B.

      Decreases the contrast of the radiographic image

    • C.

      Intensifies the primary radiation more than in comparison to the scatter radiation

    • D.

      Should not be used when gamma rays are emitted by the source of radiation

    Correct Answer
    C. Intensifies the primary radiation more than in comparison to the scatter radiation
    Explanation
    When the foil is in direct contact with X-ray film, it intensifies the primary radiation more than the scatter radiation. This means that the foil enhances the strength of the primary X-rays that reach the film, while having a lesser effect on the scattered X-rays. This can result in a higher overall exposure and intensity of the primary X-rays in the radiographic image, potentially leading to increased image quality and clarity.

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  • 21. 

    What is it called when intensifying fluorescent screens are usually mounted in pairs in rigid holders?

    • A.

      Film racks

    • B.

      Cassettes

    • C.

      Emulsifiers

    • D.

      Diaphragms

    Correct Answer
    B. Cassettes
    Explanation
    Intensifying fluorescent screens are usually mounted in pairs in rigid holders called cassettes. Cassettes provide a protective and rigid housing for the screens, ensuring that they are held securely in place. This allows for accurate and consistent positioning of the screens during the imaging process. Additionally, cassettes help to minimize the risk of damage to the screens, ensuring their longevity and optimal performance.

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  • 22. 

    Radiographic sensitivity, in the context of the minimum detectable flaw size, depends on:

    • A.

      The graininess of the film

    • B.

      The unsharpness of the flawed image in the film

    • C.

      The contrast of the flawed image in the film

    • D.

      All three of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All three of the above
    Explanation
    Radiographic sensitivity, in the context of the minimum detectable flaw size, depends on the graininess of the film, the unsharpness of the flawed image in the film, and the contrast of the flawed image in the film. The graininess of the film refers to the size and distribution of the silver grains within the film, which can affect the clarity of the image. The unsharpness of the flawed image refers to any blurring or lack of sharpness in the image, which can make it more difficult to detect flaws. The contrast of the flawed image refers to the difference in brightness between the flaw and the surrounding area, which can affect the visibility of the flaw. Therefore, all three factors play a role in determining radiographic sensitivity.

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  • 23. 

    In order to decrease geometric unsharpness:

    • A.

      Radiation should proceed from as small a focal spot as other considerations will allow

    • B.

      Radiation should proceed from as large a focal spot as other considerations will allow.

    • C.

      The film should be as far as possible from the object being radiographed

    • D.

      The distance from the anode to the material examined should be as small as is practical.

    Correct Answer
    A. Radiation should proceed from as small a focal spot as other considerations will allow
    Explanation
    Geometric unsharpness refers to the blurring or lack of sharpness in an X-ray image. To decrease geometric unsharpness, it is important to have a small focal spot size. A smaller focal spot size allows for better spatial resolution and sharper images. However, other considerations such as heat dissipation and tube life should also be taken into account when determining the focal spot size. Therefore, radiation should proceed from as small a focal spot as other considerations will allow.

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  • 24. 

    As the kilovoltage applied to the X-ray tube is raised:

    • A.

      X rays of longer wavelength and more penetrating power are produced.

    • B.

      X rays of shorter wavelength and more penetrating power are produced.

    • C.

      X rays of shorter wavelength and less penetrating power are produced.

    • D.

      X rays of longer wavelength and less penetrating power are produced.

    Correct Answer
    B. X rays of shorter wavelength and more penetrating power are produced.
    Explanation
    When the kilovoltage applied to the X-ray tube is raised, the electrons gain more energy, resulting in a higher velocity when they strike the target. This increased energy causes the production of X-rays with shorter wavelengths. Shorter wavelength X-rays have higher frequencies and therefore more energy, making them more penetrating.

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  • 25. 

    In order to increase the intensity of X-radiation:

    • A.

      The tube current should be increased

    • B.

      The tube current should be decreased

    • C.

      The test specimen should be moved further from the film.

    • D.

      A lower kilovoltage should be applied to the tube

    Correct Answer
    A. The tube current should be increased
    Explanation
    To increase the intensity of X-radiation, the tube current should be increased. Tube current refers to the flow of electrons in the X-ray tube. By increasing the tube current, more electrons are generated, resulting in a higher intensity of X-radiation being produced. This can be beneficial in situations where a higher level of X-radiation is needed for imaging purposes, such as in medical diagnostics or industrial inspections.

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  • 26. 

    Primary radiation which strikes a film holder or cassette through a thin portion of the specimen will cause scattering into the shadows of the adjacent thicker portions producing an effect called:

    • A.

      Radiation imaging

    • B.

      Spotting

    • C.

      Undercut

    • D.

      Unsharpness

    Correct Answer
    C. Undercut
    Explanation
    When primary radiation passes through a thin portion of the specimen and strikes a film holder or cassette, it can cause scattering into the shadows of the adjacent thicker portions. This scattering effect is known as undercut.

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  • 27. 

    Scattered radiation caused by any material, such as a wall or floor, tabletop, or cassette that is located at the back of the film, is known as:

    • A.

      Primary scattering

    • B.

      Undercut

    • C.

      Reflected scattering

    • D.

      Backscattered radiation

    Correct Answer
    D. Backscattered radiation
    Explanation
    Backscattered radiation refers to the scattered radiation that occurs when X-rays pass through a material and are redirected in the opposite direction, back towards the source. This can happen when X-rays encounter objects such as walls, floors, tabletops, or cassettes located behind the film. The term "backscattered" indicates that the radiation has been scattered back in the direction it came from. Therefore, the correct answer is backscattered radiation.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following materials is suitable for use in vessels or pails used to mix processing solutions:

    • A.

      Stainless steel

    • B.

      Aluminum

    • C.

      Galvanized iron

    • D.

      Tin

    Correct Answer
    A. Stainless steel
    Explanation
    Stainless steel is suitable for use in vessels or pails used to mix processing solutions because it is corrosion-resistant, durable, and non-reactive. It can withstand the harsh chemicals and high temperatures often involved in processing solutions without contaminating the solution or being damaged itself. Aluminum, galvanized iron, and tin are not as suitable for this purpose as they may corrode or react with the chemicals in the solution, potentially contaminating it or compromising the integrity of the vessel.

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  • 29. 

    Any of the body tissues may be injured by excessive exposure to X or gamma rays, but particularly sensitive are:

    • A.

      Blood

    • B.

      The lens of the eye

    • C.

      Internal organs

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Excessive exposure to X or gamma rays can cause injury to any body tissue. However, certain tissues are particularly sensitive to these rays, including blood, the lens of the eye, and internal organs. Therefore, all of the above tissues can be injured by excessive exposure to X or gamma rays.

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  • 30. 

    A general rule used to define the amount of radiation exposure that is excessive is:

    • A.

      Although small amounts of radiation (0.4 R per week or less) are beneficial since they build up an immunity to these rays, anything above 0.4 R per week is excessive

    • B.

      Any dose over 5 R per week is excessive

    • C.

      Any dose which causes a mid-range reading on a Geiger counter is excessive

    • D.

      Any unnecessary exposure to radiation is excessive

    Correct Answer
    D. Any unnecessary exposure to radiation is excessive
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that any unnecessary exposure to radiation is excessive. This means that if someone is exposed to radiation when it is not necessary or beneficial, it is considered excessive. This aligns with the general rule mentioned in the question that small amounts of radiation can be beneficial, but anything above that is excessive. Therefore, the statement that any unnecessary exposure to radiation is excessive is a valid explanation based on the information provided.

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  • 31. 

    X-ray exposure may be due to:

    • A.

      The direct beam from the X-ray tube target

    • B.

      Scatter radiation arising from the object in the direct beam

    • C.

      Both A and B above

    • D.

      Both A and B above, plus residual radiation that exists for the first few minutes after the X-ray machine has been returned to the "off" position

    Correct Answer
    C. Both A and B above
    Explanation
    X-ray exposure can occur due to both the direct beam from the X-ray tube target and scatter radiation arising from the object in the direct beam. The direct beam refers to the primary X-ray beam that is emitted from the X-ray tube and directly interacts with the object being imaged. Scatter radiation, on the other hand, is produced when the primary X-ray beam interacts with the object and scatters in different directions. Both the direct beam and scatter radiation contribute to the overall X-ray exposure. Additionally, the answer also mentions residual radiation that exists for the first few minutes after the X-ray machine has been turned off, which further adds to the X-ray exposure.

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  • 32. 

    A general rune often employed for determining the kilovoltage to be used when X-raying a part is:

    • A.

      The kilovoltage should be as high as other factors will permit

    • B.

      The kilovoltage should be as low as other factors will permit

    • C.

      The kilovoltage is always a fixed value and cannot be changed

    • D.

      The kilovoltage is not an important variable and can be changed over a wide range without affecting the radiograph

    Correct Answer
    B. The kilovoltage should be as low as other factors will permit
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that the kilovoltage should be as low as other factors will permit. This is because using a lower kilovoltage helps to reduce the radiation dose to the patient while still producing a diagnostic image. However, it is important to note that the kilovoltage should not be set too low as it may result in poor image quality and reduced visibility of certain structures. Therefore, the kilovoltage should be adjusted based on other factors such as the thickness of the body part being imaged and the desired level of image detail.

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  • 33. 

    If a piece of lead 1/2-inch is placed in the path of a beam of radiation emanating from cobalt-60, it will reduce the dose rate at a given location by:

    • A.

      One-third

    • B.

      One-quarter

    • C.

      One-half

    • D.

      Three-quarters

    Correct Answer
    C. One-half
    Explanation
    When a piece of lead is placed in the path of a beam of radiation, it acts as a shield and reduces the dose rate at a given location. In this case, the lead is 1/2-inch thick. The answer "one-half" suggests that the lead reduces the dose rate by half, meaning it cuts the radiation exposure in half.

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  • 34. 

    Excessive exposure of the film to light prior to the development of the film will most likely result in:

    • A.

      A foggy film

    • B.

      Poor definition

    • C.

      Streaks

    • D.

      Yellow stain

    Correct Answer
    A. A foggy film
    Explanation
    Excessive exposure of the film to light prior to development can cause the film to become overexposed, resulting in a foggy appearance. This occurs because the excessive light exposure causes the film to be exposed to more light than it can handle, causing the image to become washed out and lacking in detail. This is different from poor definition, streaks, or a yellow stain, which are caused by other factors such as improper development or chemical contamination.

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  • 35. 

    White crescent-shaped marks on an exposed X-ray film are most likely caused by:

    • A.

      Crimping film after exposure

    • B.

      Crimping film before exposure

    • C.

      Sudden extreme temperature change while processing

    • D.

      Warm of exhausted fixer

    Correct Answer
    B. Crimping film before exposure
    Explanation
    Crimping film before exposure can cause white crescent-shaped marks on an exposed X-ray film. This is because when the film is crimped before exposure, it can create pressure points that prevent proper development of the film in those areas. As a result, those areas appear as white crescent-shaped marks on the film.

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  • 36. 

    Reticulation resulting in a puckered or netlike film surface is probably caused by:

    • A.

      Crimping film after exposure

    • B.

      Sudden extreme temperature change while processing

    • C.

      Water or developer on unprocessed film

    • D.

      Excessive object-to-film distance

    Correct Answer
    B. Sudden extreme temperature change while processing
    Explanation
    Reticulation resulting in a puckered or netlike film surface is probably caused by sudden extreme temperature change while processing. This occurs when there is a rapid and drastic change in temperature during the film development process. The sudden temperature change causes the film emulsion to contract and expand unevenly, leading to the formation of a puckered or netlike pattern on the film surface. This can result in a distorted and damaged image on the film.

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  • 37. 

    Frilling or loosening of the emulsion from the base of the film is most likely caused by:

    • A.

      The water of developer on unprocessed film

    • B.

      The low temperature of processing solutions

    • C.

      Developer solution contamination

    • D.

      Warm or exhausted fixer solution

    Correct Answer
    D. Warm or exhausted fixer solution
    Explanation
    The frilling or loosening of the emulsion from the base of the film is most likely caused by a warm or exhausted fixer solution. This is because the fixer solution is responsible for removing the unexposed silver halide crystals from the film, and if the solution is too warm or exhausted, it can cause the emulsion to separate from the base. This can result in a loss of image quality and potentially damage the film.

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  • 38. 

    If an exposure time of 60 seconds was necessary using a 4-foot source-to-film distance for a particular exposure, what time would be necessary if a 2-foot source-to-film distance is used and all other variables remain the same?

    • A.

      120 seconds

    • B.

      30 seconds

    • C.

      15 seconds

    • D.

      240 seconds

    Correct Answer
    C. 15 seconds
    Explanation
    225 always square time distance relations

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  • 39. 

    One of the general rules concerning the application of geometric principles of shadow formation to radiography is:

    • A.

      The X rays should proceed from as large a focal spot as other considerations will allow

    • B.

      The film should be as far as possible from the object being radiographed

    • C.

      The distance between the anode and the material examined should always be as great as possible

    • D.

      All three of the above are correct

    Correct Answer
    C. The distance between the anode and the material examined should always be as great as possible
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that increasing the distance between the anode and the material being examined in radiography helps to reduce image distortion and improve image quality. This is because the further the distance, the less divergence of the X-ray beam, resulting in sharper and more accurate images. Additionally, increasing the distance also helps to reduce magnification and decrease the amount of scatter radiation reaching the film, further enhancing image clarity. Therefore, it is recommended to maximize the distance between the anode and the material being examined in order to achieve optimal radiographic results.

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  • 40. 

    As a check on the adequacy of the radiographic technique, it is customary to place a standard test piece on the source side of the specimen. This standard test piece is called a:

    • A.

      Reference plate

    • B.

      Lead screen

    • C.

      Penetrameter

    • D.

      Illuminator

    Correct Answer
    C. Penetrameter
    Explanation
    A penetrameter is a standard test piece that is placed on the source side of the specimen during radiographic testing. It is used to check the adequacy of the radiographic technique. The penetrameter helps evaluate the quality of the radiographic image by providing a known level of contrast and resolution. It allows technicians to assess the penetration and visibility of the image produced by the radiographic technique. Therefore, the correct answer is penetrameter.

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  • 41. 

    The duration of exposure is usually controlled by:

    • A.

      Controlling the milliamperage

    • B.

      A timer

    • C.

      Controlling the source-to-film distance

    • D.

      A choke coil in the filament transformer

    Correct Answer
    B. A timer
    Explanation
    The duration of exposure is usually controlled by a timer. A timer is used to set the specific amount of time that the x-ray machine will emit radiation. This is important in order to ensure that the patient receives the correct amount of radiation for their specific procedure. By using a timer, the healthcare professional can accurately control the duration of exposure and minimize the risk of overexposure to radiation.

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  • 42. 

    A penetrameter is used to indicate:

    • A.

      The size of the discontinuities in a part

    • B.

      The density of the film

    • C.

      The amount of the film contrast

    • D.

      The quality of the radiographic technique

    Correct Answer
    D. The quality of the radiographic technique
    Explanation
    A penetrameter is a device used in radiographic testing to assess the quality of the radiographic technique. It consists of a series of step wedges or image quality indicators that have different thicknesses. When the penetrameter is exposed to radiation, the resulting radiographic image shows the varying degrees of penetration of the radiation through the different thicknesses. By analyzing the image, technicians can determine the quality of the radiographic technique used, including factors such as exposure settings, film processing, and overall image clarity.

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  • 43. 

    An intensifying fluorescent screen will

    • A.

      Transform X-ray energy into visible or ultraviolet light to which a photographic emulsion is sensitive

    • B.

      Result in reticulation

    • C.

      Decrease the graininess of the image when using gamma rays

    • D.

      Increase the definition in a radiograph

    Correct Answer
    A. Transform X-ray energy into visible or ultraviolet light to which a photographic emulsion is sensitive
    Explanation
    An intensifying fluorescent screen will transform X-ray energy into visible or ultraviolet light to which a photographic emulsion is sensitive. This means that when X-rays pass through the screen, they are converted into light that can be captured by a photographic emulsion, allowing for the creation of a radiograph. This transformation of X-ray energy into visible or ultraviolet light is the purpose of using an intensifying fluorescent screen in radiography.

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  • 44. 

    The three main steps in processing a radiograph are:

    • A.

      Developing, frilling, and fixation

    • B.

      Developing, fixation, and washing.

    • C.

      Exposure, developing, and fixation

    • D.

      Developing, reticulating, and fixation

    Correct Answer
    B. Developing, fixation, and washing.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is developing, fixation, and washing. These are the three main steps in processing a radiograph. Developing involves placing the exposed film in a developer solution to bring out the image. Fixation is the next step, where the film is placed in a fixer solution to remove any unexposed silver halide crystals. Finally, washing is done to remove any remaining chemicals from the film. This sequence ensures that the radiograph is properly developed and free from any unwanted substances.

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  • 45. 

    Lead foil screens are used in radiography:

    • A.

      To improve the quality of the radiograph by preferentially reducing the effect of scatter radiation

    • B.

      To reduce the exposure time

    • C.

      Both A and B are reasons for using lead foil screens

    • D.

      Neither A nor B are reasons for using lead foil screens

    Correct Answer
    C. Both A and B are reasons for using lead foil screens
    Explanation
    Lead foil screens are used in radiography to improve the quality of the radiograph by preferentially reducing the effect of scatter radiation. Scatter radiation is unwanted radiation that can degrade the quality of the image by causing blurring and reducing contrast. Lead foil screens can absorb or scatter this radiation, thereby improving the clarity and sharpness of the radiograph. Additionally, lead foil screens can also reduce the exposure time required for obtaining a clear image, as they help to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio by reducing the amount of scatter radiation reaching the detector. Therefore, both A and B are valid reasons for using lead foil screens in radiography.

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  • 46. 

    When the minute silver grains on which the X-ray film image has formed a group together in relatively large masses, they produce a visual impression called.

    • A.

      Air bells

    • B.

      Graininess

    • C.

      Reticulation

    • D.

      Frilling

    Correct Answer
    B. Graininess
    Explanation
    Graininess refers to the visual impression created when the minute silver grains on the X-ray film image group together in relatively large masses. This can result in a textured appearance with visible grain-like patterns on the image.

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  • 47. 

    To prevent excessive backscatter from reaching a radiographic film, one should:

    • A.

      Back the cassette with a sheet of lead, the thickness needed depending on the radiation quality

    • B.

      Place a mask between the specimen and the front surface of the film

    • C.

      Back the exposure holder with a thick sheet of lead (at least 1/2 inch)

    • D.

      Place a filter in the X-ray or gamma-ray beam near the source or X-ray tube

    Correct Answer
    A. Back the cassette with a sheet of lead, the thickness needed depending on the radiation quality
    Explanation
    Backing the cassette with a sheet of lead helps to prevent excessive backscatter from reaching the radiographic film. The thickness of the lead sheet needed depends on the radiation quality. Lead is a dense material that effectively absorbs and blocks radiation, reducing the amount of backscatter that can reach the film. By placing the lead sheet behind the cassette, it acts as a shield, preventing the backscatter from reaching the film and causing unwanted exposure or artifacts. The thickness of the lead sheet required will vary depending on the energy and intensity of the radiation being used.

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  • 48. 

    Static marks, which are black tree-like or circular marks on a radiograph, are often caused by:

    • A.

      Film being bent when inserted in a cassette or holder

    • B.

      Foreign material or dirt embedded in screens

    • C.

      Scratches on lead foil screens

    • D.

      Improper film handling techniques

    Correct Answer
    D. Improper film handling techniques
    Explanation
    Static marks on a radiograph can be caused by various factors such as film being bent when inserted in a cassette or holder, foreign material or dirt embedded in screens, and scratches on lead foil screens. However, the correct answer for the given question is "improper film handling techniques." This means that the static marks are likely caused by mistakes or errors made during the handling of the film, rather than the other mentioned factors.

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  • 49. 

    The purpose of agitating an X-ray film during development is to:

    • A.

      Protect the film from excessive pressure

    • B.

      Renew the developer at the surface of the film

    • C.

      Disperse unexposed silver grains on the film surface

    • D.

      Prevent reticulation

    Correct Answer
    B. Renew the developer at the surface of the film
    Explanation
    Agitating an X-ray film during development helps to renew the developer at the surface of the film. This is important because the developer solution can become depleted or exhausted over time, leading to uneven development and reduced image quality. By agitating the film, fresh developer is brought into contact with the surface of the film, ensuring that the development process is consistent and complete. This helps to produce clear and well-defined X-ray images.

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  • 50. 

    When manually processing films, the purpose for sharply taping hangers two or three times after the films have been lowered in the developer is to:

    • A.

      Disperse unexposed silver grains on the film surface

    • B.

      Prevent frilling

    • C.

      Dislodge any air bubbles clinging to the emulsion

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Dislodge any air bubbles clinging to the emulsion
    Explanation
    When films are manually processed, air bubbles can sometimes get trapped between the film and the developer solution. These air bubbles can cause uneven development and result in areas of the film not being properly processed. By sharply tapping the hangers two or three times after the films have been lowered into the developer, any air bubbles clinging to the emulsion can be dislodged. This ensures that the film is in full contact with the developer solution and allows for more consistent and accurate processing.

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