Block 7 BRS - Placenta And Amniotic Fluid

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Quizzes Created: 32 | Total Attempts: 34,288
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Pregnancy Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    During the later stages of pregnancy, maternal blood is separated from fetal blood by

    • A. 

      Syncytiotrophoblast only

    • B. 

      Cytotrophoblast only

    • C. 

      Syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast

    • D. 

      Syncytiotrophoblast and fetal endothelium

    • E. 

      Cytotrophoblast and fetal endothelium

    Correct Answer
    D. Syncytiotrophoblast and fetal endothelium
    Explanation
    During the later stages of pregnancy, the placental membrane becomes very thin and consists of two layers, the syncytiotrophoblast and fetal endothelium.

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  • 2. 

    The maternal and fetal components of the placenta are

    • A. 

      Decidua basalis and secondary chorionic villi

    • B. 

      Decidua capsularis and secondary chorionic villi

    • C. 

      Decidua parietalis and tertiary chorionic villi

    • D. 

      Decidua capsularis and villous chorion

    • E. 

      Decidua basalis and villous chorion

    Correct Answer
    E. Decidua basalis and villous chorion
    Explanation
    The placenta is a unique organ in that it is a composite of tissue from two different sources,
    the mother and the fetus. The maternal component is the decidua basalis, and the fetal component is the villous chorion

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  • 3. 

    The intervillous space of the placenta contains

    • A. 

      Maternal blood

    • B. 

      Fetal blood

    • C. 

      Maternal and fetal blood

    • D. 

      Amniotic fluid

    • E. 

      Maternal blood and amniotic fluid

    Correct Answer
    A. Maternal blood
    Explanation
    The intervillous space contains only maternal blood as the spiral arteries of the
    endometrium penetrate the outer cytotrophoblast shell.

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  • 4. 

    A young insulin-dependent diabetic woman in her first pregnancy is concerned that her daily injection of insulin will cause a congenital malformation in her baby. What should the physician tell her?

    • A. 

      Insulin is highly teratogenic; discontinue treatment

    • B. 

      Insulin does not cross the placental membrane

    • C. 

      Insulin crosses the placental membrane but is degraded rapidly

    • D. 

      Insulin will benefit her baby by increasing glucose metabolism

    • E. 

      Insulin crosses the placental membrane but is not teratogenic

    Correct Answer
    B. Insulin does not cross the placental membrane
    Explanation
    Insulin, like all protein hormones, does not cross the placental membrane in significant
    amounts.

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  • 5. 

    What is a normal amount of amniotic fluid at term?

    • A. 

      50 mL

    • B. 

      500 mL

    • C. 

      1000 mL

    • D. 

      1500 mL

    • E. 

      2000 mL

    Correct Answer
    C. 1000 mL
    Explanation
    The normal amount of amniotic fluid at term is 1000 mL. However, the amount of amniotic
    fluid at various stages of pregnancy can be indicative of congenital malformations.
    Oligohydramnios (400 mL in late pregnancy) may be indicative of renal agenesis.
    Polyhydramnios (2000 mL in late pregnancy) may be indicative of either anencephaly or
    esophageal atresia.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following does not pass through the primitive umbilical ring?

    • A. 

      Allantois

    • B. 

      Amnion

    • C. 

      Yolk sac

    • D. 

      Connecting stalk

    • E. 

      Space connecting the intraembryonic and extraembryonic coeloms

    Correct Answer
    B. Amnion
    Explanation
    The amnion does not pass through the primitive umbilical ring. As craniocaudal folding
    occurs, the amnion becomes the outer covering of the umbilical cord.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following best describes the placental components of dizygotic twins?

    • A. 

      One placenta, two amniotic sacs, one chorion

    • B. 

      One placenta, two amniotic sacs, two chorions

    • C. 

      Two placentas, two amniotic sacs, one chorion

    • D. 

      Two placentas, two amniotic sacs, two chorions

    • E. 

      One placenta, two amniotic sacs, two chorions

    Correct Answer
    D. Two placentas, two amniotic sacs, two chorions
    Explanation
    Dizygotic twins and 35% of monozygotic twins have two placentas, two amniotic sacs, and
    two chorions (i.e., 222).

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  • 8. 

    A 26-year-old pregnant woman experiences repeated episodes of bright red vaginal bleeding at week 28, week 32, and week 34 of pregnancy. The bleeding spontaneously subsided each time. Using ultrasound, the placenta is located in the lower right portion of the uterus over the internal os. What is the diagnosis?

    • A. 

      Hydatidiform mole

    • B. 

      Vasa previa

    • C. 

      Placenta previa

    • D. 

      Placental abruption

    • E. 

      Premature rupture of the amniochorionic membrane

    Correct Answer
    C. Placenta previa
    Explanation
    A placenta implanted in the lower part of the uterus near the internal os is called placenta
    previa. The repeated episodes of bright red vaginal bleeding are caused by the gradual dilation of
    the uterus in the later stages of pregnancy. As the uterus dilates, spiral arteries and veins supplying the placenta are ruptured. The mother may bleed to death, and the fetus is placed in jeopardy because of the compromised maternal blood flow.

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  • 9. 

    A 19-year-old woman in week 32 of a complication-free pregnancy is rushed to the emergency department because of profuse vaginal bleeding. The bleeding subsides, but afterwards no fetal heart sounds can be heard, indicating intrauterine fetal death. The woman goes into labor and delivers a stillborn infant. On examination of the afterbirth, a velamentous placenta is detected. Although not much can be done at this point, what is the diagnosis?

    • A. 

      Placenta previa

    • B. 

      Vasa previa

    • C. 

      Hydatidiform mole

    • D. 

      Premature rupture of the amniochorionic membrane

    • E. 

      Amniotic band syndrome

    Correct Answer
    B. Vasa previa
    Explanation
    A velamentous placenta occurs when umbilical blood vessels abnormally travel through the
    amniochorionic membrane before reaching the placenta proper. If the vessels cross the internal
    os, a serious condition called vasa previa exists. As the fetus grows during pregnancy and the
    amniochorionic membrane stretches, the umbilical vessels may rupture. When that happens, the
    fetus will bleed to death. The mother is in no danger of bleeding to death in vasa previa because
    only the umbilical vessels rupture.

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  • 10. 

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is produced by which of the following?

    • A. 

      Ectoderm

    • B. 

      Cytotrophoblast

    • C. 

      Decidua basalis

    • D. 

      Syncytiotrophoblast

    • E. 

      Mesoderm

    Correct Answer
    D. Syncytiotrophoblast
    Explanation
    The syncytiotrophoblast produces hCG.

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  • 11. 

    A reliable index of fetal-placenta function is maternal urinary levels of

    • A. 

      Estrone

    • B. 

      Human placental lactogen (hPL)

    • C. 

      Prolactin (PRL)

    • D. 

      Progesterone

    • E. 

      Estriol

    Correct Answer
    E. Estriol
    Explanation
    Maternal urinary levels of estriol have long been recognized as a reliable index of fetalplacental function because estriol production is dependent on a normal-functioning fetal adrenal cortex, fetal liver, and placenta.

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  • 12. 

    The Doppler fetal heart rate is first audible in which of the following trimesters?

    • A. 

      First trimester

    • B. 

      Second trimester

    • C. 

      Third trimester

    Correct Answer
    A. First trimester
    Explanation
    The fetal heart rate is first audible in the first trimester at around week 12.

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  • 13. 

    The lungs become capable of respiration in which of the following trimesters?

    • A. 

      First trimester

    • B. 

      Second trimester

    • C. 

      Third trimester

    Correct Answer
    B. Second trimester
    Explanation
    The lungs become capable of respiration at weeks 25-27 in the second trimester

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  • 14. 

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy demonstrates which of the following inheritance patterns?

    • A. 

      Mitochondrial inheritance

    • B. 

      X-linked recessive

    • C. 

      Autosomal dominant

    • D. 

      Autosomal recessive

    Correct Answer
    A. Mitochondrial inheritance
    Explanation
    . Leber hereditary optic neuropathy demonstrates a mitochondrial inheritance pattern.

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  • 15. 

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy demonstrates which of the following inheritance patterns?

    • A. 

      Mitochondrial inheritance

    • B. 

      X-linked recessive

    • C. 

      Autosomal dominant

    • D. 

      Autosomal recessive

    Correct Answer
    B. X-linked recessive
    Explanation
    Duchenne muscular dystrophy demonstrates an X-linked recessive inheritance pattern

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  • 16. 

    Huntington disease demonstrates which of the following inheritance patterns?

    • A. 

      Mitochondrial inheritance

    • B. 

      X-linked recessive

    • C. 

      Autosomal dominant

    • D. 

      Autosomal recessive

    Correct Answer
    C. Autosomal dominant
    Explanation
    Huntington disease demonstrates an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is inherited entirely through maternal transmission?

    • A. 

      Huntington disease

    • B. 

      Cystic fibrosis

    • C. 

      Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    • D. 

      Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    Correct Answer
    D. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy
    Explanation
    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy involves a mutation in the ND4 gene located on mitochondrial DNA. All mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from the mother because sperm (male) mitochondria do not pass into the ovum at fertilization

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following genetic diseases involves a mutation in a Cl- channel?

    • A. 

      Huntington disease

    • B. 

      Cystic fibrosis

    • C. 

      Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    • D. 

      Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    Correct Answer
    B. Cystic fibrosis
    Explanation
    Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disease that involves a mutation in the CF gene that encodes for a Cl- channel.

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