The Placenta- Pt 1

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| By Mnathan21
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Quizzes Created: 32 | Total Attempts: 20,476
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Pt Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The placenta is the link between the ______________ and _____________.

    Explanation
    The placenta is a vital organ that forms during pregnancy and serves as a connection between the mother and the fetus. It allows for the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the mother's bloodstream and the developing fetus. The placenta also produces hormones that are necessary for maintaining pregnancy and supporting fetal growth. Therefore, the placenta acts as a link, ensuring the necessary support and nourishment for the fetus from the mother's body.

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  • 2. 

    The placenta is highly _______________, and is a ____________________ organ, present during pregnancy only.

    Explanation
    The placenta is highly vascular, meaning it contains a rich network of blood vessels. It is a temporary organ, as it is only present during pregnancy to provide essential nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus and remove waste products.

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  • 3. 

    Fetal well being depends on an ________________ and ________________ utero-placental vascular supply.

    Explanation
    The fetal well-being is determined by the condition of the utero-placental vascular supply. It needs to be intact, meaning that there should be no damage or disruption to the blood vessels, and uncompromised, indicating that there should be no compromise or obstruction in the blood flow to the fetus. Both of these conditions are crucial for ensuring that the fetus receives an adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients for its proper development and growth.

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  • 4. 

    The placenta is divided into two portions, the ________________ surface and ________________ surface.

    Explanation
    The placenta is divided into two portions, the fetal surface and maternal surface. The fetal surface is the side of the placenta that is in direct contact with the fetus, allowing for the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the mother and the developing baby. The maternal surface is the side of the placenta that is in contact with the mother's uterine wall, where blood vessels from the mother deliver oxygen and nutrients to the placenta and remove waste products from the fetus.

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  • 5. 

    The placenta is connected to the fetus via the ________________ _______________.

    Explanation
    The placenta is connected to the fetus through the umbilical cord. This cord contains blood vessels that transport oxygen, nutrients, and waste products between the mother and the developing baby. It serves as a lifeline for the fetus, allowing it to receive essential nutrients and oxygen from the mother's bloodstream while simultaneously removing waste products. The umbilical cord is crucial for the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

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  • 6. 

    The placenta is ________________ after the fetus is delivered. It is known as the "________________"

    Explanation
    After the fetus is delivered, the placenta is also expelled from the mother's body. This is known as the "afterbirth." The placenta is an organ that develops during pregnancy to provide oxygen and nutrients to the fetus, as well as remove waste products. Once the baby is born, the placenta is no longer needed and is expelled through the process of delivery. It is commonly referred to as the afterbirth.

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  • 7. 

    The site of the former umbilical cord attachment is known as the _________________/_______________ (______________ _______________)

    Explanation
    The site where the umbilical cord was once attached is commonly referred to as the umbilicus, naval, or belly button.

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  • 8. 

    Placental functions-Provides _______________ and ______________ to the fetus.

    Explanation
    The placenta plays a crucial role in providing nutrition and oxygen to the developing fetus. It acts as a bridge between the mother and the fetus, allowing nutrients and oxygen from the mother's bloodstream to pass through and reach the fetus. The placenta also helps in removing waste products and carbon dioxide from the fetus, ensuring a healthy environment for its growth and development. Therefore, the correct answer is nutrition and oxygen.

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  • 9. 

    Placental functions-Removes _______ and ____________ from fetus. Oxygen, nutrients and water pass from mother to fetus, while CO2 and waste pass from fetus to mother.

    Explanation
    The placenta is responsible for removing carbon dioxide (CO2) and waste materials from the fetus. It acts as a barrier between the mother and fetus, allowing oxygen, nutrients, and water to pass from the mother to the fetus for its growth and development. At the same time, the placenta facilitates the transfer of CO2 and waste products from the fetus to the mother's bloodstream, which are then eliminated from her body.

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  • 10. 

    Placental functions-____________________ out some substances which may be harmful to the fetus.

    Explanation
    The placenta acts as a filter, removing substances that may be harmful to the fetus. It acts as a barrier between the mother's bloodstream and the fetus, allowing nutrients and oxygen to pass through while filtering out potentially harmful substances such as toxins, drugs, and waste products. This ensures that the fetus receives the necessary nutrients and is protected from harmful substances that could potentially affect its development.

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  • 11. 

    Some harmful substances are NOT able to be filtered out by the placenta such as _______________. Several types of infections and viruses may also cross this barrier such as _________________, _______________ and _________________.

    Explanation
    During pregnancy, the placenta acts as a barrier between the mother and the developing fetus, filtering out harmful substances and protecting the baby. However, some substances like alcohol are small enough to pass through the placenta and reach the fetus, causing potential harm to its development. Similarly, certain infections and viruses such as HIV, rubella, and syphilis can also cross the placental barrier and infect the fetus, leading to various complications and health issues.

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  • 12. 

    Placental functions-Production of ________________. Produces _________________ and ___________________ which are important in maintaining pregnancy.

    Explanation
    The placenta plays a crucial role in the production of hormones, specifically estrogen and progesterone, which are essential for maintaining pregnancy. Estrogen helps in the development of the uterus and breasts, while progesterone supports the growth of the placenta and prevents contractions that could lead to premature labor. These hormones work together to regulate various physiological processes during pregnancy, ensuring the proper development and functioning of the fetus.

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  • 13. 

    Placental function depends on the proper placental development from _____________ derived from the mother (_______________) and fetus (_______________)

    Explanation
    The placental function relies on the proper development of tissues, including the decidua and chorion, which are derived from both the mother and fetus. The decidua is the lining of the uterus, which undergoes changes during pregnancy to support the placenta. The chorion is the outermost fetal membrane that surrounds the embryo and eventually forms the fetal side of the placenta. Both the mother and fetus contribute tissues necessary for the development and functioning of the placenta.

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  • 14. 

    Any reference to the ________________ plate refers to the maternal side.

    Explanation
    The term "basilar" refers to the basilar plate, which is a part of the skull. In this context, the explanation suggests that any reference to the basilar plate is specifically referring to the maternal side. It implies that when discussing the basilar plate, it is related to the maternal lineage or side of the family.

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  • 15. 

    Any reference to the __________________ plate refers to the fetal side.

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "chorionic." The explanation is that when the question mentions "the chorionic plate," it is referring to the fetal side. The term "chorionic" is used to describe the fetal side of the placenta.

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  • 16. 

    The placenta can be identified sonographically as early as _____(#) - ____(#) weeks

    Explanation
    The placenta can be identified sonographically as early as 8 weeks and up to 10 weeks. Sonography is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses sound waves to create images of the inside of the body. By 8 weeks, the placenta begins to develop and can be visualized using this technique. It continues to grow and develop until around 10 weeks, at which point it becomes more easily identifiable on a sonogram.

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  • 17. 

    Attachment to the uterine wall can occur ___________________ within the uterine cavity.

    Explanation
    Attachment to the uterine wall can occur anywhere within the uterine cavity, meaning that the fertilized egg can implant itself in any location within the uterus. This attachment is crucial for the development of a healthy pregnancy.

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  • 18. 

    Where the placenta attaches is where the _________________ implants.

    Explanation
    The blastocyst is the stage of development of an embryo in which it implants itself into the uterine wall. Therefore, where the placenta attaches is where the blastocyst implants.

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  • 19. 

    Name the six locations of the placenta in alphebetical order

    Explanation
    The six locations of the placenta are listed in alphabetical order: Anterior, combination, fundal, lateral, posterior, previa.

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  • 20. 

    The apparent change in placental location during the first part of a pregnancy is referred to as ___________________ _____________________.

    Explanation
    During the first part of a pregnancy, the placenta undergoes a process known as placental migration. This refers to the apparent change in the location of the placenta within the uterus. As the pregnancy progresses, the placenta moves from its initial implantation site to a higher position in the uterus. This migration is a normal and natural occurrence that allows for optimal blood flow and nutrient exchange between the mother and the developing fetus.

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  • 21. 

    "Placental migration" is a misnomer, because in reality the placenta does not really move. There is growth in the _______________ _________________ _________________ during pregnancy which makes it appear as if the placenta moved upward. The enlarged uterus pulls the placenta toward the ____________ of the uterus.

    Explanation
    During pregnancy, the uterus undergoes significant growth and expansion. As the uterus enlarges, it exerts pressure on the lower uterine segment, causing it to stretch and elongate. This stretching of the lower uterine segment creates the illusion that the placenta has moved upward when in reality it has not physically changed its position. The top of the uterus, which is the uppermost part, is pulled by the enlarged uterus, further contributing to the perception that the placenta has shifted towards the top.

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  • 22. 

    _______________ ________________ is abnormal location of the placenta in the lower part of the uterus with a portion of teh cervix being covered.

    Explanation
    Placenta previa is a condition where the placenta is located abnormally in the lower part of the uterus, with a portion of the cervix being covered. This can cause complications during pregnancy, such as bleeding, and may require medical intervention or a cesarean delivery.

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  • 23. 

    Placenta previa occurs when the _________________ ___________________ _______________ is covered by the placenta. (Incidence is 1:_____(#) -_____(#) at >20-24 weeks.)

    Explanation
    Placenta previa is a condition where the placenta partially or completely covers the internal cervical os, which is the opening of the cervix. The incidence of placenta previa is estimated to be 1 in 150 to 1 in 350 pregnancies at or after 20-24 weeks.

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  • 24. 

    _________________ _________________ is the most common cause of painless pleeding in the second and third trimesters.

    Explanation
    Placenta previa is a condition in which the placenta partially or completely covers the cervix, leading to painless bleeding in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. This occurs because the placenta is implanted lower in the uterus than normal, causing it to block the opening of the cervix. As a result, when the cervix begins to thin and dilate in preparation for labor, the placenta can be disrupted and cause bleeding. Placenta previa is the most common cause of painless bleeding in the later stages of pregnancy.

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  • 25. 

    Placenta previa is most common in-

    • A.

      Multiparous women

    • B.

      Patients with prior cesarean section or uterine surgery (Triple the risk due to scar tissue)

    • C.

      Advanced maternal age

    • D.

      Previous ectopic pregnancies

    • E.

      Closely spaced pregnancies

    • F.

      Women with PID

    • G.

      Cigarette smoking

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Multiparous women
    B. Patients with prior cesarean section or uterine surgery (Triple the risk due to scar tissue)
    C. Advanced maternal age
    E. Closely spaced pregnancies
    G. Cigarette smoking
    Explanation
    Placenta previa is a condition in which the placenta partially or completely covers the cervix. This can lead to complications during pregnancy, such as bleeding and preterm birth. The given answer options suggest that placenta previa is most common in multiparous women (women who have had multiple pregnancies), patients with prior cesarean section or uterine surgery (due to scar tissue increasing the risk), advanced maternal age, closely spaced pregnancies, and cigarette smoking. These factors can contribute to the development of placenta previa by affecting the position and health of the placenta.

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  • 26. 

    Painful bleeding is a sign of _______________ _________________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    placental abruption
    Explanation
    Painful bleeding is a sign of placental abruption. Placental abruption refers to the separation of the placenta from the uterine wall before the baby is born. This condition can cause severe abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding, which may be accompanied by other symptoms such as contractions, back pain, and fetal distress. Prompt medical attention is necessary in cases of placental abruption to ensure the well-being of both the mother and the baby.

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  • 27. 

    Signs and symptoms of placenta previa include painless vaginal bleeding in _____________ and _______________ trimesters.

    Correct Answer(s)
    second, third
    Explanation
    Placenta previa is a condition where the placenta partially or completely covers the cervix. It is characterized by painless vaginal bleeding, which is a common symptom. This bleeding usually occurs in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The placenta may implant low in the uterus during the early stages of pregnancy, but as the uterus grows, it can cause the placenta to partially or completely cover the cervix. This can lead to bleeding, especially during the later stages of pregnancy. Therefore, the correct answer is second and third trimesters.

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  • 28. 

    Name the four classifications of placenta previa in alphabetical order.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Complete, low lying, marginal, partial
    Explanation
    The correct answer lists the four classifications of placenta previa in alphabetical order, which are complete, low lying, marginal, and partial.

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  • 29. 

    _______________ ______________ placenta is technically not a true previa. The placental edge is in the lower uterine segment, but not covering the internal os. Placental edge is within 2cm of cervical os without covering it.

    Correct Answer(s)
    low lying
    Explanation
    The term "low lying" refers to a condition where the placental edge is located in the lower uterine segment but does not cover the internal os. In this case, the placental edge is within 2cm of the cervical os without actually covering it. This is different from a true previa, where the placenta completely covers the internal os. Therefore, the correct answer is "low lying."

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  • 30. 

    _________________ placenta previa is when the placental edge reaches the margin of internal os, not covering it. The placental edge extends up to, but not covering os. Requires follow up later in pregnancy.

    Correct Answer(s)
    marginal
    Explanation
    Placenta previa is a condition where the placenta is located in the lower part of the uterus and partially or completely covers the cervix. In the case of marginal placenta previa, the placental edge reaches the margin of the internal os (the opening of the cervix), but does not cover it completely. This means that there is a possibility for the placenta to move away from the cervix as the pregnancy progresses. Therefore, follow-up later in pregnancy is necessary to monitor the position of the placenta and ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

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  • 31. 

    ______________ _______________ is when a small edge or segment of the placenta extends over the margin of the internal os.

    Correct Answer(s)
    partial previa
    Explanation
    Partial previa refers to a condition in which a small edge or segment of the placenta extends over the margin of the internal os. This means that the placenta partially covers the opening of the cervix. This condition can pose risks during pregnancy, as it may cause bleeding and complications during labor. Therefore, it is important for healthcare providers to monitor and manage partial previa to ensure the health and safety of both the mother and baby.

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  • 32. 

    ______________ _______________ is when the placenta covers the entire internal os. An overdistended bladder may mimic this.

    Correct Answer(s)
    complete previa
    Explanation
    Complete previa is a condition where the placenta completely covers the internal os of the cervix. This means that the placenta is positioned in such a way that it blocks the opening of the uterus. An overdistended bladder, which occurs when the bladder becomes excessively full, can cause pressure on the uterus and mimic the appearance of complete previa on imaging studies. This can lead to confusion in diagnosis if not carefully evaluated.

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  • 33. 

    The maternal side of the placenta is ______________ and _______________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    irregular, lobulated
    Explanation
    The maternal side of the placenta is described as irregular and lobulated. This means that it has an uneven and non-uniform surface with many small lobes. This irregularity and lobulation are characteristic features of the maternal side of the placenta, which is responsible for nutrient and oxygen exchange between the mother and the fetus. These features increase the surface area of the placenta, allowing for more efficient exchange of substances between the mother's blood and the fetal blood.

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  • 34. 

    The Basilar plate is divided into ______________, or functional lobes with irregular grooves.

    Correct Answer(s)
    cotyledons
  • 35. 

    The fetal surface is ___________ and covered by a ______________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    smooth, membrane
    Explanation
    The fetal surface refers to the outer surface of the fetus inside the uterus. It is described as smooth because it lacks any rough or irregular texture. This smooth surface is covered by a membrane, which acts as a protective layer. The membrane helps to keep the fetus safe and provides a barrier against any external factors that could potentially harm the developing fetus.

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  • 36. 

    Average placental size at maturity-Weight- ______(#) to _____(#) gramsSize- ______(#)  to _____(#) cmThickness: _____(#) cm (AP dimension)

    Correct Answer(s)
    450, 550, 16, 20, 5
    Explanation
    The average placental size at maturity in terms of weight is between 450 and 550 grams. The size of the placenta is between 16 and 20 centimeters. The thickness of the placenta, specifically the anteroposterior (AP) dimension, is 5 centimeters.

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  • 37. 

    As a general rule, after 23 weeks, the placenta should be no thinner than ____(#) cm or thicker than ___(#) cm.

    Correct Answer(s)
    1.5, 5
    1.5, 5.0
    Explanation
    After 23 weeks, the placenta should have a thickness of no less than 1.5 cm and no more than 5 cm. This range is considered normal and indicates a healthy placenta. A thinner or thicker placenta may be a sign of complications or abnormalities. It is important to monitor the placental thickness during pregnancy to ensure the proper functioning and development of the baby.

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  • 38. 

    Large placenta size is associated with-

    • A.

      Maternal gestational diabetes

    • B.

      Rh sensitivity

    • C.

      Multiparous

    • D.

      Chromosomal anomaly

    • E.

      Intrauterine infection

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Maternal gestational diabetes
    B. Rh sensitivity
    D. Chromosomal anomaly
    E. Intrauterine infection
    Explanation
    Large placenta size can be associated with maternal gestational diabetes, Rh sensitivity, chromosomal anomaly, and intrauterine infection. Maternal gestational diabetes can lead to an increased placental size due to the excess glucose crossing the placenta and causing overgrowth. Rh sensitivity can cause an immune response that leads to an enlarged placenta. Chromosomal anomalies can result in abnormal placental development and increased size. Intrauterine infection can also lead to placental enlargement as a response to inflammation and immune activation.

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  • 39. 

    Thin placenta is associated with-

    • A.

      IUGR

    • B.

      Maternal gestational diabetes

    • C.

      Maternal hypertension

    • D.

      Pre-eclampsia

    • E.

      Placental insufficiency

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. IUGR
    C. Maternal hypertension
    D. Pre-eclampsia
    E. Placental insufficiency
    Explanation
    A thin placenta is associated with IUGR (intrauterine growth restriction), maternal hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and placental insufficiency. This is because a thin placenta may not be able to adequately supply the growing fetus with nutrients and oxygen, leading to restricted fetal growth. Maternal hypertension and pre-eclampsia can also impair placental function and blood flow, further contributing to placental insufficiency and potential complications for the baby.

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  • 40. 

    Sonographic evaluation-Examination of the placenta is an important part of every obstetric sonogram. It is of critical importance when there is any indication of _____________ _____________, for example, in the setting of ______________ ______________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    placental pathology, vaginal bleeding
    Explanation
    The examination of the placenta is crucial in obstetric sonograms, especially when there are indications of placental pathology such as vaginal bleeding. This is because placental pathology can have significant implications for the health of both the mother and the fetus. Vaginal bleeding can be a symptom of various placental abnormalities, such as placenta previa or placental abruption. Therefore, evaluating the placenta in cases of vaginal bleeding helps in identifying and managing any potential complications that may arise.

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  • 41. 

    Sonographic evaluationExamination of the placenta can also give important clues regarding ______________ _______________, _______________, ________________, etc.

    Correct Answer(s)
    fetal growth, abnormalities, infection
    Explanation
    The examination of the placenta through sonographic evaluation can provide valuable information about various aspects such as fetal growth, abnormalities, and infection. By analyzing the placenta, healthcare professionals can assess the development and size of the fetus, identify any potential abnormalities or birth defects, and detect signs of infection that may affect the health of both the mother and the baby. This evaluation plays a crucial role in monitoring the overall well-being of the fetus and ensuring appropriate medical interventions if necessary.

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  • 42. 

    Sonographic evaluationthe placenta is a relatively ______________ organ that may exhibit varying degrees of ______________(late pregnancy) and _______________ spaces. (placental ________)

    Correct Answer(s)
    homogenous, calcifications, anechoic, lakes
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "homogenous, calcifications, anechoic, lakes." The placenta is a relatively homogenous organ, meaning it has a consistent texture throughout. However, it may also exhibit calcifications, which are areas of mineral deposits that appear as bright spots on ultrasound. Additionally, the placenta may have anechoic spaces, which are fluid-filled areas that appear black on ultrasound, resembling lakes.

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  • 43. 

    List the four things the placenta should be evaluated for in alphabetical order-

    Correct Answer(s)
    Echotexture, grade, position, size
    Explanation
    The placenta should be evaluated for echotexture, which refers to its appearance on ultrasound. Grade refers to the maturity of the placenta, with higher grades indicating a more mature placenta. Position refers to the location of the placenta within the uterus, and size refers to the dimensions of the placenta. These four factors are important in assessing the health and function of the placenta during pregnancy.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 12, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Mnathan21
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