Pharm Antiviral Drugs Part 1

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Pharm Antiviral Drugs Part 1 - Quiz

In today’s pharmacology quiz we’ll be looking at a very important topic – antiviral drugs! These pharmaceuticals are used specifically for treating infections of a viral nature, with such examples as flu, the common cold, measles, rubella and smallpox. What can you tell us about this medication?


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The diagram below depicts a simplified pathway of the viral growth cycle: Which of the steps shown in the pathway is most likely inhibited by enfuvirtide?

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    • E.

      E

    • F.

      F

    • G.

      G

    • H.

      H

    • I.

      I

    Correct Answer
    B. B
    Explanation
    Answer: B
    Enfuvirtide is an antiretroviral agent that most likely acts by preventing the conformational
    changes required for the fusion of the viral membrane with the host cell membrane. In this way
    the entry of virus into the cell is blocked.

    Rate this question:

  • 2. 

    The diagram below depicts a simplified pathway of the viral growth cycle: Which of the steps shown in the pathway is most likely inhibited by amantadine?

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    • E.

      E

    • F.

      F

    • G.

      G

    • H.

      H

    • I.

      I

    Correct Answer
    C. C
    Explanation
    Answer: C
    .Amantadine most likely acts by preventing uncoating, that is the separation of the viral core
    from the outer structural components, that takes place after the fusion process.

    Rate this question:

  • 3. 

    The diagram below depicts a simplified pathway of the viral growth cycle: Which of the steps shown in the pathway is most likely inhibited by fomivirsen?

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    • E.

      E

    • F.

      F

    • G.

      G

    • H.

      H

    • I.

      I

    Correct Answer
    D. D
    Explanation
    Answer: D
    Fomivirsen is an antisense oligonucleotide that binds to viral mRNA that encodes a gene
    regulatory protein for CMV. The binding disrupts mRNA function, so inhibiting early protein
    synthesis of CMV.

    Rate this question:

  • 4. 

    The diagram below depicts a simplified pathway of the viral growth cycle: Which of the steps shown in the pathway is most likely inhibited by ritonavir?

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    • E.

      E

    • F.

      F

    • G.

      G

    • H.

      H

    • I.

      I

    Correct Answer
    G. G
    Explanation
    Answer: G
    Saquinavir belong to the group of protease inhibitors. These drugs inhibit HIV protease, an
    aspartic endopeptidase that cleaves viral polypeptide products to form structural proteins of the
    virion core and essential viral enzymes (i.e reverse transcriptase, integrase, etc.)

    Rate this question:

  • 5. 

    A 23-year-old man had recurrent genital herpes which was effectively treated each time by acyclovir. The patient asked his physician why the treatment was not able to prevent recurrence. Which of the following was most likely the answer of the physician?

    • A.

      Acyclovir has a very short duration of action

    • B.

      Recurrence is due to a new contact with infected partners

    • C.

      Antiviral drugs have no effect on the latent state of viral diseases

    • D.

      Recurrence is due to a hypersensitivity reaction to viral proteins

    • E.

      Resistant to acyclovir is the rule after one cycle of therapy

    Correct Answer
    C. Antiviral drugs have no effect on the latent state of viral diseases
    Explanation
    Learning objective: explain why antiviral drugs cannot prevent recurrence if viral diseases.
    Answer: C
    Herpes viruses replicate in the skin or mucous membrane at the initial site of infection, then
    migrate up the neuron and become latent in the sensory ganglion cells. The virus can be
    reactivated from the latent state by a variety of factors including sunlight, hormonal changes
    trauma, stress an fever at which time it migrates down the neuron and replicates in the skin,
    causing lesions. No currently available antiviral drug attacks viruses during latency but acts only
    on actively replicating viruses.
    A, B, D, E) (see explanation above)

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  • 6. 

    A 34-year-old woman reported to her physician a two-day history of genital burning pain that was worse during urination and accompanied by fever and malaise. Physical examination revealed multiple blisters and ulcerative lesions in the vaginal area. A presumptive diagnosis of herpes genitalis was made and an oral drug was prescribed. Which of the following steps of viral growth cycle was most likely inhibited by the prescribed drug?

    • A.

      Attachment to the host cell

    • B.

      Uncoating

    • C.

      Penetration

    • D.

      Transcription

    • E.

      MRNA and protein synthesis

    • F.

      Proteolytic cleavage

    Correct Answer
    D. Transcription
    Explanation
    Learning objective: identify which step of viral growth cycle is inhibited by acyclovir
    Answer: D
    The prescribed drug was most likely acyclovir, the drug of choice for herpes genitalis. Oral
    therapy speed up the healing and reduces the frequency of reactivation episodes. By inhibiting
    the viral DNA polymerase the drug block DNA synthesis. Transcription is therefore inhibited.
    A, B, C, E, F) (see explanation above)

    Rate this question:

  • 7. 

    A 31-year-old man with AIDS was recently diagnosed with cytomegalovirus pneumonia. The patient’s current medications included zidovudine, didanosine and saquinavir. An IV therapy with ganciclovir was started. Which of the following adverse effects could be most likely predicted from the concurrent administration of ganciclovir and the antiretroviral drugs?

    • A.

      Anemia and neutropenia

    • B.

      Retinal detachment

    • C.

      Cataract

    • D.

      Sexual dysfunction

    • E.

      Hyperglycemia

    • F.

      Lactic acidosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Anemia and neutropenia
    Explanation
    Learning objective: describe the adverse effects of ganciclovir.
    Answer: A
    Ganciclovir is a drug of choice for CMV infections. The dose-limiting toxicity of both zidovudine
    and ganciclovir is bone marrow suppression and therefore anemia and neutropenia can be
    predicted from the concurrent administration of ganciclovir and zidovudine.
    B, C) Retinal detachment and cataract are adverse effects of ganciclovir that can occur following
    intravitreal administration of the drug for CMV retinitis. They do not occur when the drug is
    administered IV for systemic anti-CMV therapy..
    D) Sexual dysfunction is not an adverse effect of the drugs the patient has been receiving.
    E) Hyperglycemia can occur after prolonged administration of protease inhibitors (i.e.
    saquinavir) but does not occur with ganciclovir.
    F) Lactic acidosis has been reported with the use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors,
    but it is does not occur with ganciclovir.

    Rate this question:

  • 8. 

    A 33-year-old woman with AIDS was recently diagnosed with cytomegalovirus retinitis. The ophthalmologist prescribed a drug that must be phosphorylated first by virusspecific enzymes, and then by host’s cell enzymes to become active. Which of the following drugs was most likely given?

    • A.

      Foscarnet

    • B.

      Ribavirin

    • C.

      Ganciclovir

    • D.

      Acyclovir

    • E.

      Vidarabine

    • F.

      Zidovudine

    Correct Answer
    C. Ganciclovir
    Explanation
    Learning objective: explain the mechanism of action of gancyclovir.
    Answer: C
    Ganciclovir and acyclovir are nucleoside analogs that must be phosphorylated first by virusspecific
    enzymes. Both drugs are phosphorylated by a viral thymidine kinase in HSV infected
    cells. Ganciclovir is also phosphorylated by a viral phosphotransferase in CMV infected cells.
    This explains why both drugs are active against HSV by only ganciclovir is effective against
    CMV.
    A) This drug is used in cytomegalovirus retinitis, but it does not require activation by
    phosphorylation.
    D) Acyclovir has no activity against CMV infections.
    E, F) These drugs are nucleoside analogs that must be phosphorylated to become active.
    However phosphorylation is done, in these cases, by host’s cell enzymes only, and these drugs
    are not effective against cytomegalovirus.

    Rate this question:

  • 9. 

    A 34-year-old woman with AIDS had been following an antiretroviral therapy which includes zalcitabine and stavudine. Which of the following adverse effects could be most likely predicted since it was shared by both drugs?

    • A.

      Nephrolithiasis

    • B.

      Myelosuppression

    • C.

      Hallucinations

    • D.

      Peripheral neuropathy

    • E.

      Altered body fat distribution

    Correct Answer
    D. Peripheral neuropathy
    Explanation
    Learning objective: describe the adverse effects common to zalcitabine and stavudine.
    Answer: D
    Peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting adverse effect of both zalcitabine and stavudine, that
    can occur in up to 30% of patients. It is slowly reversible upon the prompt discontinuation of the
    drug.
    A) Nephrolithiasis is a potential adverse effect of indinavir, not of zalcitabine and stavudine.
    B) Myelosuppression is a typical adverse effect of zidovudine. Zalcitabine and stavudine very
    rarely cause myelosuppression.
    C) Zalcitabine and stavudine easily enter the CNS, but hallucinations are not reported.
    E) Altered body fat distribution is a typical adverse effect of protease inhibitors. Zalcitabine and
    stavudine do not cause this effect.

    Rate this question:

  • 10. 

    A 43-year-old man with AIDS presented to his physician with a complaint of multiple painful ulcers in tongue and palate. Exfoliative cytology was done which led to the diagnosis of herpes simplex infection, and a therapy with oral acyclovir was initiated. Two weeks later no improvement was seen and the dose of the drug was increased but without success. Which of the following was most likely the cause of failure of acyclovir therapy?

    • A.

      Mutation of aspartate protease

    • B.

      Viral transpeptidase deficiency

    • C.

      Viral thymidine kinase deficiency

    • D.

      Viral neuraminidase deficiency

    • E.

      Mutation of reverse transcriptase

    Correct Answer
    C. Viral thymidine kinase deficiency
    Explanation
    Learning objective: explain the most common reason of failure of acyclovir therapy.
    Answer: C
    Acyclovir resistance is the most common cause of failure of acyclovir therapy. Acyclovir resistant
    strains of HSV and VZV arise chiefly from mutations in the thymidine kinase gene that result in
    little or no production of the enzyme. Since viral thymidine kinase is essential for conversion of
    acyclovir to active derivatives, resistance to the drug ensues. Resistant strains are most
    commonly reported in severely immunocompromised patients receiving extended course of the
    drug, like in the present case.
    A, B, D, E) All the mentioned enzymes are not involved in the mechanism of action of the drug,
    and therefore their deficiency cannot be the cause of resistance to the drug action.

    Rate this question:

  • 11. 

    A 12-day-old, premature baby boy developed a poor feeding pattern, irritability and respiratory distress. His mother, who suffered several episodes of genital herpes, was admitted to labor with premature ruptures of the membranes. Physical examination of the baby revealed several small vesicular skin lesions located on the scalp and a dendritic keratitis was present on both eyes. Which of the following drugs was most likely included in the therapeutic treatment of this baby?

    • A.

      Saquinavir

    • B.

      Acyclovir

    • C.

      Zidovudine

    • D.

      Pentamidine

    • E.

      Fluconazole

    • F.

      Metronidazole

    Correct Answer
    B. Acyclovir
    Explanation
    Learning objective: outline the therapeutic uses of acyclovir.
    Answer: B
    The history of the mother (several episodes of genital herpes) and the signs of the patient
    (prematurity, respiratory distress, cutaneous vesicles) suggest that the baby was suffering from
    congenital herpes, a disease that affects about 1 in 3000 live births and is acquired, in most
    cases, during the passage through the birth canal. The diagnosis is confirmed by the finding of
    dendritic keratitis, which is pathognomonic of herpetic keratocongiuntivitis. Antiherpes drugs
    include acyclovir, several acyclovir congeners, foscarnet, ganciclovir, cidofovir and trifluridine.
    Acyclovir is still the drug of choice for systemic treatment. Foscarnet and cidofovir can be used
    for acyclovir resistant strains. Trifluridine can be used topically to managed the keratitis.
    A, C) Saquinavir and zidovudine are antiretroviral drugs used only in HIV infection.
    D, E, F) These drugs are not antiviral agents.

    Rate this question:

  • 12. 

    A 34-year-old man with AIDS presented to the hospital because of fever (103.4 °F), malaise, myalgias, nausea, and diarrhea. The patient had started an highly active antiretroviral therapy three weeks previously. He states that the symptoms were most prominent several hours after each dose and that they seemed to be getting progressively worse with each dose. Physical examination disclosed a fine maculopapular rash over his face, trunk and arms. Which of the following drugs most likely caused the patient’s syndrome?

    • A.

      Zidovudine

    • B.

      Ribavirin

    • C.

      Foscarnet

    • D.

      Abacavir

    • E.

      Lamivudine

    • F.

      Oseltamivir

    Correct Answer
    D. Abacavir
    Explanation
    Learning objective: describe the main adverse effects of abacavir.
    Answer: D
    The patient was most likely suffering from a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir. This is a multiorgan
    systemic illness that occurs in approximately 5-8% of HIV-infected patients who initiate
    therapy with abacavir. The abacavir hypersensitivity reaction resembles a delayed
    hypersensitivity reaction and it can cause life threatening complications if abacavir is continued
    despite progressive symptoms. In addition, among persons who have experienced the abacavir
    hypersensitivity reaction, subsequent rechallenge with abacavir following discontinuation can
    cause an immediate and potentially fatal reaction.
    A, E) These drugs can cause very rarely hypersensitivity reactions.
    B, C, F) these drugs are not active against HIV.

    Rate this question:

  • 13. 

    A 74-year-old diabetic woman was brought to the emergency room with fever (102.7° F), shaking chills, cough, headache and malaise. Physical examination showed profound dyspnea and rales were audible on auscultation on both lungs. Chest x-ray showed bilateral infiltrates and blood gas analysis revealed significant hypoxia. A gram stain of the sputum showed no bacteria. Fluorescent antibodies identified influenza A virus on cells of nasal aspirates. An appropriate therapy was started which included a drug that acts by inhibiting viral uncoating. Which of the following drug was most likely prescribed?

    • A.

      Foscarnet

    • B.

      Ganciclovir

    • C.

      Zidovudine

    • D.

      Amantadine

    • E.

      Cidofovir

    • F.

      Indinavir

    Correct Answer
    D. Amantadine
    Explanation
    Learning objective: explain the mechanism of action of amantadine
    Answer: D
    Amantadine and rimantadine are drugs approved for both prophylaxis and therapy of influenza
    A. They act by preventing uncoating of the virus once it is fused to the cell membrane. The
    drugs can reduce the severity of symptoms and the duration of the illness and are mainly used
    in elderly patients or in those with underlying diseases, like in the present case The drugs have
    no effect on influenza B and C viruses or parainfluenza viruses. Unfortunately 92% of the
    circulating influenza A viruses are resistant to adamantane derivatives.
    A, B, C, E, F) These antiviral drugs are not active against influenza viruses

    Rate this question:

  • 14. 

    A 34-year-man with AIDS was recently diagnosed with cytomegalovirus retinitis and a therapy with gancyclovir was started. Two weeks later the disease was not much improved and the ophthalmologist decided to add another drug that, unlike gancyclovir, can inhibit DNA polymerase directly without requiring activation by phosphorylation. Which of the following drugs was most likely prescribed?

    • A.

      Acyclovir

    • B.

      Lopinavir

    • C.

      Ribavirin

    • D.

      Foscarnet

    • E.

      Trifluridine

    • F.

      Nevirapine

    Correct Answer
    D. Foscarnet
    Explanation
    Learning objective: explain the mechanism of action of foscarnet.
    Answer: D
    Foscarnet is an inorganic pyrophosphate analog that inhibits viral DNA polymerase, RNA
    polymerase and HIV reverse transcriptase directly, without requiring activation by
    phosphorylation. It is effective in the treatment of CMV retinitis and it is often given together with
    gancyclovir since it has been shown that the combination is superior to either agent alone in
    delaying the progression of retinitis.
    A, B, C, E, F) All these drug are not effective in CMV retinitis.

    Rate this question:

  • 15. 

    A 75-year-old patient was brought to the emergency room from a nursing home with chief complains of fever (102.8° F), cough, headache, malaise, anorexia and photophobia. Conventional antibiotic therapy was ineffective and three days later influenza virus was isolated from the sputum. Over the next week, three other nursing home patients developed similar symptoms. Vaccination and chemoprophylaxis were planned for all nursing home residents and staff. Which of the following drugs was most likely administered as a prophylactic measure?

    • A.

      Acyclovir

    • B.

      Foscarnet

    • C.

      Ribavirin

    • D.

      Ganciclovir

    • E.

      Oseltamivir

    • F.

      Zidovudine

    Correct Answer
    E. Oseltamivir
    Explanation
    Learning objective: outline the prophylactic use of neuraminidase inhibitors.
    Answer: E
    Vaccination plus chemoprophylaxis against influenza is advisable for residents of nursing
    homes or other chronic care facilities and personnel who have extensive contacts with high risk
    patients, like in the present case. Oseltamivir and zanamivir are inhibitors of neuraminidases
    produced by influenza A an B viruses. These enzymes cleave sialic acid residues from cell
    surface so promoting the release of newly formed virus from the surface of infected cells. Both
    drugs cause a significant reduction of the symptoms of influenza A and B and are therefore
    preferable to amantadine which is effective only against influenza A. Resistance to
    neuraminidase inhibitors was quite uncommon till recently, but now rates of resistance to
    oseltamivir among H1N1 virus (a subtype of influenza A) have risen abruptly and dramatically.
    A, B, C, D, F) These drugs are not effective against influenza viruses.

    Rate this question:

  • 16. 

    A 24-year old man visited his physician complaining of painful ulcers on his penis. Upon examination multiple rounded translucent vesicles were seen on the penis gland, intermixed with superficial, circular ulcers which were very painful to the touch. Regional limphoadenopathy was also present. A preliminary diagnosis was made. Which of the following drugs was most likely prescribed for the treatment of the patient’s disorder?

    • A.

      Penicillin G

    • B.

      Doxycycline

    • C.

      Metronidazole

    • D.

      Acyclovir

    • E.

      Ketoconazole

    Correct Answer
    D. Acyclovir
    Explanation
    Learning objective: outline the therapeutic uses of acyclovir.
    Answer: D
    The type of the lesion strongly suggests genital herpes. Other genital diseases are unlikely, as
    explained below. Acyclovir is the drug of choice for genital herpes. Oral therapy speed up the
    healing and reduces the frequency of reactivation episodes.
    A) Penicillin G is effective in case of primary syphilis. The disease causes a red genital papule
    that soon erodes to form a ulcer. However the ulcer is painless.
    B) Doxycycline is the drug of choice for granuloma inguinale, a disease caused by
    Calymmatobacterium granulomatis, a gram-negative rod. The initial lesion of this disease is a
    painless nodule that slowly develops into a rounded, elevated granulomatous mass and finally
    into a creeping, serpiginous ulcer.
    C) Metronidazole is the drug of choice for trichomoniasis. The disease can cause urethritis but
    not ulcers on the penis.
    E) Topical miconazole is used to treat genital candidiasis. Even if the disease can sometimes
    cause vesicles or erosions of the penis it is symptomless in men, in most cases.

    Rate this question:

  • 17. 

    A 5 year-old girl was admitted to the emergency room because of fever (102 F°) and disorientation in time and space. Soon after the admission the patient had a seizure. Ceftriaxone and dexamethasone were initiated but the next day the patient became lethargic and lapsed into a coma. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid was normal and a CT scan of the brain revealed a decrease density in a small area of the right parietal lobe. Acyclovir IV was started and after 5 days of therapy the patient was alert, responsive and actively moving. The patient was most likely suffering from which of the following diseases?

    • A.

      Neisseria meningitis

    • B.

      Toxoplasma encephalitis

    • C.

      Cryptococcal meningitis

    • D.

      Cytomegalovirus encephalitis

    • E.

      Herpes encephalitis

    Correct Answer
    E. Herpes encephalitis
    Explanation
    Learning objective: outline the therapeutic uses of acyclovir.
    Answer: E
    The signs and symptoms of the patient suggested the presumptive diagnosis of bacterial
    meningitis but the lack of efficacy of antibiotic therapy and the normal CSF rose the suspicion of
    herpes simplex virus encephalitis, which is the most common sporadic viral infection of the
    CNS. Acyclovir is the drug of first choice and the efficacy of the therapy confirms that the patient
    was suffering from herpes encephalitis.
    A) (see explanation above)
    B, C) These diseases are quite rare in patients without HIV, and cannot be cured with antiviral
    drugs.
    D) Cytomegalovirus infection occur mainly in immunocompromised patients or is congenital,
    and acyclovir is not active against CMV.

    Rate this question:

  • 18. 

    A 23-year-old, heroin addicted man presented to the hospital complaining of severe fatigue and scleral icterus. Physical examination showed hepatomegaly and mild ascites. Significant laboratory findings were: total bilirubin 4.4 ng/mL, ALT 380 U/L, AST 320 U/L. Serologic tests were positive for hepatitis C virus infection. Which of the following pairs of drugs would be appropriate for this patient?

    • A.

      Interferon-alpha and foscarnet

    • B.

      Ribavirin and saquinavir

    • C.

      Interferon-alpha and ribavirin

    • D.

      Saquinavir and foscarnet

    • E.

      Zidovudine and ganciclovir

    • F.

      Ganciclovir and foscarnet

    Correct Answer
    C. Interferon-alpha and ribavirin
    Explanation
    Learning objective: outline the pharmacological therapy of hepatitis C.
    Answer: C
    The signs and symptoms of the patient suggest the diagnosis of viral hepatitis and the serologic
    tests confirmed the presence of a HCV infection. Both HBV and HCV are transmitted
    parenterally so both infections are likely in intravenous drug users. In fact the incidence of HCV
    infection can be as high as 90% among these users. Interferons are the drug of choice for both
    hepatitis B and C, but recently the combined therapy with interferon alpha and ribavirin has
    been shown to be superior than interferon alone and the combination has been approved by
    FDA for this purpose. Monotherapy with ribavirin alone is not effective.
    A, B, D, E, F) All these drug combinations include at least one drug that is useless against
    HCV.

    Rate this question:

  • 19. 

    A 34-year-old woman with AIDS was found to have a CD4 lymphocyte count of 45 cell/mm at the last control visit. The patient had an extensive hi 3 story of treatment with a variety of antiretroviral drugs and had been currently taking zidovudine, lamivudine and ritonavir. A tropism test showed that the HIV of the patient used the CCR5 receptor to enter the host cells. A therapy with a drug that prevents entry was started. Which of the following drugs was most likely given?

    • A.

      Ribavirin

    • B.

      Enfuvirtide

    • C.

      Didanosine

    • D.

      Maraviroc

    • E.

      Indinavir

    • F.

      Saquinavir

    Correct Answer
    D. Maraviroc
    Explanation
    Learning objective: explain the mechanism of action of maraviroc.
    Answer: D
    Maraviroc binds to a specific CCR5 receptor on the viral envelope and blocks the fusion of viral
    and cellular membrane so preventing viral entry. It has been shown that about 50% of patients
    in whom at least two antiviral regimens had failed were infected with R5 HIV-1. Since maraviroc
    is active against HIV that use CCR5 exclusively, but not against other HIV strains, tropism
    testing should be performed before starting a treatment with this drug, like in the present case.
    A) Ribavirin is not an antiretroviral agent.
    B) Enfuvirtide is an entry inhibitor, but target a gp41 subunit of the viral envelope.
    C) Didanosine is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor.
    E, F) Indinavir and saquinavir are protease inhibitors.

    Rate this question:

  • 20. 

    A 71-year-old man was brought to the emergency room because of fever (103.2° F), chills, dyspnea, and generalized aches in the back and legs. Social history of the patient was significant for an outbreak of flu in the community. A clinical diagnosis of influenza was made and a treatment with oseltamivir was started. Which of the following actions most likely mediated the therapeutic effect of the drug in the patient?

    • A.

      Prevention of virus release from infected cells

    • B.

      Blockade of fusion of the virus with the host cell

    • C.

      Inhibition of viral transcription

    • D.

      Inhibition of viral proteolytic cleavage

    • E.

      Inhibition of viral protein synthesis

    Correct Answer
    A. Prevention of virus release from infected cells
    Explanation
    Learning objective: explain the mechanism of action of oseltamivir.
    Answer: A
    Oseltamivir and zanamivir are inhibitors of neuraminidase an enzyme produced by influenza A
    an B viruses. The enzyme cleaves sialic acid residues from cell surface so promoting the
    release of newly formed virus from the surface of infected cells. By blocking the enzyme these
    drugs inhibit virus release from the infected cells.
    B, C, D, E) (see explanation above)

    Rate this question:

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  • Jun 24, 2012
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