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Making a frequency table we first click _________ under "insert"; First field is what data we wish to____; 2nd field _______ the table
Correct Answer pivot analyse where to place
Explanation To create a frequency table, we need to use the "pivot" function under the "insert" tab. The first field refers to the data we want to analyze, and the second field determines where we want to place the table. By selecting "pivot" and "analyze" in the respective fields, we can generate a frequency table and determine its placement.
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2.
________ is a characteristic that differs from one individual to the next . it may be numerical (such as blood pressure ) or it can be categorical (whether or not someone attends church regularly)
A.
Data
B.
Varaible
C.
Sample
D.
Poll
Correct Answer B. Varaible
Explanation A variable is a characteristic that differs from one individual to the next. It can be numerical, such as blood pressure, or it can be categorical, such as whether or not someone attends church regularly. Variables are used in data analysis to understand and compare different attributes or characteristics of individuals or groups. They help in identifying patterns, trends, and relationships within the data.
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3.
____ is a variable that is not the main concern of the study but may be partially responsible for the observed results.
A.
Confounding varaible
B.
Sample variable
C.
Treatment
Correct Answer A. Confounding varaible
Explanation A confounding variable is a variable that is not the main focus of the study but can still have an impact on the observed results. It may partially explain the relationship between the main variables being studied. In other words, it is an extraneous factor that can affect the outcome of the study and needs to be controlled or accounted for in order to accurately interpret the results.
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4.
__________ is a study in which treatments are randomly assigned to particpants
A.
Placebo
B.
Non response bias
C.
Nonparticapant bias
D.
Randomized experiment
Correct Answer D. Randomized experiment
Explanation A randomized experiment is a study in which treatments are randomly assigned to participants. This means that the participants are divided into different groups, and each group is given a different treatment or intervention. Random assignment helps to ensure that any differences observed between the groups are due to the treatment and not other factors. This type of study design is commonly used in medical research to evaluate the effectiveness of new drugs or treatments.
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5.
Cause-and-efffect conclusions can generally be made on the basis of _________
A.
Treatment
B.
Randomized experiments
C.
Placebo
D.
Statistically significant
Correct Answer B. Randomized experiments
Explanation Randomized experiments are the most reliable method for establishing cause-and-effect relationships. In such experiments, participants are randomly assigned to different groups, with one group receiving the treatment being studied and the other group serving as a control. By comparing the outcomes of these groups, researchers can determine the causal effect of the treatment. This method helps eliminate confounding variables and ensures that any observed differences between the groups can be attributed to the treatment. Therefore, randomized experiments provide a solid basis for drawing cause-and-effect conclusions.
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6.
_____ is specific regimen or procedure assigned to participants by the experimenter
A.
Treatment
B.
Data
C.
Placebo
D.
Sample
Correct Answer A. Treatment
Explanation A treatment refers to a specific regimen or procedure that is assigned to participants by the experimenter. It is a deliberate intervention given to participants in order to observe its effects on a particular variable or outcome of interest. In experimental research, treatments are often compared to a control group or placebo to determine their effectiveness. The term "treatment" is commonly used in medical and psychological studies, where participants are given specific interventions such as medications, therapies, or interventions to evaluate their impact on health or behavior.
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7.
________ is one in which each participant has specified probability if being assigned to reach treatment
A.
Randomized experiment
B.
Random assignment
C.
Random sample
D.
Random variable
Correct Answer B. Random assignment
Explanation Random assignment refers to a method used in experiments where participants are randomly assigned to different groups or conditions. In this type of assignment, each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any particular group or condition. This ensures that the groups are comparable and any differences observed between them can be attributed to the treatment or intervention being studied, rather than any pre-existing differences among the participants. Random assignment helps to minimize bias and increase the validity of the study results.
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8.
_____ is a pill or treatment designed to look just like the active treatment but with no active ingredients.
Correct Answer placebo
Explanation A placebo is a pill or treatment that is designed to resemble the active treatment, but it does not contain any active ingredients. It is often used in medical studies or clinical trials as a control group to compare the effects of the active treatment. Placebos are given to certain participants without their knowledge, and the purpose is to evaluate the psychological or physiological response to the treatment, separate from any actual pharmacological effects.
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9.
_________ relationship or difference is one that us large enough to be unlikely to have occurred in the sample if there was no relationship or difference in the population.
A.
Statistically significant
B.
Placebo
C.
Fasle positive
D.
Data snooping
Correct Answer A. Statistically significant
Explanation A statistically significant relationship or difference refers to a result that is unlikely to have occurred in the sample if there was no relationship or difference in the population. In other words, it suggests that the observed relationship or difference is not due to chance alone, but is likely a true effect. This term is commonly used in statistical analysis to determine the validity and reliability of research findings.
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10.
______________ in statsictics refers to the fact that reserachers often test many different hypotheses in the same study
A.
Multiple testing
B.
Multiple hypthosis
C.
Multiple comparisions
D.
Multiple varaibles
Correct Answer(s) A. Multiple testing C. Multiple comparisions
Explanation Multiple testing refers to the fact that researchers often test many different hypotheses in the same study. This can lead to an increased likelihood of obtaining false positive results or Type I errors. When multiple comparisons are made, the probability of finding at least one significant result by chance alone increases. Therefore, it is important to adjust the significance level or use appropriate statistical methods to control for multiple testing in order to minimize the chances of making false conclusions.
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11.
This practive may result in statsically significant findings by mistake ___________ results
Correct Answer(s) false positive
Explanation This practice refers to the possibility of obtaining statistically significant findings by mistake. In other words, it suggests that the results may indicate a positive outcome when in reality it is false or incorrect. This term is commonly used in hypothesis testing and research studies, where a false positive result can lead to misleading conclusions or incorrect assumptions.
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12.
Is called________ because researchers snoop around in their data unil they find something interesting to report
Correct Answer(s) data snooping
Explanation The term "data snooping" is used to describe the practice of researchers exploring their data until they discover something interesting that they can report. This implies that the researchers may engage in extensive searching and analysis of the data, potentially leading to the identification of patterns or relationships that may not be statistically significant or reliable. It suggests a lack of rigor in the research process, as the researchers may be more focused on finding something noteworthy rather than conducting a thorough and unbiased analysis.
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13.
When you read about the change in rate or risk occurrence of something make sure you also find out the _______ rate and _______risk.
Correct Answer(s) base baseline base rate baseline risk
Explanation When you read about the change in rate or risk occurrence of something, it is important to also find out the base rate and baseline risk. The base rate refers to the initial or starting rate of occurrence, while the baseline risk refers to the initial or starting level of risk. By understanding these baseline measures, one can better assess and interpret any changes or deviations in the rate or risk occurrence.
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14.
Quantitative Variables
A.
Histogram
B.
Dotplots
C.
Boxplot
D.
Pie graph
E.
Bar Graph
F.
Stem-and-Leaf Plots
G.
Scatter plot
Correct Answer(s) A. Histogram B. Dotplots C. Boxplot F. Stem-and-Leaf Plots G. Scatter plot
Explanation The correct answer includes several types of graphs that are commonly used to represent quantitative variables. A histogram is a graphical representation of the distribution of a dataset, with bars representing the frequency or proportion of data points falling within each interval. Dotplots display individual data points along a number line, showing their distribution and frequency. A boxplot is a visual summary of the data's distribution, displaying the minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum values. Stem-and-leaf plots organize data by separating each value into a stem and leaf, providing a detailed visual representation of the dataset. Scatter plots are used to show the relationship between two quantitative variables, with each data point represented by a dot.
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15.
Multivaraible for quantitative varaibles
A.
Histograph
B.
Scatterplot
C.
Steam and leaf plot
D.
Bar chart
Correct Answer B. Scatterplot
Explanation A scatterplot is a graphical representation of the relationship between two quantitative variables. It uses dots to represent the data points and shows how one variable is affected by the other. Each dot on the scatterplot represents a unique combination of values for the two variables. It is useful for identifying patterns, trends, and correlations between the variables. Unlike other graphs mentioned, a scatterplot specifically focuses on the relationship between two quantitative variables, making it the correct answer in this context.
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16.
A X Y plot can also be called a
Correct Answer scatter plot
Explanation A scatter plot is a type of X Y plot that displays the relationship between two variables by representing data points as individual dots on a graph. It is used to visualize the distribution and correlation between the variables. Each dot on the plot represents a single data point with its X and Y coordinates. The scatter plot helps in identifying patterns, trends, and outliers in the data, making it a useful tool for data analysis and decision-making.
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17.
____similar to bar graphs, used for any number of data values.
A.
Histogram
B.
Boxplot
C.
Xy
D.
Steam and leaf
Correct Answer A. Histogram
Explanation A histogram is a type of graph that is similar to bar graphs and can be used for any number of data values. It displays the frequency distribution of a dataset by dividing the data into intervals and representing the frequency of each interval with the height of a bar. This allows for a visual representation of the distribution and helps in analyzing patterns, trends, and outliers in the data.
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18.
________ and ______ present all individual values, useful for small to moderate sized data sets.
A.
Stem-and-leaf plots and dotplots
B.
Histogram and box plot
C.
Steamd- and-leaf plots and box plots
D.
Bar graph and histographs
Correct Answer A. Stem-and-leaf plots and dotplots
Explanation Stem-and-leaf plots and dotplots are both visual representations of data that display individual values. They are particularly useful for small to moderate sized data sets because they allow for a quick and easy understanding of the distribution of the data. Stem-and-leaf plots show each individual value along with its corresponding stem, which helps to visualize the frequency of each value. Dotplots, on the other hand, use dots to represent each individual value, making it easy to see the distribution and any outliers in the data.
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19.
_____useful summary for comparing two or more groups
A.
Histogram
B.
Bar chart
C.
Steam-and-leaft
D.
Box plot
Correct Answer D. Box plot
Explanation A box plot is a useful summary for comparing two or more groups. It displays the distribution of a dataset by showing the minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum values. It also provides information about the presence of outliers. By comparing the box plots of different groups, we can easily identify differences in the central tendency, spread, and skewness of the data. This makes box plots an effective tool for visualizing and comparing distributions between groups.
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20.
Box-and-whisker plot also refers to____
Correct Answer box plot
Explanation A box-and-whisker plot is a graphical representation of a data set that displays the minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum values. It is also commonly known as a box plot. The plot consists of a box, which represents the interquartile range, and two lines extending from the box, called whiskers, which represent the minimum and maximum values. Therefore, the correct answer is "box plot" because a box-and-whisker plot is another term used to refer to a box plot.
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21.
Histograms are push together and portray the distrubution of variable
A.
True
B.
False
Correct Answer A. True
Explanation Histograms are graphical representations that display the distribution of a variable. They consist of bars that are pushed together, with each bar representing a specific range of values. The height of each bar represents the frequency or count of observations falling within that range. By visualizing the distribution, histograms provide insights into the shape, central tendency, and spread of the variable. Therefore, the statement that histograms are pushed together and portray the distribution of a variable is true.
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22.
____ is the simplest to plot quantitive varibles
Correct Answer dot plot
Explanation A dot plot is the simplest way to plot quantitative variables. It involves placing a dot or marker for each data point along a number line or axis, showing the frequency or distribution of the data. Dot plots are easy to interpret and provide a clear visual representation of the data. They are especially useful for small data sets, as they allow for a quick overview of the data and identification of any outliers or patterns.
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23.
Steam-and-leaf represent...
A.
Shape
B.
Centeral tendancy or center
C.
Spread
D.
Orginal data values
Correct Answer(s) A. Shape B. Centeral tendancy or center C. Spread D. Orginal data values
Explanation The steam-and-leaf plot represents multiple aspects of data. It shows the shape of the distribution, indicating whether it is skewed or symmetric. It also provides information about the central tendency or center of the data, such as the median or mode. Additionally, the plot displays the spread of the data, including the range or interquartile range. Lastly, it presents the original data values, allowing for a more detailed analysis of the dataset.
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24.
Disadvantage of steam-and-leaf
A.
Unattractive
B.
Key provided
C.
Picture made of number
D.
Decimal place
E.
Recovers data values, puls rate for everyone in data set
Correct Answer(s) A. Unattractive B. Key provided C. Picture made of number D. Decimal place
Explanation advantage : recovers data values, puls rate for everyone in data set
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25.
Quantiative values should have in analysis
A.
Center
B.
Amount of variation or spread
C.
General shape of distribution
D.
Any extreme values
Correct Answer(s) A. Center B. Amount of variation or spread C. General shape of distribution D. Any extreme values
Explanation The given answer explains the quantitative values that should be considered in analysis. These include the center, which refers to the central tendency or average of the data. The amount of variation or spread is also important, as it provides information about the dispersion of the data points. The general shape of the distribution is another crucial aspect to analyze, as it helps understand the overall pattern of the data. Lastly, any extreme values should be taken into account, as they can significantly impact the analysis and conclusions drawn from the data.
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26.
__________Provide visual representation of the shape, central tendency, and spread of the data.
Correct Answer(s) steam-and-leaf
Explanation The steam-and-leaf plot is a visual representation that shows the shape, central tendency, and spread of the data. It displays the individual data points as well as the frequency of each value. The stems represent the tens digit of each value, while the leaves represent the ones digit. This plot allows for easy identification of the most common values, outliers, and the overall distribution of the data.
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27.
_________Allows quick evaluation of the data while being able to recover the original data values
Correct Answer(s) steam-and- leaf
Explanation The steam-and-leaf plot is a graphical representation of data that allows for quick evaluation and recovery of the original data values. It displays the individual data points in a stem-and-leaf format, with the stems representing the leading digits and the leaves representing the trailing digits. This plot provides a visual summary of the data distribution and allows for easy identification of outliers and patterns. By examining the plot, one can quickly assess the data values without the need for extensive calculations or data manipulation.
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28.
Steam-and-leaf Has disadvantage of being unattractive since it is a picture made of numbers
A.
True
B.
False
Correct Answer A. True
Explanation The statement suggests that the steam-and-leaf plot is unattractive because it is essentially a picture made up of numbers. This implies that the visual representation of the data may not be visually appealing or aesthetically pleasing. Therefore, the correct answer is true, indicating that the steam-and-leaf plot does have the disadvantage of being unattractive.
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29.
A.
Steam-and-leaf
B.
Histogram
C.
Box plot
D.
Dot plot
Correct Answer A. Steam-and-leaf
30.
A.
Steam-and-leaf
B.
Box plot
C.
Histogram
D.
Bar chart
Correct Answer C. Histogram
31.
•Better for larger data sets, also provides picture of shape
Correct Answer histogram
Explanation A histogram is a graphical representation that organizes data into bins or intervals and displays the frequency or count of each bin on the vertical axis. It is better for larger data sets because it allows for easy visualization and understanding of the distribution or shape of the data. By providing a picture of the shape, a histogram helps in identifying patterns, trends, and outliers in the data.
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32.
•Bar chart for quantitative variables
Correct Answer histogram
Explanation A histogram is a type of bar chart that is used to represent the distribution of a quantitative variable. It displays the frequencies or relative frequencies of different intervals or bins of the variable on the x-axis, and the height of each bar represents the frequency or relative frequency of that interval. This type of chart is useful for visualizing the shape, center, and spread of the data, as well as identifying any outliers or unusual patterns.
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33.
•The data set is divided into categories or intervals.
Correct Answer histogram
Explanation A histogram is a graphical representation of data that is divided into categories or intervals. It consists of a series of bars, where each bar represents a category or interval and the height of the bar represents the frequency or count of data points within that category or interval. Therefore, the given correct answer "histogram" aligns with the statement that the data set is divided into categories or intervals.
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34.
•The intervals do not overlap and should be the same width in order to give an honest display.
Correct Answer histogram
35.
Histogram- The width of the intervals can be calculated as
A.
Range/ number of intervals
B.
Difference of intervals/range
C.
Number of invertals/ range
D.
Range/ difference of invterals
Correct Answer A. Range/ number of intervals
Explanation The correct answer is "range/ number of intervals". This is because in a histogram, the width of the intervals can be calculated by dividing the range of the data by the number of intervals. The range represents the difference between the maximum and minimum values of the data, and dividing it by the number of intervals gives us the width of each interval.
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36.
Figure out the number of bins you...
A.
Square root the total number of intervals required
B.
Square root the total number of data points
C.
square root the total number of data points and round up the number
D.
Square root the total number of intervals required and round up number
Correct Answer C. square root the total number of data points and round up the number
Explanation To determine the number of bins, you need to take the square root of the total number of data points and round up the result. This method ensures that you have an appropriate number of bins to represent the data distribution accurately. By rounding up the number, you guarantee that you have enough bins to cover all the data points without leaving any gaps or overlaps.
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37.
Bins are another word for interval
A.
True
B.
False
Correct Answer A. True
Explanation The statement "bins are another word for interval" is true. In statistics and data analysis, a bin refers to a range or interval into which data is grouped or categorized. Bins are commonly used in histograms and frequency tables to organize data into meaningful intervals for analysis and visualization. Therefore, the given statement accurately describes the relationship between bins and intervals in the context of statistical analysis.
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38.
Different biin sizes means different feautres of data
A.
True
B.
False
Correct Answer A. True
Explanation Different bin sizes in data analysis refer to dividing the data into different intervals or groups. Each bin represents a range of values, and the size of the bin determines the width of each interval. By using different bin sizes, we can observe different features of the data. Smaller bin sizes provide more detailed information and allow us to identify smaller patterns or variations in the data. On the other hand, larger bin sizes provide a broader overview and can help identify larger trends or general patterns. Therefore, different bin sizes indeed reveal different features of the data.
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39.
Range is
A.
Difference in largest data and lowest
B.
Difference in smallest data and largest
C.
Sum of the data points
D.
Sum of data points divided by the total
Correct Answer A. Difference in largest data and lowest
Explanation The range is defined as the difference between the largest data point and the lowest data point in a given set. It represents the spread or variability of the data. Therefore, the correct answer is "difference in largest data and lowest."
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40.
How many data varibles falls into each interval is where
A.
Quantitavtie is created into categorical
B.
Quantitavtie is created nonmial
Correct Answer A. Quantitavtie is created into categorical
Explanation The given answer suggests that when quantitative data is transformed into categorical data, the process of creating intervals is involved. This means that the original numerical values are grouped into specific categories or intervals. This transformation is done to simplify the data and make it easier to analyze. By creating categories, the data can be organized and compared more effectively, allowing for easier interpretation and understanding of the information.
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41.
When making a histogram the number of bins should be between
A.
7 and 14
B.
6 and 15
C.
However many you want
D.
5 and 15
Correct Answer B. 6 and 15
Explanation When making a histogram, the number of bins represents the intervals or groups into which the data is divided. It is important to choose an appropriate number of bins to accurately represent the data distribution. Having too few bins can result in oversimplification and loss of detail, while having too many bins can lead to overcomplication and difficulty in interpreting the histogram. Therefore, the correct answer is 6 and 15, as it suggests a reasonable range of bin numbers that allows for a balance between simplicity and capturing the nuances of the data.
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42.
When making a histogram the first step is to
A.
Decide how many equally spaced (same width) intervals to use for the horizontal axis.
B.
Count how many values fall into each interval.
C.
. Decide to use frequencies (count) or relative frequencies (proportion) on the vertical axis.
D.
Draw equally spaced bars over each interval (width) with the height of each bar corresponding to frequency or proportions.
Correct Answer A. Decide how many equally spaced (same width) intervals to use for the horizontal axis.
Explanation The first step in making a histogram is to decide how many equally spaced intervals to use for the horizontal axis. This is important because it determines the range and width of each interval, which in turn affects the interpretation of the data. By dividing the data into intervals, we can group similar values together and visualize the distribution of the data.
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43.
When making a histogram the third step is to
A.
Draw equally spaced bars over each interval (width) with the height of each bar corresponding to frequency or proportions.
B.
. Decide to use frequencies (count) or relative frequencies (proportion) on the vertical axis.
C.
Count how many values fall into each interval.
D.
Decide how many equally spaced (same width) intervals to use for the horizontal axis.
Correct Answer A. Draw equally spaced bars over each interval (width) with the height of each bar corresponding to frequency or proportions.
Explanation The third step in making a histogram is to draw equally spaced bars over each interval (width) with the height of each bar corresponding to frequency or proportions. This step involves visually representing the data by creating bars that are proportional to the frequency or proportions of values falling within each interval. This allows for a clear and concise representation of the distribution of the data.
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44.
________ is a single indiviual entity in a study
A.
Respondent
B.
Example
C.
Variable
D.
Observational unit
Correct Answer D. Observational unit
Explanation An observational unit refers to a single individual entity in a study. It is the specific subject or object that is being observed or measured in a research study. This term is commonly used in various fields such as social sciences, epidemiology, and experimental research. The observational unit can be a person, a group, an organization, or any other entity that is being studied or analyzed in the research. It is important to identify and define the observational unit in order to accurately collect and analyze data in a study.
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45.
____________ analyzing more than one variable at a time
Correct Answer multivariate
Explanation Multivariate refers to the analysis of multiple variables simultaneously. It involves studying the relationships and interactions between these variables to gain a comprehensive understanding of the data. This approach allows researchers to explore complex relationships and patterns that may not be apparent when analyzing variables individually. By considering multiple variables together, researchers can uncover more nuanced insights and make more accurate predictions or conclusions. Therefore, multivariate analysis is the appropriate term to describe the process of analyzing more than one variable at a time.
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46.
Multivariate data analysis- useful to identify one_______ varible and another ________ vairable
A.
Explanetory; response
B.
Nonresponse; inexplanetory
C.
Response; nonrepsone
D.
Inexplanetory; explanetory
Correct Answer A. Explanetory; response
Explanation Multivariate data analysis is useful to identify one explanatory variable and another response variable. This type of analysis allows us to examine the relationship between multiple variables and determine how one variable influences or explains the other. In this case, the explanatory variable is the one that is believed to have an impact on or explain the response variable.
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47.
The response variable gives partically explains value of the explanetory variable
A.
True
B.
False
Correct Answer B. False
Explanation the explanintory variable partically exaplins the vaule of the response variable
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48.
1 Categorical & 1 Quantitative Variable one side by side_________ and one side by side ________
Correct Answer box plot histogram
Explanation A box plot is used to display the distribution of a quantitative variable, showing the median, quartiles, and any outliers. On the other hand, a histogram is used to represent the distribution of a categorical variable by dividing it into intervals and displaying the frequency or proportion of observations within each interval. Therefore, using a box plot and a histogram side by side would allow us to compare the distribution of a quantitative variable and the distribution of a categorical variable simultaneously.
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49.
Shows how individuals are distributed along each variable, contingent on the value of the other variable.Margins gives total and frequency (marginal) distrubution of each variable
A.
Contingency Table
B.
Box plots
C.
Steam-and-leaf
Correct Answer A. Contingency Table
Explanation A contingency table is a table used to display the relationship between two categorical variables. It shows how individuals are distributed along each variable, contingent on the value of the other variable. In other words, it provides a summary of the joint distribution of the variables. It is often used to analyze the association between two variables and can be used to calculate various statistics such as chi-square test for independence.
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50.
A__________ shows the distribution of one variable for just the individuals who satisfy some condition on another variable.
A.
Conditional distrubution
B.
Conditional sample
C.
Conditional variable
Correct Answer A. Conditional distrubution
Explanation A conditional distribution shows the distribution of one variable for only the individuals who meet a specific condition on another variable. It helps to analyze the relationship between two variables by focusing on a subset of the data that meets a particular criteria. This allows for a more targeted analysis and understanding of how the variables interact with each other in specific circumstances.
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