1.
Randomly selecting a proportionate amount from subgroups is an example of what:
Correct Answer
B. Stratified Sampling
Explanation
Stratified sampling involves dividing the population into subgroups or strata based on certain characteristics and then randomly selecting a proportionate amount from each subgroup. This ensures that each subgroup is represented in the sample, making it a more accurate representation of the population. In this case, randomly selecting a proportionate amount from subgroups aligns with the concept of stratified sampling.
2.
Types of toothbrushes would be an example of what:
Correct Answer
A. Nominal
Explanation
Types of toothbrushes would be an example of a nominal variable. Nominal variables are categorical variables that do not have a natural order or ranking. In this case, the types of toothbrushes do not have any inherent order or ranking, they are simply different categories or labels.
3.
Classifications of dental disease is an example of what:
Correct Answer
B. Ordinal
Explanation
The classifications of dental disease can be considered as an example of ordinal data. Ordinal data is a type of categorical data that has a natural order or ranking. In this case, the classifications of dental disease can be ranked or ordered based on the severity or progression of the disease. For example, the classifications could include mild, moderate, and severe dental disease. The order of these classifications is important, but the differences between them may not be equal or measurable.
4.
A Fahrenheit thermometer is an example of what:
Correct Answer
C. Interval
Explanation
A Fahrenheit thermometer is an example of an interval scale. This is because the Fahrenheit scale has equal intervals between each degree, allowing for precise measurement and calculation of temperature differences. The scale does not have a true zero point, as zero degrees Fahrenheit does not represent the absence of temperature. Therefore, it does not fit the criteria for a ratio scale.
5.
Has categorical variables and bars are separate, but equal distances apart:
Correct Answer
A. Bar Graph
Explanation
A bar graph is the correct answer because it is a type of graph that represents categorical variables with separate bars that are equal distances apart. Each bar in a bar graph represents a different category, and the height of each bar represents the frequency or value associated with that category. This type of graph is commonly used to compare different categories or show the distribution of data across categories.
6.
Has continuous variables, bars touch and you can always find a third value:
Correct Answer
B. Histogram
Explanation
A histogram is the correct answer because it is a graphical representation of data that uses bars to display the frequency distribution of continuous variables. In a histogram, the bars are adjacent to each other and touch, representing the intervals or ranges of the data. Additionally, a histogram allows us to determine the frequency of values within each interval and provides the opportunity to find a third value by examining the height or length of the bars.
7.
Within 1 standard deviation, the mean picks up over how many of the values?
Correct Answer
E. 68
Explanation
Within 1 standard deviation, the mean picks up over 68 of the values. This is because within 1 standard deviation of the mean, approximately 68% of the data falls. This is based on the empirical rule, also known as the 68-95-99.7 rule, which states that in a normal distribution, about 68% of the data falls within 1 standard deviation of the mean. Therefore, the correct answer is 68.
8.
Within 2 standard deviations, the mean picks up about how many of the values?
Correct Answer
C. 95
Explanation
Within 2 standard deviations, the mean picks up about 95% of the values. This is because in a normal distribution, approximately 68% of the values fall within 1 standard deviation from the mean, and an additional 27% fall within 2 standard deviations. Therefore, the mean captures about 95% of the values within this range.
9.
Within 3 standard deviations, the mean picks up how much of the scores?
Correct Answer
D. 99.7
Explanation
Within 3 standard deviations, the mean picks up 99.7% of the scores. This is because within this range, the data is considered to be within a normal distribution curve. In a normal distribution, approximately 68% of the data falls within 1 standard deviation of the mean, 95% falls within 2 standard deviations, and 99.7% falls within 3 standard deviations. Therefore, the mean picks up 99.7% of the scores within this range.
10.
It is reliable if the instrument measures what it claims to be measuring.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
it is valid
11.
The degree to which the independent variable alone brings about the change in the dependent variable is what:
Correct Answer
A. Internal Validity
Explanation
Internal validity refers to the extent to which a study accurately measures the cause-and-effect relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. In other words, it assesses whether the observed changes in the dependent variable can be attributed to the independent variable alone, without any confounding factors or influences. Therefore, the correct answer, "Internal Validity," accurately describes the degree to which the independent variable alone brings about the change in the dependent variable.
12.
The degree to which the study accurately reflects events that would occur in a real situation is what:
Correct Answer
B. External Validity
Explanation
External validity refers to the extent to which the findings of a study can be generalized or applied to real-world situations or populations beyond the specific context of the study. In other words, it assesses whether the results obtained in the study would hold true in different settings or with different groups of people. Therefore, the correct answer, external validity, accurately captures the concept of how well a study reflects events that would occur in a real situation.
13.
A Correlation Coefficient of 0.90 shows a strong relationship between 2 variables.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
A correlation coefficient of 0.90 indicates a strong positive relationship between two variables. This means that as one variable increases, the other variable also tends to increase. The closer the correlation coefficient is to 1, the stronger the relationship. Therefore, a correlation coefficient of 0.90 suggests a strong positive correlation between the two variables.
14.
As income level declines, tooth decay increases. This is an example of what:
Correct Answer
B. Negative correlation
Explanation
The given statement suggests that there is a relationship between income level and tooth decay, where as income level declines, tooth decay increases. This indicates a negative correlation between the two variables, meaning that as one variable decreases, the other variable increases. In this case, as income level decreases, the occurrence of tooth decay increases.
15.
The students t-test measures what:
Correct Answer
A. Test the difference between 2 means
Explanation
The students t-test measures the difference between two means. It is a statistical test used to determine if there is a significant difference between the means of two groups or samples. This test is commonly used when comparing the means of two populations or when comparing pre- and post-treatment measurements in an experimental study. By calculating the t-value and comparing it to a critical value, the t-test helps determine if the observed difference between the means is likely due to chance or if it is statistically significant.
16.
The Scientific Method is:
Correct Answer
B. Quantitative Research
Explanation
The Scientific Method refers to a systematic approach used by scientists to gather data, formulate hypotheses, conduct experiments, and draw conclusions. It involves the use of objective and measurable data, which aligns with the principles of quantitative research. Quantitative research relies on numerical data and statistical analysis to understand phenomena and make generalizations. In contrast, qualitative research focuses on subjective experiences, opinions, and interpretations. Therefore, the correct answer is "Quantitative Research" as it aligns with the objective and measurable nature of the scientific method.
17.
Empirical Consequences are:
Correct Answer
C. Observable or relying on experiences
Explanation
Empirical consequences refer to statements or outcomes that can be observed or relied upon based on experiences. This means that these consequences are derived from actual observations or experiences rather than being based on theoretical or hypothetical assumptions. It emphasizes the importance of gathering evidence and data through observation and experimentation to support or refute claims or research questions. In other words, empirical consequences are the tangible outcomes that can be observed and verified in a systematic and controlled manner.
18.
No relationship existing between variables is an example of what:
Correct Answer
B. Null Hypothesis
Explanation
A null hypothesis is a statement that suggests that there is no relationship or difference between variables being studied. In this case, the given correct answer states that "no relationship existing between variables" is an example of a null hypothesis. This means that the hypothesis being tested assumes that there is no correlation or connection between the variables under investigation.
19.
What type of epidemiological study would be cases of flu at IPFW during the Spring semester?
Correct Answer
A. Descriptive
Explanation
The given answer is "Descriptive." Descriptive epidemiological studies aim to describe the distribution of a disease or health condition in a population, including the characteristics of the affected individuals, the time and place of occurrence, and any patterns or trends. In this case, the study of flu cases at IPFW during the Spring semester would involve collecting data on the number of cases, their demographic characteristics, the time period of occurrence, and the location. This information would provide a description of the flu cases at IPFW during that specific time period.
20.
Retrospective and Prospective are what types of Epidemiological Studies?
Correct Answer
A. Analytical
Explanation
Retrospective and prospective are types of analytical epidemiological studies. Analytical studies aim to investigate the causes and risk factors of diseases by comparing groups of individuals with and without the disease. Retrospective studies look back in time to gather data on exposure and outcomes, while prospective studies follow individuals over time to collect data on exposure and outcomes. These types of studies help researchers identify associations between exposures and diseases, providing valuable insights into disease prevention and control.
21.
What type of epidemiological study is designed to determine the relationship between a condition and a characteristic shared by some members of a group?
Correct Answer
A. Prospective
Explanation
A prospective epidemiological study is designed to follow a group of individuals over a period of time to determine the relationship between a condition and a characteristic shared by some members of the group. In this type of study, data is collected at the beginning and then the participants are followed up over time to track the development of the condition and the presence of the characteristic. This allows researchers to observe if there is an association or causal relationship between the condition and the characteristic.
22.
Twins (same group on two or more occasions) would be an example of what kind of epidemiological study?
Correct Answer
B. Longtudinal
Explanation
Twins (same group on two or more occasions) would be an example of a longitudinal epidemiological study. Longitudinal studies follow a group of individuals over a period of time to observe changes and gather data on the occurrence of diseases or health outcomes. In the case of twins, researchers can track their health and compare it over time, which allows for the examination of potential genetic or environmental factors that may contribute to certain diseases or conditions. This type of study design is valuable for understanding the development and progression of diseases and identifying risk factors.
23.
Control groups are:
Correct Answer
B. People w/o the condition, but similar
Explanation
Control groups are a group of individuals who do not have the specific condition or treatment being studied, but are similar to the experimental group in other relevant characteristics. They serve as a comparison group to assess the effects of the condition or treatment being studied. By comparing the outcomes of the experimental group with the control group, researchers can determine the effectiveness or impact of the condition or treatment being investigated.
24.
Before and after studies for preventive measures are what:
Correct Answer
C. Demonstration studies
Explanation
Demonstration studies are used to assess the effectiveness of preventive measures by comparing data before and after the implementation of the measures. These studies aim to demonstrate the impact of the preventive measures on the targeted population. Unlike clinical trials, which involve controlled experiments on individuals, and field trials, which are conducted in real-world settings, demonstration studies focus on evaluating the outcomes of preventive measures in a specific community or population.
25.
The data is what if the examiners are calibrated and can reproduce the results?
Correct Answer
B. Reliable
Explanation
The term "reliable" refers to the consistency and dependability of the data. In this context, if the examiners are calibrated and can reproduce the results, it means that they are able to consistently produce the same results when evaluating the data. This indicates that the data is reliable, as it can be trusted to be consistent and accurate.
26.
Each member in the population has an equal chance of being selected:
Correct Answer
A. Random Sampling
Explanation
Random sampling is a method of selecting a sample from a population where each member has an equal chance of being chosen. This ensures that the sample is representative of the population and reduces the risk of bias. It is a fair and unbiased way of selecting a sample and is commonly used in research studies and surveys. Other sampling methods, such as stratified sampling, systematic sampling, and convenience sampling, do not guarantee equal chances of selection for each member of the population. Therefore, the correct answer is random sampling.
27.
In systematic sampling, every person has an equal or random chance of being selected.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
In systematic sampling, individuals are selected at regular intervals from a list or population. This means that not every person has an equal or random chance of being selected. Instead, the selection process follows a predetermined pattern, which may introduce bias and affect the representativeness of the sample. Therefore, the statement is false.
28.
Restorations are prevalent, new decay are incidences.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The statement suggests that there are more instances of restorations (such as fillings or repairs) than new occurrences of tooth decay. In other words, the number of times teeth are repaired or restored is higher than the number of times new decay develops. Therefore, the statement is true.
29.
The number of new cases of a specific disease within a defined population over a period of time is what:
Correct Answer
B. Incidence
Explanation
The number of new cases of a specific disease within a defined population over a period of time is referred to as incidence. Prevalence, on the other hand, refers to the total number of cases of a disease within a population at a given point in time. Therefore, incidence focuses on new cases, while prevalence considers both new and existing cases.
30.
Which is the effect or result of an experiment?
Correct Answer
B. Dependent variable
Explanation
The dependent variable is the effect or result of an experiment. It is the variable that is being measured or observed to determine how it is influenced by the independent variable. In other words, the dependent variable is the outcome or response that is being studied in an experiment. It is dependent on the changes made to the independent variable, which is the variable that is manipulated or controlled by the researcher.
31.
Systemic water fluoridation will reduce caries in school children by 30%. What is the independent variable?
Correct Answer
A. Systemic water fluoridation
Explanation
The independent variable in this scenario is "systemic water fluoridation". This is because it is the factor that is being manipulated or changed in order to observe its effect on the dependent variable, which is caries reduction in school children. The other options, such as caries, school children, and 30%, are not being manipulated or changed in this context and therefore do not qualify as independent variables.
32.
Discrete data is qualitative in nature. Continuous data is quantitative in nature.
Correct Answer
A. Both statements are true
Explanation
The explanation for the given answer is that discrete data refers to data that can only take on specific values and is typically represented by whole numbers. It is qualitative in nature because it represents categories or attributes. On the other hand, continuous data refers to data that can take on any value within a range and is typically represented by decimal numbers. It is quantitative in nature because it represents measurements or quantities. Therefore, both statements are true as they correctly describe the nature of discrete and continuous data.
33.
Females and males are examples of what kind of data?
Correct Answer
A. Nominal
Explanation
Females and males are examples of nominal data because they represent categories or labels rather than a specific order or numerical value. Nominal data is used to classify or categorize data into distinct groups without any inherent order or ranking. In this case, females and males are two distinct categories that do not have a numerical value or a specific order associated with them.
34.
Height and weight are an example of what kind of data:
Correct Answer
D. Ratio
Explanation
Height and weight are examples of ratio data because they possess all the characteristics of ratio measurement. Ratio data have a meaningful zero point, which means that a value of zero indicates the absence of the measured attribute. In the case of height and weight, a height of zero would imply no height at all, and a weight of zero would imply no weight. Additionally, ratio data can be compared using ratios and can undergo mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
35.
Ordinal data has equal intervals.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
Ordinal data does not have equal intervals. Ordinal data is a type of categorical data that represents a ranking or order of categories, but the intervals between these categories are not necessarily equal. For example, in a survey asking participants to rate their satisfaction on a scale of 1 to 5, the difference between a rating of 1 and 2 may not be the same as the difference between a rating of 4 and 5. Therefore, the statement that ordinal data has equal intervals is false.
36.
Descriptive statistics make no attempt to generalize the research findings beyond the immediate sample.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Descriptive statistics involve summarizing and analyzing data from a specific sample or population. They focus on describing the characteristics of the data, such as measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) and measures of variability (range, standard deviation). Descriptive statistics do not involve making inferences or generalizations about the larger population beyond the immediate sample. Therefore, the statement that descriptive statistics make no attempt to generalize the research findings beyond the immediate sample is true.
37.
What type of sample has the least bias?
Correct Answer
A. Random
Explanation
Random sampling has the least bias because it ensures that every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample. This reduces the likelihood of any specific group or characteristic being overrepresented or underrepresented in the sample, leading to a more accurate representation of the entire population.
38.
The Y (vertical axis) represents frequency.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The statement "The Y (vertical axis) represents frequency" is true. In data visualization, the vertical axis, also known as the Y-axis, is commonly used to represent the frequency or count of a variable. This axis is used to display the distribution or occurrence of data points along the vertical dimension of a graph or chart. By representing frequency on the Y-axis, it becomes easier to analyze and compare the relative occurrence or occurrence patterns of different data points or categories.
39.
A zero correlation coefficient shows:
Correct Answer
B. No relationship
Explanation
A zero correlation coefficient indicates that there is no relationship between the variables being analyzed. This means that the variables do not vary together in any predictable pattern. In other words, as one variable increases or decreases, the other variable does not show any consistent change. Therefore, the correct answer is "No relationship."
40.
Correlation coefficient implies causation.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The statement "Correlation coefficient implies causation" is false. Correlation coefficient measures the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables, but it does not imply a cause-and-effect relationship. Correlation can occur without causation, as there may be other factors or variables influencing the relationship between the two variables being measured. Therefore, it is important to consider other evidence and factors before concluding causation based solely on correlation.
41.
If P= > the Null Hypothesis is void.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
If P= > the Null Hypothesis is void, then the statement is false. In hypothesis testing, the null hypothesis is typically denoted as H0 and represents the assumption of no effect or no difference between groups. If the p-value is greater than the predetermined significance level (usually 0.05), we fail to reject the null hypothesis. In this case, if P is greater than, it means that the null hypothesis is not void, and we cannot reject it. Therefore, the correct answer is false.
42.
1/1000 is a stronger proof of chance than 1/500.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The statement is true because a probability of 1/1000 indicates a lower likelihood of an event occurring compared to a probability of 1/500. In other words, the smaller the denominator of a fraction representing probability, the stronger the proof of chance. Therefore, 1/1000 is a stronger proof of chance than 1/500.
43.
Chi-Square determines probability of categorical data.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Chi-Square is a statistical test that is used to determine the probability of categorical data. It is commonly used to analyze the association between two categorical variables and to test if there is a significant difference between the observed and expected frequencies in a contingency table. Therefore, the statement "Chi-Square determines probability of categorical data" is correct.
44.
What is the most powerful type of data?
Correct Answer
B. Ratio
Explanation
Ratio data is the most powerful type of data because it possesses all the properties of other types of data. It has a meaningful zero point, allows for meaningful comparisons, and supports all mathematical operations. Ratio data provides the highest level of measurement and allows for the most precise and accurate analysis. It enables researchers to calculate ratios, percentages, and perform statistical tests with greater accuracy and reliability.