Biology Chapter 7

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Biology Chapter 7 - Quiz

Biology chapter 7


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The structure labeled C is the _______________

    Explanation
    The structure labeled C is the cell wall. The cell wall is a rigid layer that surrounds the cell membrane of plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists. It provides support and protection to the cell, helping to maintain its shape and prevent it from bursting under osmotic pressure. The cell wall is composed of various materials, such as cellulose in plants and peptidoglycan in bacteria.

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  • 2. 

    In prokaryotic cells, the genetic material is found in

    • A.

      The DNA and RNA

    • B.

      A single loop

    • C.

      The nucleus

    • D.

      The nucleolus

    Correct Answer
    B. A single loop
    Explanation
    In prokaryotic cells, the genetic material is found in a single loop. Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA contained within a nucleus, prokaryotic cells lack a true nucleus. Instead, their DNA is organized into a single circular loop located in the cytoplasm. This compact arrangement allows prokaryotic cells to efficiently carry out essential genetic processes such as replication, transcription, and translation. The single loop of DNA in prokaryotic cells is also known as a nucleoid region.

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  • 3. 

    The structure labeled A is the _______________

    Correct Answer
    cell membrane
    Explanation
    The structure labeled A refers to the cell membrane. The cell membrane is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds the cell and separates the internal environment of the cell from the external environment. It controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing essential nutrients to enter and waste products to exit. Additionally, the cell membrane plays a crucial role in maintaining the cell's shape and protecting it from the surrounding environment.

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  • 4. 

    Which of these are always unicellular ?

    • A.

      Flagella

    • B.

      Eukaryotes

    • C.

      Protists

    • D.

      Prokaryotes

    Correct Answer
    D. Prokaryotes
    Explanation
    Prokaryotes are always unicellular organisms. Unlike eukaryotes, which can be either unicellular or multicellular, prokaryotes lack a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. They are typically single-celled organisms that are simpler in structure and function compared to eukaryotes. Therefore, prokaryotes are the correct answer as they are always unicellular.

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  • 5. 

    Which of these helps the cell keep it's shape, as well aiding cell movement ?

    • A.

      Rough ER

    • B.

      Contractile vacuole

    • C.

      Cytoskeleton

    • D.

      Smooth ER

    Correct Answer
    C. Cytoskeleton
    Explanation
    The cytoskeleton helps the cell keep its shape and also aids in cell movement. It is a network of protein filaments that provides structural support to the cell and helps maintain its shape. Additionally, the cytoskeleton is involved in various cellular processes such as cell division, cell migration, and intracellular transport. It consists of three main components: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules, which work together to provide stability and flexibility to the cell.

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  • 6. 

    The organelle labeled B is the _______________

    Correct Answer
    golgi apparatus
    Explanation
    The organelle labeled B is the golgi apparatus. The golgi apparatus is responsible for modifying, sorting, and packaging proteins and lipids for transport to their final destinations. It consists of a series of flattened membrane-bound sacs called cisternae. Proteins and lipids enter the golgi apparatus from the endoplasmic reticulum and undergo various modifications, such as the addition of carbohydrate chains. The golgi apparatus then packages these modified molecules into vesicles and sends them to their appropriate locations within the cell or for secretion outside the cell.

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  • 7. 

    Cell structure where proteins are made

    Correct Answer
    ribosome
    Explanation
    A ribosome is a cell structure responsible for protein synthesis. It is involved in the process of translating the genetic information from mRNA into a specific sequence of amino acids, which then fold into a functional protein. Ribosomes can be found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and are composed of two subunits, large and small, that come together during protein synthesis. They are often attached to the endoplasmic reticulum or free-floating in the cytoplasm. Overall, ribosomes play a crucial role in the production of proteins, which are essential for various cellular functions and processes.

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  • 8. 

    The structure labeled D is the _______________

    Correct Answer
    central vacuole
    Explanation
    The structure labeled D is the central vacuole. The central vacuole is a large, fluid-filled organelle found in plant cells. It occupies most of the cell's volume and is surrounded by a membrane called the tonoplast. The central vacuole plays a crucial role in maintaining the cell's turgor pressure, storing water, nutrients, and waste products, and regulating the cell's pH. It also helps in plant growth and development by providing structural support and acting as a storage site for pigments, toxins, and secondary metabolites.

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  • 9. 

    Which cell structures do all bacteria and plants have in common ?

    • A.

      Chloroplasts

    • B.

      Pili

    • C.

      A cell wall

    • D.

      Both (a) and (c)

    Correct Answer
    C. A cell wall
    Explanation
    Bacteria and plants both have a cell wall in common. The cell wall is a rigid layer that surrounds the cell membrane and provides structural support and protection to the cell. While bacteria and plants have other differences in their cell structures, such as chloroplasts being present only in plants, the presence of a cell wall is a shared characteristic between them.

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  • 10. 

    The fluid inside a cell and all of the structures within the fluid

    Correct Answer
    cytoplasm
    Explanation
    Cytoplasm refers to the fluid inside a cell and all of the structures within it. It is a jelly-like substance that fills the cell and surrounds the organelles. The cytoplasm plays a crucial role in supporting and protecting the organelles, as well as facilitating various cellular processes. It contains various molecules, such as proteins, enzymes, and nutrients, that are necessary for the cell's metabolism and growth. Additionally, the cytoplasm provides a medium for the movement of organelles and cellular materials.

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  • 11. 

    Why can eukaryotes carry out more specialized functions than prokaryotes can ?

    • A.

      Prokaryotes are bigger

    • B.

      Prokaryotes have more organelles

    • C.

      Eukaryotes are bigger

    • D.

      Eukaryotes have more organelles

    Correct Answer
    D. Eukaryotes have more organelles
    Explanation
    Eukaryotes have more organelles, which allows them to carry out more specialized functions. Organelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus are involved in specific cellular processes like energy production, protein synthesis, and molecule transport. These organelles provide eukaryotic cells with compartmentalization and efficient segregation of different biochemical reactions, enabling them to perform a wider range of complex functions compared to prokaryotes, which lack these specialized structures.

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  • 12. 

    The organelle labeled E is the _______________

    Correct Answer
    rough endoplasmic reticulum
    Explanation
    The organelle labeled E is the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membrane-bound sacs and tubules studded with ribosomes, giving it a rough appearance. It is involved in the synthesis and processing of proteins. The presence of ribosomes on its surface indicates that it is responsible for protein synthesis and plays a crucial role in the production of proteins that are destined for secretion or for insertion into the cell membrane.

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  • 13. 

    In eukaryotic cells, mitochondria

    • A.

      Produce ATP

    • B.

      Make proteins

    • C.

      Transport materials

    • D.

      Control cell division

    Correct Answer
    A. Produce ATP
    Explanation
    Mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of the cell because they are responsible for producing ATP, which is the main energy currency of the cell. Through a process called cellular respiration, mitochondria convert nutrients into ATP molecules, which can be used by the cell to carry out various functions and processes. Therefore, the correct answer is that mitochondria produce ATP in eukaryotic cells.

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  • 14. 

    The surface area-to-volume ratio of a small cell is

    • A.

      Not affected by a cell's size

    • B.

      Less then that of a larger cell

    • C.

      Equal to that of a larger cell

    • D.

      Greater than that of a larger cell

    Correct Answer
    D. Greater than that of a larger cell
    Explanation
    The surface area-to-volume ratio of a cell refers to the ratio between the surface area of the cell and its volume. As a cell increases in size, its volume increases at a faster rate than its surface area. This means that the surface area-to-volume ratio decreases as the cell gets larger. Therefore, the surface area-to-volume ratio of a small cell is greater than that of a larger cell.

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  • 15. 

    The organelle labeled F is a _______________

    Correct Answer
    mitochondrion
    Explanation
    The correct answer is mitochondrion. The organelle labeled F in the question is a mitochondrion. Mitochondria are double-membraned organelles found in eukaryotic cells that are responsible for producing energy in the form of ATP through cellular respiration. They have their own DNA and are often referred to as the "powerhouse" of the cell.

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  • 16. 

    Layer that forms the boundary between the inside and outside of a cell

    Correct Answer
    cell membrane
    Explanation
    The cell membrane is a layer that separates the inside of a cell from its external environment. It acts as a boundary, controlling the movement of substances in and out of the cell. The cell membrane is composed of a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins that allow for selective transport and communication with the surrounding environment. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the cell's internal conditions and protecting it from the external environment.

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  • 17. 

    A system of internal membranes that moves proteins and other substances through the cell

    Correct Answer
    endoplasmic reticulum
    Explanation
    The endoplasmic reticulum is a system of internal membranes within a cell that is responsible for the transportation of proteins and other substances. It plays a crucial role in protein synthesis, folding, and modification, as well as lipid metabolism. The endoplasmic reticulum consists of a network of interconnected tubules and sacs that extend throughout the cytoplasm of the cell, providing a pathway for the movement of molecules. It is an essential organelle for the proper functioning of the cell and is involved in various cellular processes.

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  • 18. 

    The organelle labeled G is the _______________

    Correct Answer
    chloroplast
    Explanation
    The organelle labeled G is the chloroplast. The chloroplast is an organelle found in plant cells and some protists that is responsible for photosynthesis. It contains chlorophyll, a pigment that captures sunlight and converts it into chemical energy. The chloroplast is surrounded by a double membrane and contains stacks of thylakoids where the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis occur. This organelle is crucial for the production of glucose and oxygen, which are essential for the survival of plants and the oxygenation of the atmosphere.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following participate in protein transport ?

    • A.

      Golgi apparatus, microtubules and cytoplasm

    • B.

      Enodoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and microtubules

    • C.

      Cytoplasm, enodoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus

    • D.

      Nuclear envelope, ribosomes, and enodoplasmic reticulum

    Correct Answer
    B. Enodoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and microtubules
    Explanation
    The endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and microtubules all participate in protein transport. The endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for the synthesis of proteins, while the Golgi apparatus modifies and packages these proteins for transport. Microtubules are part of the cytoskeleton and provide the tracks along which vesicles carrying proteins can move within the cell. Therefore, all three of these cellular components are involved in the transport of proteins within the cell.

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  • 20. 

    Cell structures that carry out specific functions

    Correct Answer
    organelle
    organelles
    Explanation
    Organelles are cell structures that carry out specific functions within a cell. They are like small organs within a cell, each with its own specific job to perform. Examples of organelles include the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus. These organelles work together to ensure the proper functioning of the cell and allow it to carry out its necessary processes.

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  • 21. 

    Membrane-bound structure that houses cell's DNA

    Correct Answer
    nucleus
    Explanation
    The nucleus is a membrane-bound structure that houses the cell's DNA. It is often referred to as the control center of the cell because it contains the genetic information necessary for cellular functions and reproduction. The nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope, which separates it from the rest of the cell. Inside the nucleus, the DNA is organized into structures called chromosomes. The nucleus also contains a dense region called the nucleolus, which is involved in the production of ribosomes. Overall, the nucleus plays a critical role in maintaining the integrity and functioning of the cell.

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  • 22. 

    Which statements are NOT part of the cell theory

    • A.

      All cells arise from existing cells

    • B.

      Cells come in many different sizes

    • C.

      All living things are made up of one or more cells

    • D.

      A cell's shape reflects it's function

    • E.

      Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organism

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Cells come in many different sizes
    D. A cell's shape reflects it's function
    Explanation
    The cell theory states that all cells arise from existing cells, all living things are made up of one or more cells, and cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms. However, the statement "Cells come in many different sizes" is not part of the cell theory as it does not specifically address the origin, composition, or function of cells. Additionally, the statement "A cell's shape reflects its function" is also not part of the cell theory as it pertains more to the concept of cell specialization rather than the fundamental principles of the cell theory.

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  • 23. 

    Why are vesicles important in maintaining homeostasis ?

    • A.

      They produce energy by breaking down the organic compounds

    • B.

      They make the cell strong

    • C.

      They aid communication among different parts of the cell

    • D.

      They store substances, releasing them as the cell needs them

    Correct Answer
    D. They store substances, releasing them as the cell needs them
    Explanation
    Vesicles are important in maintaining homeostasis because they store substances and release them as the cell needs them. This allows the cell to maintain a constant internal environment by regulating the levels of various molecules. Vesicles act as storage compartments, holding onto substances until they are needed, and then releasing them to the appropriate location within the cell. This helps to ensure that the cell has a constant supply of necessary molecules and can respond to changes in its environment effectively.

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  • 24. 

    The organelle labeled H is the _______________

    Correct Answer
    smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    Explanation
    The organelle labeled H is the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranous tubules and sacs found in eukaryotic cells. It lacks ribosomes on its surface, unlike the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is involved in various functions such as lipid synthesis, detoxification of drugs and toxins, and calcium ion storage. It plays a crucial role in the metabolism and homeostasis of the cell.

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  • 25. 

    An organelle that helps make and package materials to be sent out of the cell

    Correct Answer
    Golgi apparatus
    Explanation
    The Golgi apparatus is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells that plays a crucial role in the processing, modifying, and packaging of proteins and lipids. It receives materials from the endoplasmic reticulum and further modifies them before sorting and packaging them into vesicles for transport to their final destinations within or outside the cell. This organelle is responsible for the synthesis of various molecules, such as carbohydrates and complex lipids, and plays a vital role in cellular secretion, as it packages and sends out materials to be used by other cells or released from the cell altogether.

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  • 26. 

    An organelle that uses light energy to make sugar from carbon dioxide and water

    Correct Answer
    chloroplast
    Explanation
    Chloroplast is an organelle that uses light energy to carry out photosynthesis, a process in which carbon dioxide and water are converted into sugar and oxygen. This organelle contains a pigment called chlorophyll, which captures sunlight and converts it into chemical energy. The chemical energy is then used to synthesize glucose, a type of sugar, which serves as a source of energy for the plant. Chloroplasts are found in plant cells and some protists, and they play a crucial role in the production of food and oxygen in the ecosystem.

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  • 27. 

    Cell structure with its own membrane that stores the cell's genetic material

    Correct Answer
    nucleus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is nucleus because it is a cell structure that has its own membrane and stores the cell's genetic material. The nucleus is often referred to as the control center of the cell as it houses the DNA and regulates the cell's activities. It plays a crucial role in controlling gene expression and cell division.

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  • 28. 

    The organelle labeled I is the _______________

    Correct Answer
    nucleolus
    Explanation
    The organelle labeled I is the nucleolus. The nucleolus is a small, round structure found within the nucleus of a cell. It is responsible for the production and assembly of ribosomes, which are essential for protein synthesis. The nucleolus contains DNA, RNA, and proteins, and it plays a crucial role in the regulation of cell growth and division.

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  • 29. 

    What is the main fuction of a cell's nucleous ?

    • A.

      Store DNA

    • B.

      Make proteins

    • C.

      Assemble ribosomes

    • D.

      Channel substances

    Correct Answer
    A. Store DNA
    Explanation
    The main function of a cell's nucleus is to store DNA. The nucleus contains the cell's genetic material, which is organized into structures called chromosomes. These chromosomes contain the instructions for making proteins and carrying out various cellular functions. The DNA stored in the nucleus is essential for the cell's growth, development, and reproduction.

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  • 30. 

    A small sac formed from part of a membrane

    Correct Answer
    vesicle
    Explanation
    A vesicle is a small sac that is formed from part of a membrane. It is a structure that is surrounded by a lipid bilayer, similar to a small bubble. Vesicles play important roles in various cellular processes, such as transporting molecules within cells and between different cellular compartments. They can also be involved in cell signaling and communication. Overall, a vesicle is a fundamental structure in cells that helps in the organization and functioning of cellular processes.

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  • 31. 

    The outer boundary of a cell

    Correct Answer
    cell membrane
    Explanation
    The cell membrane is the outer boundary of a cell. It is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds the cell and separates its internal environment from the external environment. The cell membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer, which allows it to regulate the movement of substances in and out of the cell. It also contains various proteins and other molecules that play important roles in cell communication and signaling. Overall, the cell membrane is essential for maintaining the integrity and functionality of the cell.

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  • 32. 

    Contains specific enzymes to break down large molecules

    Correct Answer
    lysosome
    Explanation
    Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles found in animal cells that contain specific enzymes to break down large molecules. These enzymes are responsible for the digestion and recycling of cellular waste materials, as well as the breakdown of ingested particles such as bacteria and viruses. Lysosomes play a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and are essential for various cellular processes, including autophagy and apoptosis.

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  • 33. 

    The structure labeled J is the _______________

    Correct Answer
    nucleus
    Explanation
    The structure labeled J is the nucleus. The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA. It acts as the control center of the cell, regulating gene expression and coordinating cell activities. The nucleus is typically located in the center of the cell and is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope. It plays a crucial role in cell division, DNA replication, and protein synthesis.

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  • 34. 

    An organelle that uses energy from organic compounds to make ATP

    Correct Answer
    mitochondrion
    Explanation
    The organelle that uses energy from organic compounds to make ATP is the mitochondrion. Mitochondria are often referred to as the powerhouse of the cell because they produce the majority of the cell's energy in the form of ATP through a process called cellular respiration. This process involves breaking down organic molecules, such as glucose, and converting their energy into ATP. The mitochondrion has a highly folded inner membrane that provides a large surface area for ATP production. Therefore, the correct answer is mitochondrion.

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  • 35. 

    Cell fluid and structures

    Correct Answer
    cytoplasm
    Explanation
    Cytoplasm is the correct answer because it refers to the cell fluid and structures found within a cell. It is a gel-like substance that fills the cell and contains various organelles, such as mitochondria, ribosomes, and the cytoskeleton. The cytoplasm plays a crucial role in supporting the cell's structure, providing a medium for biochemical reactions, and transporting molecules within the cell.

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  • 36. 

    Cell structure where proteins are made

    Correct Answer
    ribosome
    Explanation
    A ribosome is a cell structure responsible for protein synthesis. It is the site where proteins are made in the cell. Ribosomes are composed of RNA and proteins and are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. They play a crucial role in translating the genetic information from the DNA into functional proteins. Ribosomes can be found free in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. They consist of two subunits, a large and a small subunit, which work together to read the messenger RNA (mRNA) and assemble amino acids into a polypeptide chain, forming a protein.

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  • 37. 

    Check check all cell features that are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes

    • A.

      Capsule

    • B.

      DNA

    • C.

      Nucleus

    • D.

      Cytoplasm

    • E.

      Ribosomes

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. DNA
    D. Cytoplasm
    E. Ribosomes
    Explanation
    The features that are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes are DNA, cytoplasm, and ribosomes. DNA is the genetic material that contains the instructions for the development and functioning of organisms. Cytoplasm is a gel-like substance that fills the cell and contains various organelles. Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The nucleus, on the other hand, is only present in eukaryotic cells and acts as the control center of the cell. The capsule is a protective layer found in some prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes.

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  • 38. 

    Scientists first discovered cells by using a (n) _______________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    microscope
    Explanation
    Scientists first discovered cells by using a microscope. Microscopes are powerful tools that allow scientists to observe and study objects that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. By magnifying the image, microscopes enable scientists to explore the intricate structures and functions of cells, leading to the discovery of the cell as the fundamental unit of life. The invention and use of microscopes revolutionized the field of biology and paved the way for numerous scientific breakthroughs.

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  • 39. 

    A cell's boundary is called the _______________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    cell membrane
    Explanation
    The cell membrane is the outermost boundary of a cell that separates the internal environment of the cell from the external environment. It is a selectively permeable membrane that controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary nutrients to enter and waste products to exit. The cell membrane also plays a crucial role in maintaining the cell's shape, providing structural support, and facilitating cell-cell communication.

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  • 40. 

    _____________ are cell structures common to both prokaryotes and eukaryotes on which proteins are made.

    Correct Answer(s)
    ribosomes
    ribosome
    Explanation
    Ribosomes are cell structures responsible for protein synthesis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They are composed of RNA and protein molecules and can be found in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes read the genetic information in messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules and use it to assemble amino acids into proteins. This process occurs in all living cells, making ribosomes a common feature in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Therefore, both "ribosomes" and "ribosome" can be considered correct answers to the question.

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  • 41. 

    Eukaryotes differ from prokaryotes in that only eukaryotic cells have a (n) _______________ and membrane-bound organelles.

    Correct Answer(s)
    nucleus
    Explanation
    Eukaryotes are different from prokaryotes because only eukaryotic cells possess a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. The nucleus is a distinct feature of eukaryotic cells, housing the genetic material in the form of DNA. This compartmentalization allows for more complex cellular processes and regulation. In contrast, prokaryotes lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, with their genetic material floating freely in the cytoplasm.

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  • 42. 

    The nucleus has a double membrane, called the nuclear envelope, that helps protect a cell's _______________ from becoming damaged or lost.

    Correct Answer(s)
    DNA
    Explanation
    The nucleus has a double membrane, called the nuclear envelope, that helps protect a cell's DNA from becoming damaged or lost. The nuclear envelope acts as a barrier, preventing harmful substances from entering the nucleus and damaging the DNA. It also helps to keep the DNA organized and separate from the rest of the cell's components. Without this protective barrier, the DNA would be vulnerable to damage from various cellular processes, leading to potential loss of genetic information and disruption of cellular functions.

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  • 43. 

    In plant cells, rigidity is provided by a large, membrane-bound sac called the _______________  _______________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    central vacuole
    Explanation
    The central vacuole in plant cells is a large, membrane-bound sac that provides rigidity. It stores water, nutrients, and waste products, and its high internal pressure helps maintain the shape and structure of the cell. Additionally, the central vacuole plays a role in regulating cell growth and development.

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  • 44. 

    When a cell makes proteins that are to be transported outside the cell, the proteins are packaged in the _______________ _______________, modified and repackaged in the Golgi apparatus, and then transported to the cell membrane.

    Correct Answer(s)
    endoplasmic reticulum
    Explanation
    Proteins that are intended for transport outside the cell undergo a series of steps. Initially, these proteins are packaged in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a network of membrane-bound compartments within the cell. Inside the ER, the proteins are modified and undergo further processing. Afterward, they are repackaged in the Golgi apparatus, another organelle involved in protein processing and sorting. Finally, the proteins are transported to the cell membrane for secretion or export.

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  • 45. 

    Vesicles which contain enzymes that break down large molecules are called _______________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    lysosome
    lysosomes
    Explanation
    Vesicles that contain enzymes responsible for breaking down large molecules are known as lysosomes. These organelles are involved in cellular digestion and waste removal. They play a crucial role in maintaining cell health and are responsible for the breakdown of macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. The correct answer is lysosome/lysosomes, as both terms refer to the same concept of these enzyme-containing vesicles.

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  • 46. 

    The _______________ is a network of protein fibers that supports a cell and aids in its movement.

    Correct Answer(s)
    cytoskeleton
    Explanation
    The cytoskeleton is a network of protein fibers that provides structural support to the cell and helps in its movement. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the shape and integrity of the cell, as well as in facilitating cellular processes such as cell division and cell motility. The cytoskeleton is composed of three main types of protein filaments: microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments. These filaments work together to form a dynamic framework that allows the cell to maintain its shape, undergo shape changes, and move within its environment.

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  • 47. 

    Organelles that use light energy to make surgar from water and carbon dioxide are called _______________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    chloroplast
    Explanation
    Chloroplasts are organelles that use light energy to carry out photosynthesis, a process in which they convert water and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen. They contain a pigment called chlorophyll that absorbs light energy and uses it to produce glucose, which serves as a source of energy for the cell. Chloroplasts are found in plant cells and some protists, and they play a crucial role in the production of food and oxygen in the ecosystem.

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  • 48. 

    A (n) _______________ is made up of different kinds of tissues arranged together to perform a specific function.

    Correct Answer(s)
    organ
    Explanation
    An organ is made up of different kinds of tissues arranged together to perform a specific function. Organs are composed of multiple tissues that work together to carry out a specific task or function in the body. These tissues can include muscle, nerve, connective, and epithelial tissues. The organization of these tissues allows the organ to perform its specialized function efficiently. Examples of organs in the human body include the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys.

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  • 49. 

    A collection of identical cells that live together as a group, although individuals can survive on their own, is called a (n) _______________ _______________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    colonial organism
    Explanation
    A colonial organism refers to a group of identical cells that live together as a collective unit, even though each individual cell has the ability to survive independently. This term is used to describe organisms such as certain types of bacteria, algae, and some invertebrates, where the cells work together to perform specific functions and exhibit a division of labor within the group. The collective behavior of the cells allows them to thrive and survive as a cohesive unit, even though they have the potential to exist as separate entities.

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  • 50. 

    Cells in a (n) _______________ organism cannot survive on their own.

    Correct Answer(s)
    multicellular
    Explanation
    In a multicellular organism, cells are specialized and dependent on each other for survival. They work together to perform specific functions and support the overall functioning of the organism. Therefore, individual cells cannot survive on their own in a multicellular organism.

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