Atrial Fibrillation (Practice Mode) By Rnpedia.Com

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Atrial Fibrillation (Practice Mode) By Rnpedia.Com - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of these is not a type of atrial fibrillation?  

    • A.

      Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    • B.

      Lone atrial fibrillation

    • C.

      Persistent atrial fibrillation

    • D.

      Combined atrial fibrillation

    Correct Answer
    B. Lone atrial fibrillation
    Explanation
    Lone atrial fibrillation is not a type of atrial fibrillation. Lone atrial fibrillation refers to atrial fibrillation that occurs in individuals without any underlying heart disease or risk factors. It is considered a separate category because it occurs in otherwise healthy individuals. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation refers to episodes of atrial fibrillation that come and go on their own. Persistent atrial fibrillation refers to episodes that last longer than 7 days and require medical intervention to restore normal heart rhythm. Combined atrial fibrillation is not a recognized term or category.

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  • 2. 

    Which of these is a feature of atrial fibrillation?  

    • A.

      Presence of “p” wave on electrocardiogram

    • B.

      Absence of “p” wave on electrocardiogram

    • C.

      “p” wave of differing morphology on electrocardiogram

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Absence of “p” wave on electrocardiogram
    Explanation
    Atrial fibrillation is a type of irregular heartbeat where the electrical signals in the atria (the upper chambers of the heart) are chaotic and disorganized. This causes the atria to quiver instead of contracting normally. One of the characteristic features of atrial fibrillation is the absence of the "p" wave on an electrocardiogram (ECG). The "p" wave represents the electrical activity associated with atrial depolarization (contraction). In atrial fibrillation, the atria are not contracting in a coordinated manner, so there is no distinct "p" wave on the ECG.

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  • 3. 

    Which of these is not a risk factor for atrial fibrillation?

    • A.

      Hypertension

    • B.

      Diabetes

    • C.

      Hypothyroidism

    • D.

      Congestive cardiac failure

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypothyroidism
    Explanation
    Hypothyroidism is not a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation is a condition characterized by irregular and rapid heart rate, and it is often associated with various risk factors. Hypertension, diabetes, and congestive cardiac failure are known risk factors for atrial fibrillation, as they can contribute to abnormalities in the heart's electrical system. However, hypothyroidism, which is an underactive thyroid gland, is not directly linked to an increased risk of atrial fibrillation.

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  • 4. 

    The management of atrial fibrillation involves which of the following objectives?

    • A.

      Rate control

    • B.

      Correction of rhythm disturbance

    • C.

      Prevention of thromboembolism

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The management of atrial fibrillation involves multiple objectives. Rate control aims to control the heart rate and prevent it from becoming too fast. Correction of rhythm disturbance focuses on restoring a normal heart rhythm. Prevention of thromboembolism involves reducing the risk of blood clots and potential complications such as stroke. Therefore, all of the mentioned objectives are important in managing atrial fibrillation effectively.

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  • 5. 

    Strongest risk factor for stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation is:  

    • A.

      Irregular atrial rhythm

    • B.

      Increased ventricular rate

    • C.

      Lack of anticoagulation

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Lack of anticoagulation
    Explanation
    The strongest risk factor for stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation is the lack of anticoagulation. Atrial fibrillation is a condition where the heart's rhythm is irregular, leading to the formation of blood clots in the atria. These blood clots can then travel to the brain, causing a stroke. Anticoagulation therapy, such as the use of blood thinners, helps to prevent the formation of these blood clots and reduces the risk of stroke. Therefore, the lack of anticoagulation increases the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation.

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  • 6. 

    In patients who have self-limited episodes of atrial fibrillation (AF), antiarrhythmic drugs are unnecessary to prevent recurrence unless AF is associated with severe symptoms related to:

    • A.

      Hypotension

    • B.

      Myocardial Ischemia

    • C.

      Heart failure

    • D.

      Any of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Any of the above
    Explanation
    Patients with self-limited episodes of atrial fibrillation (AF) do not require antiarrhythmic drugs to prevent recurrence unless AF is associated with severe symptoms related to hypotension, myocardial ischemia, or heart failure. These symptoms can be indicative of significant cardiovascular compromise and may warrant the use of antiarrhythmic medications to manage AF and prevent further complications. Therefore, any of the above symptoms would justify the use of antiarrhythmic drugs in these patients.

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  • 7. 

    Which of these drugs should be used unless contraindicated in all patients to prevent postoperative atrial fibrillation during cardiac surgery?  

    • A.

      Flecainide

    • B.

      Procainanide

    • C.

      Propafenone

    • D.

      Beta blockers

    Correct Answer
    D. Beta blockers
    Explanation
    Beta blockers should be used unless contraindicated in all patients to prevent postoperative atrial fibrillation during cardiac surgery. Beta blockers have been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. They work by blocking the effects of adrenaline on the heart, thereby reducing the heart rate and the risk of arrhythmias. Additionally, beta blockers have other beneficial effects such as reducing blood pressure and improving myocardial oxygen supply. Therefore, beta blockers are the preferred choice for preventing postoperative atrial fibrillation in cardiac surgery patients.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following drugs should not be used in patients with atrial fibrillation with acute myocardial infarction?

    • A.

      Amiodarone

    • B.

      Propanolol

    • C.

      Propafenone

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Propafenone
    Explanation
    Propafenone should not be used in patients with atrial fibrillation with acute myocardial infarction. This is because propafenone is a class IC antiarrhythmic drug that can suppress atrial fibrillation, but it has negative inotropic effects and can worsen myocardial function in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Therefore, it is contraindicated in this patient population. Amiodarone, on the other hand, is often used in these patients as it has a favorable safety profile and can be effective in managing atrial fibrillation. Propanolol is a beta-blocker that can also be used in patients with atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction.

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  • 9. 

    Antiarrhythmic drug that can be used in patients of atrial fibrillation with heart failure is:  

    • A.

      Amiodarone

    • B.

      Flecainide

    • C.

      Propafenone

    • D.

      Sotalol

    Correct Answer
    A. Amiodarone
    Explanation
    Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic drug that can be used in patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure. It is effective in controlling the irregular heart rhythm of atrial fibrillation and can also improve heart function in patients with heart failure. Amiodarone works by blocking certain electrical signals in the heart, helping to restore a normal heart rhythm. It is a commonly used medication in this patient population due to its effectiveness and safety profile.

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  • 10. 

    For patients with recurrent paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, with no or minimal heart disease, the recommended initial antiarrhythmic therapy is:  

    • A.

      Flecainide

    • B.

      Propafenone

    • C.

      Sotalol

    • D.

      Any of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Any of the above
    Explanation
    For patients with recurrent paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, with no or minimal heart disease, any of the above options (Flecainide, Propafenone, Sotalol) can be recommended as initial antiarrhythmic therapy. This means that all three medications are considered suitable choices for treating this condition in patients who meet the specified criteria.

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  • 11. 

    The recommended antithrombotic therapy for high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation is:  

    • A.

      Warfarin

    • B.

      Aspirin

    • C.

      Warfarin + Aspirin

    • D.

      Clopidogrel + Aspirin

    Correct Answer
    A. Warfarin
    Explanation
    Warfarin is the recommended antithrombotic therapy for high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation increases the risk of blood clots forming in the heart, which can lead to stroke. Warfarin is an anticoagulant that helps prevent the formation of blood clots by inhibiting the clotting factors in the blood. It is considered more effective than aspirin alone for preventing stroke in high-risk patients. Warfarin + aspirin or clopidogrel + aspirin may be used in certain cases, but warfarin alone is the preferred treatment option.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following are the non-pharmacological treatments for atrial fibrillation?  

    • A.

      Maze surgery

    • B.

      Radiofrequency catheter ablation

    • C.

      Implantable cardioverter defibrillators

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the listed options are non-pharmacological treatments for atrial fibrillation. Maze surgery is a surgical procedure that creates scar tissue in the heart to redirect electrical signals and restore normal heart rhythm. Radiofrequency catheter ablation uses heat energy to destroy abnormal heart tissue that is causing the irregular heart rhythm. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators are devices that monitor the heart's rhythm and deliver electrical shocks to restore normal rhythm when needed. Therefore, all of these options are valid non-pharmacological treatments for atrial fibrillation.

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  • 13. 

    The recommended INR range for warfarin therapy in atrial fibrillation is:

    • A.

      2-3

    • B.

      1.5-3

    • C.

      2-4

    • D.

      1.5-4

    Correct Answer
    A. 2-3
    Explanation
    The recommended INR range for warfarin therapy in atrial fibrillation is 2-3. This range is considered optimal for preventing blood clots while minimizing the risk of bleeding. A lower INR range may not provide enough anticoagulation to prevent clots, while a higher range may increase the risk of bleeding complications. Therefore, maintaining an INR between 2-3 is the most appropriate and effective range for warfarin therapy in atrial fibrillation.

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  • 14. 

     Electrical cardioversion is contraindicated in patients of atrial fibrillation with:   

    • A.

      Heart failure

    • B.

      Myocardial ischemia

    • C.

      Digitalis toxicity

    • D.

      All the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Digitalis toxicity
    Explanation
    Electrical cardioversion is contraindicated in patients with digitalis toxicity because it can increase the risk of arrhythmias and worsen the toxicity. Digitalis toxicity occurs when there is an excess of digitalis medication in the body, which can lead to abnormal heart rhythms. Therefore, it is important to correct the digitalis toxicity before considering electrical cardioversion as a treatment option for atrial fibrillation in these patients.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following patients can undergo cardioversion without prior anticoagulation?

    • A.

      Atrial fibrillation less than 48 hours with haemodynamic instability

    • B.

      Atrial fibrillation

    • C.

      Atrial fibrillation

    • D.

      Atrial fibrillation

    Correct Answer
    A. Atrial fibrillation less than 48 hours with haemodynamic instability
    Explanation
    Patients with atrial fibrillation less than 48 hours and with hemodynamic instability can undergo cardioversion without prior anticoagulation. This is because the risk of thromboembolism is low in these patients due to the short duration of atrial fibrillation. However, in patients with atrial fibrillation lasting longer than 48 hours or of unknown duration, anticoagulation is typically required prior to cardioversion to reduce the risk of thromboembolic events.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 20, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    RNpedia.com
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