# AST 3043 Practice Quiz

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Nicosaya88
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Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 137
Questions: 111 | Attempts: 137  Settings  The universe is a very interesting place and getting to understand its secrets and how it came to be is a very important course to undertake. The quiz below is designed to test out how much you understood from classes before the AST exam. Give it a shot and keep revising.

• 1.

### The concept of a "music of the spheres" originated with

• A.

Aristotle

• B.

Eudoxus

• C.

The Pythagoreans

C. The Pythagoreans
Explanation
The concept of a "music of the spheres" originated with the Pythagoreans. The Pythagoreans believed that the celestial bodies, such as the planets and stars, emitted musical sounds as they moved through the heavens. They believed that these sounds created a harmonious music, which they referred to as the "music of the spheres." This concept was based on their belief in the harmony and mathematical order of the universe, as well as their understanding of music and mathematics.

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• 2.

### The hippopede as a means of representing retrograde motion was introduced by Eudoxus.  However, it didn't work for one of the following planets. Which one was it?

• A.

Jupiter

• B.

Mars

• C.

Saturn

B. Mars
Explanation
The hippopede was a geometric figure used by Eudoxus to represent the retrograde motion of planets. However, it failed to accurately explain the retrograde motion of Mars.

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• 3.

### According to Aristotle's philosophy, the natural motion of everything in the superlunary (i.e., celestial) part of the Universe is

• A.

Circular at constant speed, i.e. uniform circular motion

• B.

Vertical, either straight up or straight down

• C.

In a straight line at constant speed

A. Circular at constant speed, i.e. uniform circular motion
Explanation
According to Aristotle's philosophy, the natural motion of everything in the celestial part of the Universe is circular at constant speed, which is known as uniform circular motion. This means that celestial bodies, such as the planets and stars, are believed to move in perfect circles at a constant speed. This idea was based on the observation that the celestial bodies appeared to move in a regular and predictable manner in the night sky. Aristotle's concept of uniform circular motion was influential in shaping early theories of astronomy and planetary motion.

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• 4.

### According to Aristotle, meteors must be located in the Earth's atmosphere because

• A.

They move too fast to be as far away as the Moon

• B.

They need the Earth's atmosphere to survive

• C.

Everything in the superlunary (celestial) realm is immutable (i.e., unchanging), whereas meteors appear and disappear

C. Everything in the superlunary (celestial) realm is immutable (i.e., unchanging), whereas meteors appear and disappear
Explanation
According to Aristotle, meteors must be located in the Earth's atmosphere because everything in the superlunary (celestial) realm is immutable (i.e., unchanging), whereas meteors appear and disappear. This means that meteors do not belong to the celestial realm and therefore must be located in the Earth's atmosphere.

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• 5.

### One of Aristotle's arguments against the idea that the Earth revolves around the Sun was the

• A.

• B.

Argument of parallax

• C.

Argument of fall

B. Argument of parallax
Explanation
The argument of parallax was one of Aristotle's arguments against the idea that the Earth revolves around the Sun. Parallax refers to the apparent shift in the position of an object when viewed from different angles. Aristotle argued that if the Earth were moving around the Sun, there should be a noticeable parallax effect when observing the stars from different locations. However, since no such parallax was observed, Aristotle concluded that the Earth must be stationary.

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• 6.

### Who of the following suggested a heliocentric theory of the Universe?

• A.

Aristarchus

• B.

Hipparchus

• C.

Aristotle

A. Aristarchus
Explanation
Aristarchus is the correct answer because he was the ancient Greek astronomer who proposed the heliocentric theory of the Universe. He suggested that the Sun was at the center of the Universe, with the Earth and other planets orbiting around it. This theory challenged the prevailing geocentric model proposed by Aristotle, which stated that the Earth was at the center of the Universe. Aristarchus' heliocentric theory was a significant step towards our modern understanding of the solar system.

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• 7.

### The idea that Mercury and Venus go around the Sun while everything else goes around the Earth was suggested by

• A.

Heraclides

• B.

Georg Peurbach

• C.

Philolaus

A. Heraclides
Explanation
Heraclides suggested the idea that Mercury and Venus go around the Sun while everything else goes around the Earth.

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• 8.

### Eratosthenes was the first person to determine fairly accurately

• A.

The Moon's distance (in Earth radii) from its geocentric parallax

• B.

The Sun's distance (in Earth radii) from its geocentric parallax

• C.

The size of the Earth (specifically its circumference)

C. The size of the Earth (specifically its circumference)
Explanation
Eratosthenes was the first person to determine fairly accurately the size of the Earth (specifically its circumference). He did this by measuring the angle of the shadow cast by a stick at different locations and comparing it to the distance between those locations. By using basic geometry and trigonometry, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the Earth's circumference with remarkable accuracy for his time.

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• 9.

### Precession, with all its effects on star positions, was discovered by

• A.

Ptolemy

• B.

Al-Battani (Albategnius)

• C.

Hipparchus

C. Hipparchus
Explanation
Hipparchus is credited with discovering precession and its effects on star positions. Precession refers to the gradual shift in the orientation of Earth's axis, causing a change in the position of stars over time. Hipparchus observed this phenomenon and developed a model to explain it. His work laid the foundation for our understanding of precession and its impact on celestial observations.

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• 10.

### In the simplified Earth-centered epicyclic system we discussed in class, the deferent for an inferior planet is identical in size to

• A.

The planet's orbit around the Sun

• B.

The Earth's orbit around the Sun

B. The Earth's orbit around the Sun
Explanation
In the simplified Earth-centered epicyclic system, the deferent for an inferior planet is identical in size to the Earth's orbit around the Sun. This means that the planet's orbit around the Sun is the same size as the Earth's orbit around the Sun. This is because in this system, the Earth is at the center and the planets revolve around it in smaller circles called epicycles. The deferent is the larger circle that encompasses the epicycle, and for an inferior planet, it is the same size as the Earth's orbit around the Sun.

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• 11.

### In the Greek way of reckoning, a superior planet's period of revolution around its epicycle is

• A.

Its sidereal

• B.

Its synodic period

• C.

The sidereal year

B. Its synodic period
Explanation
The synodic period refers to the time it takes for a planet to return to the same relative position with respect to the Earth and the Sun. In the Greek way of reckoning, a superior planet's period of revolution around its epicycle is based on its synodic period. This means that the planet's orbit is measured based on how long it takes for it to appear in the same position in the sky as seen from Earth.

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• 12.

### Ptolemy's great work that contained his detailed mathematical models for the planetary motions was the

• A.

Tetrabiblos or Four Books

• B.

Matematike syntaxis or Mathematical Compilation

• C.

Planetary Hypotheses

B. Matematike syntaxis or Mathematical Compilation
Explanation
Ptolemy's great work that contained his detailed mathematical models for the planetary motions was called "Matematike syntaxis" or "Mathematical Compilation". This work, also known as "The Almagest", presented Ptolemy's geocentric model of the universe, which stated that the Earth was at the center and all celestial bodies revolved around it. The "Mathematical Compilation" provided a comprehensive explanation of the motions of the planets, the prediction of their positions, and the calculation of their orbits. It was a significant contribution to the field of astronomy and had a profound influence on the understanding of celestial mechanics for centuries.

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• 13.

### Which of the following was definitely not associated with Islamic religious practice?

• A.

Etermination of the qibla

• B.

Sighting of the crescent moon to begin the month

• C.

Production of zij

C. Production of zij
Explanation
The determination of the qibla and sighting of the crescent moon to begin the month are both important practices in Islamic religious practice. The determination of the qibla refers to the act of finding the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca for prayer. Sighting of the crescent moon is significant for determining the start of the Islamic lunar month. On the other hand, the production of zij refers to the creation of astronomical tables, which were used for various purposes including navigation and astrology, but it is not directly associated with Islamic religious practice.

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• 14.

### The famous House of Wisdom was located in which city?

• A.

• B.

Damascus

• C.

Toledo (Modern Spain)

Explanation
The famous House of Wisdom was located in Baghdad. It was an important center of learning and scholarship during the Islamic Golden Age. Scholars from various fields such as mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and philosophy gathered in the House of Wisdom to translate and study ancient Greek, Persian, and Indian texts. The House of Wisdom played a crucial role in preserving and transmitting knowledge from different cultures, making significant contributions to the advancement of science and intellectual development.

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• 15.

### The concept of trepidation was first introduced by which of the following, based on bad data from Ptolemy?

• A.

• B.

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi

• C.

Thabit Ibn Qrra (Tobit)

C. Thabit Ibn Qrra (Tobit)
• 16.

### The modern trigonometric functions such as sines were first introduced in a zij by

• A.

• B.

Al-Khwarizmi

• C.

Ibn al-Zarqala (Arzachel)

Explanation
Muhammad al-Battani (Albategnius) is credited with introducing the modern trigonometric functions such as sines. He was a prominent Arab astronomer and mathematician who made significant contributions to the field of trigonometry. His work involved refining the measurements of astronomical parameters and developing new mathematical techniques, including the calculation of sines. His contributions were highly influential and laid the foundation for the development of trigonometry as we know it today.

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• 17.

### Samarkand Observatory, where for the first time since Ptolemy positions were measured for a large number of stars, was established and directed by

• A.

Ulugh Beg

• B.

Abd al-Rahman Ibn Yunus

• C.

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi

A. Ulugh Beg
Explanation
Ulugh Beg is the correct answer because he established and directed the Samarkand Observatory, where positions were measured for a large number of stars for the first time since Ptolemy. This indicates that Ulugh Beg played a significant role in advancing astronomical observations and calculations.

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• 18.

### The device having a circle rolling around inside one twice as large, which could be used in mathematical models of planetary motion, was invented by

• A.

Ibn al-Shatir

• B.

Thabit Ibn Qrra (Tobit)

• C.

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi

C. Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
Explanation
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi invented the device with a circle rolling around inside one twice as large. This device, known as the Tusi couple, was used in mathematical models of planetary motion. It helped to explain the complex motion of planets and was a significant contribution to the field of astronomy.

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• 19.

### The basic problem with Ptolemy's model for the Moon's motion, namely that it had the Moon's distance varying by a factor of two, was first resolved by

• A.

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi

• B.

Ulugh Beg

• C.

Ibn al-Shatir

C. Ibn al-Shatir
Explanation
Ibn al-Shatir resolved the basic problem with Ptolemy's model for the Moon's motion by proposing a new model that accounted for the Moon's distance varying by a factor of two.

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• 20.

### The planetary tables that were produced at the Maragha Observatory were known as the

• A.

Alfonsine Tables

• B.

Ilkhanic Tables

• C.

Toledo Tables

B. Ilkhanic Tables
Explanation
The correct answer is Ilkhanic Tables. The Maragha Observatory was established in the 13th century under the patronage of the Ilkhanid dynasty in Persia. The astronomers at the observatory, led by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, produced a set of astronomical tables known as the Ilkhanic Tables. These tables were an important contribution to the field of astronomy and were used for calculating the positions of celestial bodies. The Ilkhanic Tables played a significant role in the development of Islamic astronomy and had a lasting impact on the study of celestial movements.

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• 21.

### Sacrobosco, also known as John of Holywood, was the author of the university text known as

• A.

Theory of the Planets

• B.

Treatise on the Sphere

• C.

New Theory of the Planets

B. Treatise on the Sphere
Explanation
Sacrobosco, also known as John of Holywood, authored a university text called "Treatise on the Sphere." This suggests that the correct answer is "Treatise on the Sphere."

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• 22.

### Who among the following suggested the concept of impetus, an essence of motion, as a way around Aristotle's theory of violent or forced motion?

• A.

Regiomontanus

• B.

Peurbach

• C.

Buridan and Oresme

C. Buridan and Oresme
Explanation
Buridan and Oresme suggested the concept of impetus as a way around Aristotle's theory of violent or forced motion. This concept proposed that a moving object possesses a force or impetus that keeps it in motion even after the initial force is removed. It was a departure from Aristotle's belief that motion would cease once the external force was no longer applied. Buridan and Oresme's concept of impetus laid the foundation for the development of the modern understanding of inertia and momentum.

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• 23.

• A.

Walther

• B.

Copernicus

• C.

Burdian

A. Walther
• 24.

### The instrument that could be used for directly measuring the equatorial coordinates of stars and planets was the

• A.

Astrolabe

• B.

Zodiacal armillary sphere

• C.

Equatorial armillary sphere

C. Equatorial armillary sphere
Explanation
The equatorial armillary sphere is an instrument that can be used to directly measure the equatorial coordinates of stars and planets. It consists of a set of rings representing the celestial equator and other important celestial circles. By rotating the rings and aligning them with specific stars or planets, their equatorial coordinates can be determined. The astrolabe and zodiacal armillary sphere are also astronomical instruments, but they are not specifically designed for measuring equatorial coordinates.

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• 25.

### The instrument that could be used either to tell the time of night or to correct the altitude of Polaris, the Pole Star, to get the altitude of the actual north celestial pole was the

• A.

Camera obscura

• B.

Nocturnal

• C.

Triquetrum

B. Nocturnal
Explanation
A nocturnal is an instrument that can be used to determine the time of night or correct the altitude of Polaris to find the altitude of the actual north celestial pole. It consists of a circular or rectangular dial with a small hole in the center through which the Pole Star can be observed. By aligning the position of the Pole Star with the corresponding hour on the dial, one can determine the time of night. Additionally, by measuring the angle between the Pole Star and the horizon, the altitude of the north celestial pole can be calculated, which can be used for navigation or astronomical observations.

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• 26.

### The approximate date of Aristotle is

• A.

350 BC

• B.

• C.

250 BC

• D.

150 BC

A. 350 BC
Explanation
Aristotle, a renowned Greek philosopher, was born in 384 BC and died in 322 BC. Therefore, the approximate date of Aristotle is 350 BC, which falls within his lifetime.

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• 27.

### The Islamic calendar is

• A.

Lunisolar, using intercalation of an extra month by rule

• B.

Lunisolar, based on empirical intercalation

• C.

Pure lunar, based on the synodic month

C. Pure lunar, based on the synodic month
Explanation
The Islamic calendar is based on the synodic month, which is the time it takes for the moon to complete its phases. It is a pure lunar calendar because it does not take into account the solar year. This means that the Islamic calendar does not align with the seasons and the dates of important religious events can vary from year to year.

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• 28.

### The approximate date of the Alfonsine Tables is

• A.

830

• B.

1540

• C.

1270

C. 1270
Explanation
The approximate date of the Alfonsine Tables is 1270. The Alfonsine Tables were a set of astronomical tables and charts that were commissioned by King Alfonso X of Castile in the 13th century. They were based on the work of earlier Islamic astronomers and were used for calculating the positions of the Sun, Moon, and planets. The tables were highly influential and were used by astronomers for several centuries. The approximate date of 1270 aligns with the historical period when King Alfonso X ruled and when the tables were likely completed.

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• 29.

### Copernicus was dissatisfied with the Ptolemaic system primarily because

• A.

He thought the heliocentric theory would be simpler, as in fact his system was

• B.

The equant violated the principle of uniform circular motion

• C.

It was seriously inaccurate by Copernicus's time

B. The equant violated the principle of uniform circular motion
Explanation
Copernicus was dissatisfied with the Ptolemaic system primarily because the equant violated the principle of uniform circular motion. The equant was a point in the Ptolemaic system where the center of a planet's epicycle was offset, causing the planet to move at varying speeds along its orbit. This violated the principle of uniform circular motion, which stated that celestial bodies should move at a constant speed in perfect circles. Copernicus believed that the heliocentric theory would be simpler and more accurate, as it did not require the use of the equant.

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• 30.

### Copernicus used observations (his own and a few of Walther's) to determine

• A.

The distances of the planets from the Sun in actual length units (like kilometers)

• B.

The sizes of the planets (besides the Earth)

• C.

The distances of the planets from the Sun in astronomical units (i.e., relative to Earth's distance)

C. The distances of the planets from the Sun in astronomical units (i.e., relative to Earth's distance)
Explanation
Copernicus used observations to determine the distances of the planets from the Sun in astronomical units, which are relative to Earth's distance. This means that he measured the distances based on the average distance between the Earth and the Sun, rather than using actual length units like kilometers. By using this method, Copernicus was able to establish a standardized measurement system that allowed for easier comparison and understanding of the distances between the planets and the Sun.

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• 31.

### The preface that had the disclaimer about Copernicus's On the Revolutions being hypothetical and the title change were the work of

• A.

Osiander

• B.

Rheticus

• C.

Copernicus himself

A. Osiander
Explanation
The correct answer is Osiander. Osiander was responsible for adding a preface to Copernicus's book, On the Revolutions, where he included a disclaimer stating that the content of the book was purely hypothetical and not to be taken as a literal representation of the universe. Osiander also changed the title of the book to further emphasize that it was a mathematical model rather than a definitive description of the cosmos.

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• 32.

### The significance of Tycho's measurements of the "new star" of 1572 at that time was that

• A.

He discovered the first supernova

• B.

They showed that Aristotle was wrong about the superlunary region never changing

• C.

For the first time the actual distance of a star had been determined

B. They showed that Aristotle was wrong about the superlunary region never changing
Explanation
Tycho's measurements of the "new star" of 1572 showed that Aristotle was wrong about the superlunary region never changing. This is significant because it challenged the prevailing belief that the heavens were perfect and unchanging. Tycho's discovery provided evidence that celestial bodies could undergo change and that the Aristotelian model of the universe was incomplete. This paved the way for a new understanding of the cosmos and laid the foundation for the development of modern astronomy.

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• 33.

### Which of the following was not one of the innovations introduced into observational astronomy by Tycho?

• A.

The first accurate pendulum clock

• B.

Reversing the viewing direction of the sextant so that it could be used by two observers instead of one

• C.

Transversals on the mural quadrant to measure angles more precisely

A. The first accurate pendulum clock
Explanation
Tycho did not introduce the first accurate pendulum clock into observational astronomy. The innovations he introduced were reversing the viewing direction of the sextant so that it could be used by two observers instead of one and using transversals on the mural quadrant to measure angles more precisely.

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• 34.

### In the Tychonic theory, Mars orbited

• A.

The Earth

• B.

Jupiter

• C.

The Sun

C. The Sun
Explanation
In the Tychonic theory, Mars is believed to orbit the Sun. This theory, proposed by Tycho Brahe, suggested that the Earth was stationary and located at the center of the universe, while the Sun and Moon revolved around it. The other planets, including Mars, were thought to orbit the Sun, which in turn orbited the Earth. This geocentric model was an alternative to the heliocentric model proposed by Copernicus, where the Earth and other planets revolve around the Sun.

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• 35.

### Kepler's First Law of Planetary Motion (the first as we count today) states that

• A.

A planet's orbit is an ellipse with the Sun at the center

• B.

A planet's orbit is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus

• C.

An imaginary line from the Sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals

B. A planet's orbit is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus
Explanation
Kepler's First Law of Planetary Motion states that a planet's orbit is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus. This means that the Sun is not at the exact center of the ellipse, but rather slightly off to one side. This law helps to explain why planets have elliptical orbits rather than perfect circles. It also helps to explain the varying distances between a planet and the Sun throughout its orbit. The concept of the Sun being at one focus of the ellipse is a key aspect of understanding the shape and characteristics of planetary orbits.

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• 36.

### The shape of an elliptical orbit is given by its

• A.

Semimajor axis

• B.

Eccentricity

• C.

Inclination

B. Eccentricity
Explanation
The shape of an elliptical orbit is determined by its eccentricity. Eccentricity measures how elongated or circular an orbit is. A value of 0 represents a perfectly circular orbit, while a value closer to 1 indicates a highly elongated elliptical orbit. Therefore, the eccentricity of an orbit determines the shape of the ellipse. The semimajor axis and inclination, on the other hand, provide information about the size and orientation of the orbit respectively, but they do not directly determine its shape.

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• 37.

### Which of the following of Kepler's works contains the so-called Harmonic Law, the Third Law of Planetary Motion?

• A.

Cosmographic Myster

• B.

Harmony of the World

• C.

New Astronomy

B. Harmony of the World
Explanation
The correct answer is "Harmony of the World" because this work by Kepler is where he introduces and explains his Harmonic Law, also known as the Third Law of Planetary Motion. In this book, Kepler describes his theory that the planets' distances from the sun are related to their orbital periods, establishing a mathematical relationship between the two. This law was a major breakthrough in understanding the motion of celestial bodies and laid the foundation for future advancements in the field of astronomy.

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• 38.

### The first set of planetary tables that was based on an essentially correct theory of the planets' orbital motions was the

• A.

Rudolphine Tables

• B.

Alfonsine Tables

• C.

Prutenic Tables

A. Rudolphine Tables
Explanation
The Rudolphine Tables were the first set of planetary tables that were based on an essentially correct theory of the planets' orbital motions. These tables were developed by Johannes Kepler and were published in 1627. They were named after Rudolph II, the Holy Roman Emperor, who supported Kepler's work. The Rudolphine Tables were a significant advancement in astronomy as they incorporated Kepler's laws of planetary motion, which accurately described the elliptical orbits of the planets around the sun. This marked a departure from the inaccurate models used in previous tables, such as the Alfonsine and Prutenic Tables.

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• 39.

### The approximate date of Kepler is

• A.

1540

• B.

1690

• C.

1620

C. 1620
Explanation
The approximate date of Kepler is 1620. Johannes Kepler was a German astronomer and mathematician who made significant contributions to the field of astronomy. In 1609, he published his first two laws of planetary motion, and in 1619, he published his third law. These laws revolutionized our understanding of the motion of planets and laid the foundation for Isaac Newton's theory of gravity. Therefore, the approximate date of Kepler's work can be attributed to 1620.

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• 40.

### Which feature of Ptolemy's models did Copernicus object to most strongly?

• A.

Eccentric

• B.

Equant

• C.

Epicycle

B. Equant
Explanation
Copernicus objected most strongly to the feature of equant in Ptolemy's models. The equant was a point off-center from the Earth, around which the celestial bodies were believed to move at a uniform speed. Copernicus disagreed with this concept as it violated the principle of uniform circular motion, which he believed to be essential in explaining the movement of celestial bodies. Instead, Copernicus proposed a heliocentric model, where the Sun was at the center and the planets revolved around it in perfect circles.

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• 41.

### Which of the following statements about Copernicus's work is not correct?

• A.

He was unable to prove that the Earth rotates around an axis or that it revolves around

• B.

He used epicycles just as Ptolemy had but with the Sun near the center instead of the Earth

• C.

His models were much simpler than the Ptolemaic ones

C. His models were much simpler than the Ptolemaic ones
Explanation
Copernicus's models were not simpler than the Ptolemaic ones. In fact, his heliocentric model of the solar system was more complex than the geocentric model proposed by Ptolemy. Copernicus introduced the concept of Earth's rotation on its axis and its revolution around the Sun, which required the inclusion of additional factors such as the tilt of the Earth's axis and the elliptical shape of its orbit. This made his model more intricate and detailed compared to the Ptolemaic model, which relied on epicycles to explain the apparent motions of celestial bodies.

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• 42.

### The person who persuaded Copernicus to publish his On the Revolutions was

• A.

Osiander

• B.

Rheticus

• C.

Martin Luther

B. Rheticus
Explanation
Rheticus was the person who persuaded Copernicus to publish his On the Revolutions. Rheticus was a mathematician and astronomer who recognized the importance of Copernicus' work and encouraged him to share it with the world. He played a crucial role in convincing Copernicus to publish his revolutionary heliocentric theory, which challenged the prevailing geocentric model of the universe. Without Rheticus' persuasion, Copernicus may not have published his groundbreaking work, and the scientific understanding of the cosmos may have been delayed.

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• 43.

### The Prutenic Tables based on Copernicus's models were the work of

• A.

Reinhold

• B.

Kepler

• C.

Copernicus

A. Reinhold
Explanation
The Prutenic Tables were based on Copernicus's models and were the work of Reinhold. Kepler was a mathematician and astronomer who made significant contributions to the understanding of planetary motion, but he did not create the Prutenic Tables. Copernicus, on the other hand, developed the heliocentric model of the solar system, but he did not directly create the Prutenic Tables either. Therefore, the correct answer is Reinhold, who was responsible for the creation of the Prutenic Tables based on Copernicus's models.

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• 44.

### The significance of Tycho Brahe's measurements of the "new star" of 1572 was that

• A.

Its angular size meant that it had to be closer than the Moon, in agreement with the geocentric theory

• B.

Its geocentric parallax was smaller than the Moon's, making it closer than the Moon and thus in agreement with Aristotle

• C.

They demonstrated that change does occur in the superlunary (celestial) region, contrary to Aristotle

C. They demonstrated that change does occur in the superlunary (celestial) region, contrary to Aristotle
Explanation
Tycho Brahe's measurements of the "new star" of 1572 demonstrated that change does occur in the superlunary (celestial) region, contrary to Aristotle. This is significant because Aristotle's theory stated that the celestial region was perfect and unchanging. However, Tycho Brahe's measurements showed that a new star had appeared, indicating that change does indeed occur in the celestial region. This challenged Aristotle's theory and opened up new possibilities for understanding the nature of the universe.

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• 45.

### The Tychonic model of the universe put forward by Brahe had

• A.

The Sun and Moon orbiting the Earth and the other planets orbiting the Sun

• B.

Mercury and Venus orbiting the Sun and all the other planets orbiting the Earth

• C.

Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn orbiting the Sun and the Sun, the Moon, and the other planets orbiting the Earth

A. The Sun and Moon orbiting the Earth and the other planets orbiting the Sun
Explanation
The Tychonic model of the universe proposed by Brahe suggests that the Sun and Moon orbit the Earth, while the other planets orbit the Sun. This model was developed as a compromise between the geocentric (Earth-centered) and heliocentric (Sun-centered) models of the universe. It aimed to explain the observed motion of celestial bodies while still maintaining the Earth as the center of the universe.

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• 46.

### Kepler's book in which he presented the first two laws of planetary motion, at least for the case of Mars, was

• A.

Mysterium cosmographicum or Cosmographic Mystery

• B.

Astronomia nova or New Astronomy

• C.

Harmonices mundi or Harmony of the World

B. Astronomia nova or New Astronomy
Explanation
Kepler presented the first two laws of planetary motion, specifically for the case of Mars, in his book "Astronomia nova" or "New Astronomy". This book was published in 1609 and it laid the foundation for his later work on the laws of planetary motion. In "Astronomia nova", Kepler introduced his first law, known as the law of ellipses, which states that the planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one of the foci. He also presented his second law, known as the law of equal areas, which describes the speed at which a planet moves in its orbit.

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• 47.

### According to what is today known as Kepler's First Law of planetary motion (actually his second), a given planet moves in an orbit around the Sun that is

• A.

An ellipse with the Sun at one focus

• B.

An ellipse with the Sun at the center

• C.

A tri-oval with the Sun at the center

A. An ellipse with the Sun at one focus
Explanation
Kepler's First Law of planetary motion states that a planet moves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun, with the Sun being located at one of the foci of the ellipse. This means that the distance between the planet and the Sun varies throughout its orbit, with the Sun not being at the center of the ellipse but rather slightly off to one side. This explanation aligns with the given answer option "an ellipse with the Sun at one focus".

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• 48.

### The superiority of Kepler's {\it Rudolphine Tables} to the Alfonsine Tables and the Prutenic Tables was primarily because

• A.

They were newer and used more modern parameter values

• B.

Kepler was a much better mathematician than the others

• C.

They used a basically correct form (the ellipse) for the planetary orbits and the correct equation for their motion

C. They used a basically correct form (the ellipse) for the planetary orbits and the correct equation for their motion
Explanation
The superiority of Kepler's Rudolphine Tables to the Alfonsine Tables and the Prutenic Tables was primarily because they used a basically correct form (the ellipse) for the planetary orbits and the correct equation for their motion. This means that Kepler's tables were more accurate and reliable in predicting the positions and motions of the planets compared to the other tables. The use of the correct form and equation allowed Kepler to make more precise calculations and observations, leading to a greater understanding of planetary motion.

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• 49.

### Copernicus was especially unhappy about the equant in Ptolemy's models because

• A.

There was no actual object located there, just empty space

• B.

He believed the Earth ought to be at the center of the deferents

• C.

It violated the principle of uniform circular motion

C. It violated the principle of uniform circular motion
Explanation
Copernicus was especially unhappy about the equant in Ptolemy's models because it violated the principle of uniform circular motion. This principle stated that celestial bodies should move in perfect circles at a constant speed. The equant, however, introduced a point in the orbit where the speed of the celestial body would change, which contradicted the principle of uniform circular motion. Copernicus believed that the Earth ought to be at the center of the deferents, but this was not the main reason for his dissatisfaction with the equant. Additionally, the fact that there was no actual object located at the equant did not directly contribute to his unhappiness with it.

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• 50.

### The first set of planetary tables based on the Copernican system was the

• A.

Prutenic Tables of Reinhold

• B.

Pauline Tables of Copernicus

• C.

Rudolphine Tables of Kepler

A. Prutenic Tables of Reinhold
Explanation
The Prutenic Tables of Reinhold were the first set of planetary tables based on the Copernican system. These tables were created by the German astronomer Erasmus Reinhold and were published in 1551. They were based on the heliocentric model proposed by Nicolaus Copernicus, which stated that the Earth and other planets revolve around the Sun. The Prutenic Tables provided accurate predictions of the positions of the planets and were a significant advancement in the field of astronomy.

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